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Llano del Rio Colony Records: Finding Aid
mssLlano del Rio  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Overview of the Collection
  • Access
  • Administrative Information
  • Historical Note
  • Scope and Content
  • Organization and Arrangement
  • Indexing Terms

  • Overview of the Collection

    Title: Llano del Rio Colony Records
    Dates (inclusive): 1896-1967
    Bulk dates: 1930s
    Collection Number: mssLlano del Rio
    Creator: Llano Colony (Secular community)
    Extent: 516 pieces in 4 boxes; 1 oversize folder; 1 oversize volume
    Repository: The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. Manuscripts Department
    1151 Oxford Road
    San Marino, California 91108
    Phone: (626) 405-2129
    Email: reference@huntington.org
    URL: http://www.huntington.org
    Abstract: This collection contains papers pertaining to the socialist cooperative Llano del Rio Colony, founded by Job Harriman in the Antelope Valley, California, in 1914, and its successor, Newllano, located in Louisiana, with the bulk dating from the 1930s. Subjects represented include the Llano and Newllano colonies, socialism in the United States, and socialist societies.
    Language: English.


    Open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information, contact Reader Services.

    Administrative Information

    Publication Rights

    The Huntington Library does not require that researchers request permission to quote from or publish images of this material, nor does it charge fees for such activities. The responsibility for identifying the copyright holder, if there is one, and obtaining necessary permissions rests with the researcher.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item]. Llano del Rio Colony Records, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.


    Gift of Mellie Calvert, 1969-1972, and Knox Mellon, December 1975.

    Historical Note

    The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony was incorporated in 1914 by Los Angeles attorney Job Harriman, the socialist nominee for mayor of Los Angeles in 1911. The settlement was located in the Antelope Valley of California near Pearblossom, where an agricultural community was developed. Because of problems with water rights, transportation for produce, and internal dissension, the colony was discontinued in 1918. One group of the colonists went to Louisiana and reestablished a community under the name Newllano.

    Scope and Content

    The collection contains correspondence, documents, minutes, newspaper clippings, photographs, poetry, and printed materials pertaining to the Llano del Rio Colony and its successor, Newllano.
    Most of the items donated by Mellie Calvert (Box 1) pertain to the history of the Llano del Rio Colony and the experiences of its colonists. Some of this material looks at the influence Job Harriman and the Young People's Socialist League of California had upon the founding of Llano, while other items represent the lives and daily struggles of individual Llano members.
    The vast majority of the Knox Mellon addenda items (Boxes 2-4, plus two oversized items) pertain to Newllano and its various problems. Although the collection spans from 1896 to 1967, the greatest concentration of items were written in the 1930s, a turbulent time in Newllano's development. During the mid-1930s a power struggle arose in Newllano between its elected Board (headed by George T. Pickett, 1876-1959) and a band of individuals who attempted to revoke Pickett's leadership and declare a new Board. Letters and documents reflecting each side of the divide exist within the collection, although more of the materials reflect the pro-Pickett stance. Sidney Young authors many of Pickett's defenses and is a strong voice throughout the collection. Other Knox Mellon items reflect the pre-history of Llano, including copies of late nineteenth century letters penned by Job Harriman and Morris Hillquit (1869-1933).
    Subjects represented throughout the collection as a whole include the Llano and Newllano colonies, socialism in the United States, socialist societies, Job Harriman, Morris Hillquit (1869-1933), George T. Pickett (1876-1959) and Sidney Young.

    Organization and Arrangement

    The collection is arranged in the following series:
    1. Materials given to the Huntington by Mellie Calvert (Box 1)
    2. Materials given to the Huntington by Knox Mellon (Boxes 2-4, plus 2 oversized items)
    Within each series the materials original order has been maintained wherever discernible. Items in each series have been arranged in chronological order and grouped by format.

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the Huntington Library's Online Catalog.  


    Harriman, Job, 1861-1925.
    Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933.
    Pickett, George T., 1876-1959.
    Llano Colony (Secular community)
    Cooperative societies -- California, Southern -- History -- Sources.
    Cooperative societies -- Louisiana -- History -- Sources.
    Socialism -- Societies, etc.
    Socialism -- United States.
    Socialists -- Correspondence.


    Administrative records -- California.
    Administrative records -- Louisiana.
    Letters (correspondence) -- California.
    Letters (correspondence) -- Louisiana.
    Minutes -- California.
    Minutes -- Louisiana.