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Annie C. Bill Collection: Finding Aid
mssBill collection  
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Collection Details
 
Table of contents What's This?
  • Overview of the Collection
  • Access
  • Administrative Information
  • Cataloger's Notes
  • Biographical Note
  • Scope and Content
  • Arrangement
  • Indexing: Added Entries
  • Indexing: Subject Entries
  • Indexing Terms

  • Overview of the Collection

    Title: Annie C. Bill Collection
    Dates (inclusive): 1842-1937
    Bulk dates: 1910-1936
    Collection Number: mssBill collection
    Creator: Bill, Annie C.
    Extent: 17,349 pieces in 48 boxes
    Repository: The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. Manuscripts Department
    1151 Oxford Road
    San Marino, California 91108
    Phone: (626) 405-2129
    Email: reference@huntington.org
    URL: http://www.huntington.org
    Abstract: This collection contains the papers of English religious leader Annie C. Bill (1861-1936), first of the Church of Christ, Science, and then her own denomination, the Church of Universal Design.
    Language: English.

    Access

    Open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information, contact Reader Services.

    Administrative Information

    Publication Rights

    The Huntington Library does not require that researchers request permission to quote from or publish images of this material, nor does it charge fees for such activities. The responsibility for identifying the copyright holder, if there is one, and obtaining necessary permissions rests with the researcher.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item]. Annie C. Bill Collection, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

    Provenance

    Purchased from Edward Morrill & Sons, 1959-1961.

    Cataloger's Notes

    1. The item count on each folder indicates individual pieces.
    2. Annie C. Bill's notes, annotations, and revisions appear throughout the collection, including ephemera and printed works.
    3. The majority of the collection is about Christian Science, so the subject index does not exhaust every instance of the subject.
    4. Oversize boxes of manuscripts, correspondence, and ephemera are integrated throughout the collection.

    Biographical Note

    Annie Cecelia Bulmer Bill (1861-1936) was born on November 20, 1861 in Sheffield, England. She was the daughter of Reverend Richard W. Bulmer and the wife of Major Robert William Bill. The couple had four children.
    Annie C. Bill became interested in Christian Science in the early 1900s after being introduced to the writings of Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science. She later joined the Third Church of Christ, Scientist, London, which was an additional branch of the Christian Science Mother Church, the First Church of Christ, Scientist located in Boston, Massachusetts. During her time at the Third Church of Christ, Bill became acquainted with Frederick Lawrence Rawson, an engineer and influential leader during the New Thought movement. Rawson was a member of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, London; however, his knowledge and teachings of Christian Science were divergent from Eddy's orthodox doctrines. He was soon expulsed from the domination for his deviating influence within the church. Having the same adoptions as Rawson, Bill resigned from the Third Church of Christ, Scientist, London and First Church, Boston after six years of service on December 11, 1909.
    The death of Mary Baker Eddy on December 3, 1910, left the Mother Church in much disorder, specifically between the Board of Directors and the Trustees of the Publishing Society over who had authoritative control over Eddy's church. As Bill watched the litigation unfold between both sides, she saw this as an opportunity to interpret and adopt Eddy's manual herself. Seeing herself as Eddy's rightful successor, she labored for years to reform the movement but failed to make much headway.
    The course of Bill's religious movement could be tricky to follow because she changed the name of her religious organization numerous times to avoid confusion and legal action from the Mother Church. On December 31, 1922, Bill and her followers of “The New Community of Christian Scientists” dissolved and re-united under the title, “The Church, In the Beginning of a New Scientific Generation.” Nearly a year later, Bill arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, in the fall of 1923 to extend and promote the development of “The Parent Church of the New Scientific Generation.” In 1928, Bill severed all ties with Christian Science and transformed her reform movement into a new denomination, “The Church of Universal Design,” which taught her version of Christian Science after having discovered Eddy plagiarized and used drugs. This church, never large, disappeared after the death of Bill and other leaders in the late 1930s.

    Scope and Content

    This collection contains the papers of English religious leader and author Annie C. Bill and consists of manuscripts, correspondence, and ephemera, chiefly dating from 1910-1936.
    Manuscripts

    There are 8,002 pieces of manuscripts, 6,044 of which are by Annie C. Bill. The manuscripts comprise of articles, drafts, essays, excerpts, notebooks, proofs, speeches, statements, and miscellaneous notes. The manuscripts with titles are arranged alphabetically by author and title; however, the majority of Bill's manuscripts that do not have titles so they are arranged alphabetically by the first line of the manuscript. In addition, the bulk of Bill's manuscripts are fragments that are drafts of her books and religious manuals. An item of interest is an unpublished manuscript contained in two volumes written by Daniel H. Spofford titled, “The First Six Lessons of Christian Science” and “The Last Six Lessons of Christian Science.” In addition, there is a handwritten transcript of Mary Baker Eddy's private directions for treating the disease metaphysically. The subjects covered in the manuscripts section are: Christian Science, First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.)., First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors, Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life, Mary Baker Eddy, 1821-1910, prohibition, religion and science, and signs and symbols.
    Correspondence

    There are 7,218 pieces of correspondence, 1,629 of which are by Annie C. Bill; most of her correspondence comprises of incomplete drafts of letters. The majority of the correspondence includes letters by her publisher, A.A. Beauchamp, Deputy Advisor, John V. Dittemore, officers, and students relating to her religious movement. Some of the correspondence includes reply letters from the addressee in the same folder, which is also indicated on the folder front. Also, integrated within the correspondence are letters addressed to and from A.A. Beauchamp, before he was associated with Annie C. Bill. In addition, there are also carbon copies of letters written by astronomers, economist, engineers, inventors, physicists, and a steel magnet to Walter Russell that appear to have no relation to Annie C. Bill. Notable authors include: George W. Baker, Frederick Dixon, Wellesley Tudor Pole, Frederick Lawrence Rawson, and Walter Russell.
    Ephemera

    There are 2,129 pieces of ephemera, the majority being related to Annie C. Bill. The first part of the ephemera is applications, brochures, fliers, and tracts that are arranged according to Bill's religious organization that she joined or led. Some of the listed periodicals are only fragments. The remaining ephemera consists of an appointment book, British Museum copyright receipts, Bill's British passport, calling cards, circular letters, empty envelopes, financial records, a greeting card, Kelly's Directories LTD., legal documents, miscellaneous ephemera, newspaper clippings, periodicals, photographs, postcards, and reprints.
    The two oversize green ephemera boxes contain a notebook, photographs, a poster, rubber stamps, and reprinted articles from the Christian Science Sentinel.

    Arrangement

    The collection is arranged in the following order: Manuscripts (Boxes 1-17); Correspondence (Boxes 18-37); and Ephemera (Boxes 38-48). Each section is arranged alphabetically by author and title.

    Indexing: Added Entries

    Beauchamp, A.A.
    • Addressee and publisher of Annie C. Bill.
    Dittemore, John V.
    • Addressee and Deputy Leader of Annie C. Bill.
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.).
    • Addressee of Annie C. Bill.
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors.
    • Addressee of Annie C. Bill.
    Mott, Francis J.
    • Addressee and student of Annie C. Bill.
    Rawson, (F.L.) Frederick Lawrence, 1859-1923.
    • Addressee of Annie C. Bill.

    Indexing: Subject Entries

    Christian Science
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “On Christian Science:” [manuscript, draft], [before 1937]. Box 3 (11).
    • Subject in Eddy, Mary Baker, 1821-1910. “Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures:” [book], [before 1905]. Box 46 (5).
    • Subject in Spofford, Daniel H. “First Six Lessons in Christian Science:” [manuscript], (1893). Box 17 (4).
    • Subject in Spofford, Daniel H. “Last Six Lessons in Christian Science:” [manuscript], [1893]. Box 17 (5).
    Christian Science Parent Church
    • Subject in Aller, Catherine. “The Christian Science Parent Church: A Brief Statement of its History and Purpose:” [galley proofs], (1929). Box 11 (1).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Manual of the Parent Church: First Edition:” [manuscript, drafts], (1923, July). Included: Six drafts. Box 8 (15).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Manual of the Christian Science Parent Church of the New Generation: Fourth Edition:” [manuscript, drafts], (1924). Included: Four drafts. Box 8 (16).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Manual of the Parent Church:” [manuscript, fourth draft], (1924). Box 2 (18).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Manual of the Christian Science Parent Church of the New Generation: Ninth Edition:” [proofs], (1927). Box 11 (4).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Manual of the Christian Science Parent Church: The Church of the Transforming Covenant: Ninth Edition:” [galley proofs], (1927). Included: Five copies and notes. Box 11 (5).
    Christian Science – Controversial literature
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “The Church: In the Beginning of a New Scientific Generation, The Mother Church, in London, Presentation of Claim to the Legal Title:” [manuscript], (1923, July 24). Included: Copy. Box 8 (8).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “The Mother Church Organization Dissolved in 1910?: 2nd Edition:” [book], (1924). Box 45 (9).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Mrs. Eddy's Place in History:” [essay, drafts], [approx. 1929]. Includes: Three drafts. Box 3 (4).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Proved Discovery in Christian Science:” [book], (1914). Box 45 (10).
    • Subject in The Christian Science Watchman. “The Christian Science Case: The Christian Science Parent Church versus the Boston „Mother‟ Organization:” [manuscript, drafts], (1926). Included: Two drafts. Box 10 (1).
    Eddy, Mary Baker, 1821-1910
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Mrs. Eddy's Place in History:” [essay, drafts], [approx. 1929]. Includes: Three drafts. Box 3 (4).
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “The Position:” [manuscript], [approx. 1923]. Box 3 (16).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. Untitled manuscript beginning, “Mrs. Eddy's utilization of the rotary movement…” (1922, Aug.). Box 9 (21).
    • Subject in The Christian Science Monitor. “Establish Trust to Carry Out the Will of Mrs. Eddy:” [article], (1912, Oct. 9). Box 6 (9).
    • Subject in First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Untitled excerpt beginning, “So far as the contents of Mrs. Eddy's letters…” (1917, Aug. 15). Box 6 (31).
    • Subject in Fitzpatrick, Lida. “Notes on the Divinity Courses:” [manuscript], (1933). Box 6 (32).
    • Subject in Frye, Calvin A. (Calvin Augustine), 1845-1917. “Extracts from Calvin A. Frye's Diaries:” [excerpts], [before 1913]. Box 6 (33).
    • Subject in [Mott, Francis J.] “Mrs. Eddy- A Straw in the Wind:” [manuscript, draft], [after 1910]. Included: Copy. Box 10 (14).
    • Subject in Peabody and Lynn Newspaper. “Historical Data:” [manuscript], (1876-1882). Box 10 (17).
    • Subject in ----. Miscellaneous Notes: Re: Mary Baker Eddy, 1821-1910 [before 1936]. Box 7 (41).
    • Subject in ----. Miscellaneous Excerpts: Regarding Mary Baker Eddy, 1821-1910 (1913). Box 17 (8).
    • Subject in ----. “What Mary Baker Eddy Found „Hid‟ in Three Measures of Meal and Left to the World:” [essay], [after 1910]. Box 10 (24).
    Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life
    • Subject in Applications, Brochures, Fliers, and Tracts: The Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life (1931). 7 items. Box 38 (7).
    • Subject in Beauchamp, A.A. 2 letters (1931-1935) to the Board of Directors of the Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life. Box 19 (5).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “The Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life: Manual Covenant of the Parent Centre: Thirteenth Edition: [manuscript, draft], (1931). Box 1 (56).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “The Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life: Manual Covenant of the Parent Centre: Thirteenth Edition:” [galley proofs], (1931). Included: Two copies. Box 12 (7).
    • Subject in Kelly, Mabel 2 letters (1931-1935) to the Board of Directors, the Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life. Included: Copy and enclosure. Box 30 (32).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Letter for inquirers for class who are other than members of our Fellowship:” [manuscript], [after 1930]. Box 2 (10).
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “The Manual Covenant: The Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life:” [manuscript, drafts], [approx. 1930]. Included: Seven drafts. Incomplete. Box 2 (16).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Message to the Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life:” [page proofs], (1931, Oct. 5). Included: Copy. Box 11 (6).
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “What is the Universal Design?:” [statement], [approx. 1931]. Box 5 (49).
    • Subject in O., H. 1 letter (1931, July 30) to the Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life. Box 32 (51).
    • Subject in Taylor, [Maude Sawyer]. “What is the Universal Design?:” [manuscript], [after 1920]. Box 7 (20).
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.).
    • Subject in Applications, Brochures, Fliers, and Tracts: The First Church of Christ, Scientist (1903-1911). 16 items. Box 38 (8).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. 2 letters (1921) to the Acting Directors of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston. Included: Copies. Box 20 (1).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. 5 letters (1918-1922) to the First Church of Christ, Scientist. Incomplete. Box 21 (25).
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors
    • Subject in Beauchamp, A.A. 1 letter (1929, Aug. 13) to the Board of Directors, the Christian Science Society. Box 19 (4).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. 16 letters (1907-1914) to First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Included: Copies, enclosures, and reply letters. Box 21 (26).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. 15 letters (1918-1929) to First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Included: Copies and enclosures. Box 21 (27).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. 2 letters (1910-1921) to Bicknell Young. Incomplete. Box 23 (69).
    • Subject in Burges, Cyril T. 3 letters (1924) to the Board of Directors, Third Church of Christ, Scientist. Box 24 (36).
    • Subject in Fellowes, John F. 1 letter (1928, Jan. 14) to the Board of Directors, Third Church of Christ, Scientist. Box 28 (49).
    • Subject in First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Untitled excerpt beginning, “So far as the contents of Mrs. Eddy's letters…” (1917, Aug. 15). Box 6 (31).
    • Subject in Mackay, Janet Turner 1 letter [approx. 1921] to First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Box 31 (28).
    • Subject in Young, Bicknell 2 letters (1910) to Annie C. Bill. Box 35 (73).
    Marriage
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “Church and State Balance in Marriage Divorce and Evolution:” [essay], [before 1937]. Box 1 (39).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Marriage, Divorce, and the New Testament:” [essay], [after 1930]. Box 2 (19).
    • Subject in Brittain, Verra. “Will there be a Marriage Revolution?:” [excerpt], [undated]. Box 6 (1).
    Plagiarism
    • Subject in Bailey, L.M. 1 letter (1929) to [Annie C.] Bill. Included: Reply letter. Box 18 (46).
    • Subject in Beauchamp, A.A. 2 letters (1929) to “the Editor of the Hull Evening News.” Included: Enclosures. Box 19 (12).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. (1918-1929) to First Church of Christ, Scientist, (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors. Included: Copies and enclosures. Box 21 (27).
    • Subject in Gronen, Taylor M. 8 letters (1927-1929) to Annie C. Bill. Included: Enclosures. Box 29 (39).
    • Subject in Harding, James 1 letter (1929, July 14) to [Annie C.] Bill. Included: Reply letter. Box 29 (56).
    • Subject in Moore, [Kate?] E. 1 letter (1929, July 22) to [Annie C.] Bill. Box 37 (15).
    • Subject in Plummer, George Winslow, 1876-1944 1 letter (1929, July 29) to John V. Dittemore. Box 33 (17).
    • Subject in Smith, A.W. 2 letters (1929) to [Annie C.] Bill. Included: Reply letter. Box 34 (28).
    • Subject in Talbot, Edith A. 1 letter (1929, June 3) to Annie C. Bill. Box 34 (57).
    Prohibition
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “The Advancing Movement of Christian Science and Prohibition:” [manuscript], [approx. 1924]. Box 1 (20).
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “Mistaken Prohibition and Obedient Atonement:” [essay], (1926, May 18). Box 3 (3).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Temperance or Prohibition:” [statement, draft], [after 1920]. Box 5 (21).
    • Subject in The Christian Science Watchman. “Prohibition:” [reprints], (1926, May). Note: Various annotations and notes. Box 10 (2).
    • Subject in Leacock, Stephen, 1869-1944. “Based Upon a Lie, It Cannot Endure:” [essay], [approx. 1920]. Box 6 (41).
    • Subject in ----. “After Prohibition, What?:” (1931, Sep.). Box 7 (27).
    Religion and Science
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “An English Women's Reply to Einstein:” [page proofs], (1930). Included: Envelope. Box 11 (2).
    • Subject in [Bill, Annie C.] “Science and Religion unite on One Universal Basis of Mind:” [manuscript, draft], [before 1937]. Incomplete. Box 5 (1).
    Signs and Symbols
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Figures and Symbols of the Universal Design:” [book], (1925). Box 45 (4).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “Figures and Symbols of the Universal Design:” [printers‟ proofs], (1925). Included: Correspondence and drawings. Box 12 (8).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. Miscellaneous Notes: Drawings and sketches [before 1937]. Box 2 (28).
    • Subject in Bill, Annie C. “The Symbol of Day and Night in the Christian Science System of Organization:” [essay, draft], (1922, Dec. 14). Box 9 (5).
    • Subject in Mott, Francis J. “Symbols:” [manuscript], (1925). Box 17 (3).
    • Subject in [Pole, Wellesley Tudor]. “Colour + Number Symbolism:” [manuscript], [approx. 1908]. Box 6 (74).
    • Subject in [Pole, Wellesley Tudor]. “Tarot:” [manuscript], [approx. 1908]. Box 7 (1).
    • Subject in [Pole, Wellesley Tudor]. “The Tarot; What is it?:” [manuscript], [approx. 1908]. Incomplete. Box 7 (2).
    • Subject in [Pole, Wellesley Tudor]. Untitled manuscript beginning, “I. Aleph N…” [approx. 1908]. Box 7 (4).
    • Subject in Pole, Wellesley Tudor]. Untitled manuscript beginning, “Number Symbolism in its…” [approx. 1908]. Box 7 (5).

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the Huntington Library's Online Catalog.  

    Subjects

    Bill, Annie C.
    Eddy, Mary Baker, 1821-1910.
    Christian Science Parent Church.
    Fellowship of the Universal Design of Life.
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.).
    First Church of Christ, Scientist (Boston, Mass.). Board of Directors.
    Christian Science -- Controversial literature.
    Christian Science -- History -- 20th century.
    Christian Science -- Great Britain.
    Christian Science -- United States.
    Marriage -- United States -- 20th century.
    Plagiarism -- United States -- 20th century.
    Prohibition -- United States -- 20th century.
    Religion and science -- United States -- 20th century.
    Signs and symbols -- United States -- 20th century.

    Forms/Genres

    Articles -- United States.
    Essays -- United States.
    Excerpts -- United States.
    Galley proofs -- United States.
    Legal documents -- United States.
    Letters (correspondence) -- United States.
    Manuscripts -- United States.
    Notebooks -- United States.
    Notes -- United States.
    Page proofs -- United States.
    Pamphlets -- United States.
    Periodicals -- United States.
    Photographs -- United States.
    Plays -- United States.
    Poems -- United States.
    Printers' proofs -- United States.
    Reprints -- United States.
    Speeches Untied States.
    Tracts (documents) -- United States.

    Additional Contributors

    Beauchamp, A.A.
    Dittemore, John V.
    Mott, Francis J.
    Rawson, F.L. (Frederick Lawrence), 1859-1923.