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Finding Aid to the George and Phoebe Apperson Hearst Papers, 1849-1926
BANC MSS 72/204 c  
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Collection Details
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  • Collection Summary
  • Information for Researchers
  • Administrative Information
  • Biographical Sketch
  • Scope and Content Note

  • Collection Summary

    Collection Title: George and Phoebe Apperson Hearst papers
    Date (inclusive): 1849-1926
    Collection Number: BANC MSS 72/204 c
    Creators: Hearst, George, 1820-1891 Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919.
    Extent: Number of containers: 85 boxes, 2 oversize boxes, 3 oversize folders, 6 volumes, 4 card file boxes Linear feet: 37 173 digital objects
    Repository: The Bancroft Library.
    University of California, Berkeley
    Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
    Phone: (510) 642-6481
    Fax: (510) 642-7589
    Email: bancref@library.berkeley.edu
    URL: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/
    Abstract: Contains personal and business papers of George Hearst and his wife, Phoebe Apperson Hearst. A small portion of the collection relates to Mr. Hearst, a rancher, mining tycoon, and politican. His papers include correspondence, illustrated mining notes and reports, bills of sale, and other material related to mines and ranches primarily in the West and Mexico. The bulk of the collection concerns the philanthropic, charitable and social activities of Phoebe Apperson Hearst, regent of the University of California (1897-1919) and a major benefactress of the University and other institutions. Her papers include family and personal correspondence, mining and property files, material related to her work as regent, and files on philanthropy, charity, collecting, and household management.
    Languages Represented: Collection materials are in English
    Physical Location: Many of the Bancroft Library collections are stored offsite and advance notice may be required for use. For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the library's online catalog.

    Information for Researchers


    Collection is open for research. Microfilm of the collection is to be used by researchers to protect the originals. A few items not microfilmed are noted in the container list.

    Publication Rights

    Materials in this collection may be protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.). In addition, the reproduction of some materials may be restricted by terms of University of California gift or purchase agreements, donor restrictions, privacy and publicity rights, licensing and trademarks. Transmission or reproduction of materials protected by copyright beyond that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of the copyright owners. Works not in the public domain cannot be commercially exploited without permission of the copyright owner. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user.
    All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the Head of Public Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720-6000. See: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/reference/permissions.html .

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], George and Phoebe Apperson Hearst papers, BANC MSS 72/204 c, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

    Alternate Forms Available

    The collection is available on microfilm, BANC FILM 2718
    Digital reproductions of select items are available.

    Related Collections

    Title: William Randolph Hearst Papers,
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 77/121 c
    Title: William Randolph Hearst Jr. Papers,
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 91/2 c
    Title: Millicent Veronica Willson Hearst Papers,
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 77/185 c
    Title: Photographs from the Phoebe Apperson Hearst papers [graphic],
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC PIC 1972.015
    Title: Correspondence concerning the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California, 1896 Oct 22-23,
    Identifier/Call Number: UARC 308gh.cor
    Title: Mother's Song: An Old West of England Lullaby Set in Some California Baby Flowers,
    Identifier/Call Number: fTYP AA50 E2 M6 1900z
    Title: The Julia Morgan Collection,
    Contributing Institution: Special Collections, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo

    Materials Cataloged Separately

    Printed materials have been transferred to the book collection of The Bancroft Library. Photographs have been transferred to Pictorial Collections of The Bancroft Library.

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog
    Beel, Sigmund S.
    Clark, Edward Hardy, 1864-1945.
    Hearst, George Randolph.
    Hearst, George, 1820-1891--Archives.
    Hearst, George, 1820-1891--Homes and haunts.
    Hearst, John Randolph.
    Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919--Archives.
    Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919--Homes and haunts.
    Hearst, William Randolph, 1863-1951.
    Hearst, William Randolph, 1908-
    Hilles, Florence Bayard, 1866-1954.
    Howard, John Galen, 1864-1931.
    Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960.
    Nuttall, Zelia, 1858-1933.
    Reisner, George Andrew, 1867-1942.
    Uhle, Max, 1856-1944.
    Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, 1854-1927.
    Hearst family.
    George Washington Memorial Association.
    Homestake Mining Company.
    Lux School of Industrial Training (San Francisco, Calif.)
    National Congress of Mothers (U.S.)
    National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations (U.S.)
    Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California.
    San Luis Mining Company.
    United States. Congress. Senate--Miscellanea.
    University of California (1868-1952). Dept. of Anthropology.
    University of California (1868-1952). Regents.
    University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of Archaeology.
    Hearst Egyptian Expedition.
    Panama-Pacific International Exposition, (1915 :, San Francisco, Calif.)
    Charities--United States--History.
    Collectors and collecting--United States--History.
    Kindergarten--United States--History.
    Mines and mineral resources--Mexico--History.
    Mines and mineral resources--United States--History.
    Pleasanton (Calif.)--History.
    San Luis Obispo (Calif.)--History.
    Business records.
    Family papers.
    Hearst family

    Administrative Information

    Acquisition Information

    The George and Phoebe Apperson Hearst Papers were given to The Bancroft Library by Mr. and Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Jr., and the Hearst Corporation on various dates beginning in 1969. Small additions were also made by other family members at various times.

    Processing Information

    Processed by Elizabeth Stephens, Rebecca Kim, and Eric Crawley.

    Biographical Sketch

    George Hearst, born 1820 in Franklin County, Missouri, had little formal education but educated himself in geology and prospecting. His talent for scoping out the "layof the land" paid off in some of the most important mining claims in the United States. The Comstock Lode in Nevada, the Homestake gold mine in South Dakota and the Anaconda copper mine in Montana would become three of the largest mining discoveries in American history. As a rancher and prospector Hearst continually acquired large portions of land throughout the United States, especially in California and the West. In 1863 Hearst married Phoebe Apperson, a teacher from his home state. Moving to San Francisco, Phoebe gave birth to their only child, William Randolph Hearst, in 1863. George purchased the 48,000 acre Piedras Blancas Ranch at San Simeon in 1865, adding the adjoining Santa Rosa and San Simeon ranches later. During his lifetime the ranches were used as a family retreat. In 1873 Phoebe took her young son William on a grand tour of Europe where the two spent more than a year visiting castles, museums, and various cultural centers. This trip would prove to be a pivotal inspiration for William's later endeavor constructing Hearst Castle at San Simeon.
    George Hearst was elected to the United States senate in 1887 and the couple relocated to Washington D.C. Soon after arriving in the capital, he acquired the San Francisco Examiner as payment for a gambling debt. When his son William asked to become the proprietor of the Examiner instead of assuming control of the Hearst mining and ranching businesses, George Hearst relinquished control of the paper to him and Phoebe became heir to the Hearst mines and ranches. After George's death in 1891, Phoebe returned to California and renewed construction on a residence she called Hacienda del Pozo de Verona in Pleasanton, California that had been started by her son a few years earlier. For the project, Mrs. Hearst commissioned architect Julia Morgan who would later design Hearst Castle for William.
    Dedicated to education throughout her life, Phoebe Apperson Hearst became a generous benefactress to educational institutions and individuals, financing a school for the training of kindergarten teachers, founding the first free kindergartens in the United States and the National Congress of Mothers (a forerunner of the National Council of Parents and Teachers better known today as the PTA), and endowing scholarships for women students at the University of California at Berkeley. She was the first woman Regent of the University of California, serving actively on the board from 1897 until her death in 1919. During these years she funded an international architectural competition for a master plan for the University, built the Hearst Memorial Mining Building and Hearst Hall, and was instrumental in developing the anthropology department and museums, the medical college, the agricultural college, and Lick Observatory among other things. Phoebe was an avid collector of art and antiquities, and generously shared her purchases among museums and universities throughout the world but especially at the University of California.

    Scope and Content Note

    The George and Phoebe Apperson Hearst Papers, 1849-1921, contain personal and business papers of George Hearst and his wife, Phoebe Apperson Hearst. Only a small portion of the collection relates to George Hearst, a rancher, mining tycoon, and politician. His papers include family and business correspondence; illustrated mining notes and reports; and bills of sale and other materials related to mines, ranches and to property - primarily in the west and Mexico. The bulk of the collection concerns the philanthropic, charitable and social activities of Phoebe Apperson Hearst, a regent for the University of California from 1897-1919 and a major benefactress of the University and other institutions. She supported many anthropological expeditions in Egypt and other areas as well as collecting their findings for museums. Her collections of art, tapestry, miniatures and Native American baskets were noteworthy. Her papers include family and personal correspondence, business files concerning mining and property, files relating to her work as regent; files on philanthropy, charity and collecting; and her household management.
    The collection has been microfilmed and the use of originals is restricted.