Scope and Contents
Series 3) ACCOUNT BOOKS: 32 volumes, arranged chronologically. The account books document the routine financial matters of
the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, the Scripps Institution of Biological Research, and the Scripps Institution
of Oceanography from 1903 to 1947. The entries document the growth and development of SIO and include numerous schedules;
all of the schedules included in each volume are listed in the finding aid. These schedules record income and expenses, gifts
and endowments, budget summaries, scientific research, construction and maintenance of facilities, and salary reports.
The account books document the endowment funds and other gifts that were made to the Institution by prominent individuals
from 1903 to 1947. Ellen B. Scripps provided most of the financial support for SIO during its early years and established
an income-producing endowment in 1903. The Endowment Account ledger in Volume 1 describes these early funds granted to the
Station. Over time, she established other endowment funds to meet specific needs of the Institution, several of which are
documented in Volume 5.
While E. W. Scripps never established an income-producing endowment as his sister did, he established special gift accounts
and made yearly donations to the Institution for more than twenty years. These donations were in variable amounts and resulted
from his conversations with Dr. Ritter about the Institution's specific needs, including salaries, field work, and library
collection development. Volume 4 includes several examples of these gifts.
Donations made by SIO professors Roger Revelle and Johanson in 1939 and 1940 were designated as salary funds for two assistants,
Karl Herrescoff and Karl Huesner, who were conducting an analysis of bottom sediments (see Volumes 25 and 26). A donation
from Frederick H. Stoye supported Dr. Carl Leavitt Hubbs' work in fish biology during the years 1946-1947 (see Volume 28).
Significant gifts from local and state organizations are also present in the account books. For example, a fund was raised
in 1903 by the Chamber of Commerce Biological Committee of San Diego to support a preliminary survey for a permanent site
for the Biological Station. In 1906, La Jollans donated an endowment to Dr. Fred Baker to be added to the existing Building
Account (see Volume 2). In 1931, the State Legislature appropriated $40,000, recorded in the Campus Improvement Fund ledger
in Volume 15, which was designated for campus improvement. The funds were used to build Ritter Hall, to renovate existing
older buildings, and to improve the grounds of the Institution during 1931 and 1932.
Buildings and Property
The account books also include material documenting the expenses and maintenance of Scripps property, buildings, and grounds.
The first little green laboratory at the cove in La Jolla was a wooden structure built in 1905-1906. The Buildings ledger
in Volume 1 documents its construction, financed by the La Jolla Improvement Society, a group of local citizens. The Real
Estate ledger details the 1907 purchase of Pueblo Lot 1298, La Jolla from the city as a Station site. The New Buildings and
Grounds ledger documents the construction of the first permanent building for the Station, as well as the planting of thousands
of eucalyptus seeds, overseen by Mrs. Ritter, to enhance the beauty and value of the land.
Housing for permanent and summer staff and their families began to be built in 1913 with the erection of the first twelve
one-story frame cottages built near the Marine Biological Station. Over time, more cottages were built, and they were rented
at monthly rates to faculty and visitors. Reports of the cottages' income and expenses are reported throughout Volumes 3-26.
Many schedules throughout the account books document research conducted at Scripps. Each of the volumes contain ledgers that
document laboratory, supply, and boat expenditure information between 1913 and 1947. Many also include special funds for specific
projects and salaries.
Scripps conducted its first large scale research projects in cooperation with the state and federal governments during World
War I. In 1925, Scripps hosted a conference on the physical oceanography, marine meteorology, and climate, which led to increased
participation in the collection of oceanographic data by the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Bureau of Lighthouses, and the Los Angeles
Steamship Company. By 1928, a dozen regional power companies were sufficiently interested in meteorological research to contribute
funds to Scripps. A similar surge of research projects occurred during the 1930s. Recapitulation Accounts were established
to summarize the various maintenance accounts. After 1918, the maintenance accounts were called Scientific Accounts, and they
include services and disbursements for the purpose of scientific studies. In the 1940s, research projects with the U.S. Navy
were conducted in sub-surface warfare as part of the University of California Division of War Research (UCDWR).
The account books document a number of other scientific projects conducted at Scripps. A special fund was established in 1939
to support research on weather forecasting. In 1942, sea and swell forecasting, a new field of science, was created at Scripps.
In 1944, special courses in sea and swell forecasting were given at the Institution.
A limited amount of research not directly related to national defense was conducted at the Scripps during World War II. Dr.
Claude E. ZoBell's work on petroleum-producing bacteria was greatly expanded after 1940 with grants from the American Petroleum
Institute. Kelco, Inc. of San Diego provided a fellowship to support the J. Frederick Wohnus' kelp studies from 1941 to 1944.
In 1944, Scripps conducted joint research with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution into the effects of shallow water
bottom topography on waves. Ledgers throughout Volumes 25 through 29 document the expenses of all of these research projects.
The scientific research conducted by the Institution is documented throughout all 32 volumes, and notes in the finding aid
list the names of every ledger found in the volumes. Researchers may browse the finding aid or perform keyword searches by
funding agency (for example: U.S. Navy, Geological Society of America, or American Petroleum Institute), scientific research
area (for example: meteorological, oceanography, weather, or shore), or simply by the words "scientific" or "research."