Scope and Content of Collection
Title: Anne Armstrong Papers, White House Central Files, 1969-1974
Collection Number: 6117716
Armstrong, Anne Legendre
Extent: 32 linear feet, 10 linear inches; 75 boxes
Online items available
Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum
Abstract: The files contained in the Anne L. Armstrong series reflect her responsibilities as Counselor to the President, as the first
head of the Office of Women’s Programs, and as a member of the Cost of Living Council (a part of the Economic Stabilization
Program) and the Bicentennial Commission. The files, in addition, cover other domestic issues, including minority affairs,
youth, the Federal Property Council, and the Domestic Council. Prior to her appointment as Counselor on January 19, 1973,
Anne L. Armstrong served as Co-Chair of the Republican National Committee.
Language of Material: English
Collection is open for research. Some materials may be unavailable based upon categories of materials exempt from public release
established in the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974.
Most government records are in the public domain, however, this series includes commercial materials, such as newspaper clippings,
that may be subject to copyright restrictions. Researchers should contact the copyright holder for information.
Anne Armstrong Papers, White House Central Files, 1969-1974. Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum
These materials are in the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration under the provisions of Title I of
the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-526, 88 Stat. 1695) and implementing regulations.
Scope and Content of Collection
The materials of Anne Armstrong, Counsellor to the President, reflect her responsibilities as the first head of the Office
of Women's programs, and other domestic affairs activities, including minority affairs, youth, the Federal Property Council
and the Bicentennial. The first woman Cabinet member since Oveta Culp Hobby, Secretary of the Department of Health, Education
and Welfare in the Eisenhower Administration (1953-1955), Anne Armstrong was appointed on January 19, 1973, and stayed until
December 1974 in the Ford Administration.
The first three files series, the Alphabetical File, Administrative File, and Subject File, reflect the activities of Anne
Armstrong. The Alphabetical File contains correspondence of Anne Armstrong with Administration officials, Republican party
members, and Texas and Louisiana political and personal acquaintances including Constance Armitage, Virginia Allan, Roger
Ailes, Helen Deitrich Bentley, Arthur Burns, George Bush, Earl Butz, Julie Eisenhower, Barbara Franklin, the first women's
recruiter in the White House and her successor, Nola Smith, Gerald and Betty Ford, Representative Martha Griffiths, Virginia
Knauer, Gov. Ronald Reagan, Herbert Stein, and Senators John Stennis, John Tower and Strom Thurmond.
The Administrative File includes Anne Armstrong's correspondence with President Richard Nixon, Patrick Buchanan, Kenneth Cole,
John Ehrlichman, Gen. Alexander Haig, Jerry Jones, Bruce Kehrli, David Parker and Ronald Ziegler. Among the subjects addressed
in this file are the Administration's position on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), job appointments for women and Hispanics,
beef prices, farm policies, and price controls.
The Subject File contains information concerning the organization, job appointments and local activities of the American Revolution
Bicentennial Administration. The chronological file "Central Files-Nixon Papers-Miscellaneous Correspondence" documents a
variety of activities in Anne Armstrong's office from late 1973-July 1974. There is also a large file of job applications
and resumes and a collection of ERA endorsements from Presidents, Vice Presidents and senators.
The next five series primarily concern the work of Anne Armstrong's staff on women's issues. These include: the Staff Correspondence
and Memoranda File; the Staff Miscellany File; the Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh and Jean Spencer File; the Vera Hirschberg
File and the Office of Women's Programs File. Jill Ruckelshaus, wife of former Environmental Protection Agency Director and
Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, joined Anne Armstrong's office as a part-time Special Assistant from early 1973
to March 1974. A member of the National Women's Political Caucus, Jill Ruckelshaus was assisted by Vera Hirschberg, Director
of the Office of Women's Programs, and served as an Administration liaison for women's issues. Her work was continued by Staff
Assistants Dr. Jean Spencer, formerly of Vice President Agnew's office and Ruckelshaus' successor, Patricia Lindh, former
Republican National Committeewoman from Louisiana. Patricia Lindh succeeded Anne Armstrong in December 1974 as Special Assistant
to the President for Women. Vera Hirschberg's successor, Karen Keesling, also served in the Ford Administration.
The Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File contains a chronological file of correspondence from Anne Armstrong and her staff
members Pamela Powell, David Wheat, Jill Ruckelshaus, Vera Hirschberg, Jean Spencer, Patricia Lindh, Karen Keesling, and Harriet
Yedowski, executive secretary to Jill Ruckelshaus. Topics addressed in the chronological file include: the ERA, abortion,
Phyllis Schafly, federal government programs for women, credit legislation and Watergate. The Staff Correspondence and Memoranda
File also contains information about Anne Armstrong's and Jayne Spain's meetings with government agency heads concerning affirmative
action programs for women; Anne Armstrong's meetings with the leaders of national, political, professional, religious and
academic women's organizations; and the September 20, 1973 meeting of the Council of Economic Advisors Advisory Committee
on the Economic Role of Women. Also found in this file are invitations, speeches, and travel arrangements of Jill Ruckelshaus.
The Staff Miscellany File materials may duplicate or supplement information in the Alphabetical File and the Staff Correspondence
and Memoranda File mentioned above. Subjects include Administration and Federal government programs, ERA ratification, women's
organizations, job appointments, invitations, the presentation of a Susan B. Anthony bust, sex discrimination, and Mrs. Pat
Nixon's December 5, 1973 reception for a symposium on women by the Council of Economic Advisors and the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development. Correspondents include: Anne Armstrong, staff members Jill Ruckelshaus, Vera Hirschberg, Pamela
Powell and Beth Gordon; Barbara Franklin; Frederick Malek; Virginia Allan, State Department; Bernice Sanders, Women's Equity
Action League; Carmen Maymi, Civil Service Commission; and Republican National Committee Chairman George Bush.
The Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh and Jean Spencer File contains information about Federal government affirmative action
hiring programs, the Federal Women's Program, women Presidential appointees, the Commission on Civil Rights, International
Women's Year, Hispanic Americans, domestic workers, women in the military and military academies, part-time employment, activities
for Administration appointees' wives, sex discrimination, and Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, which mandated
non-discriminatory education and faculty employment and promotion practices. Also of interest are chronological files of Inter/Inner
Office Memos, 1971-1973, started by Barbara Franklin, and correspondence between Anne Armstrong and state legislators for
and against the Equal Rights Amendment.
The Vera Hirschberg File provides information about Federal government affirmative action plans and visits to agency heads
by Anne Armstrong and Jayne Spain. Other topics addressed include domestic workers, abortion, the Citizen's Advisory Committee
on the Status of Women, Credit Legislation, Title IX, the House of Representatives Joint Economic Committee Hearing on the
Economic Role of Women, maternity leaves, the minimum wage, the National Women's Party's Sewell-Belmont House, Social Security,
women in military, women in the White House, women in military academies, and Anne Armstrong's meetings with leaders of women's
organizations. A small amount of the correspondence of Vera Hirschberg's successor , Karen Keesling, is also found in the
The Office of Women's Programs File contains many of the same correspondents and subjects and serves as a supplement to the
Jill Ruckelshaus, Jean Spencer and Patricia Lindh and Vera Hirschberg Files. The files include information about abortion,
the Citizen's Advisory Committee on the Status of Women, Anne Armstrong's meetings and speeches, the role of Administration
appointees' wives, the Bicentennial, child care, domestic workers, Barbara Franklin's correspondence, International Women's
Year, Hispanic and women's mailing lists, the White House Fellows, women appointees, and the Council of Economic Advisors
Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women and their joint efforts with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
The Barbara Franklin Reference File contains materials from the office of Barbara Franklin, Staff Assistant for Executive
Manpower, under Fred Malek of the White House personnel office. As the most visible women's representative in the Administration
prior to Anne Armstrong's appointment, Barbara Franklin recruited top-level women in the Administration and Federal Government,
monitored government affirmative action plans, served as a liaison with women's organizations and promoted 1972 campaign.
Many of these materials have been duplicated throughout the Anne Armstrong files.
The Office File sub-series of the Barbara Franklin Reference File contains a one-year update on Administration accomplishments
since Barbara Franklin's appointment in April 1971. The file includes a proposed statement on the ERA, annotated by President
Richard Nixon, White House press releases Presidential statements, and reasons for and against the Administration support
of the ERA.
The first Subject File sub-series of the Barbara Franklin Reference File contains material concerning Presidential meetings
and swearing-in ceremonies with women appointees, congratulatory telegrams, schedule proposals for the President and First
Family and fact sheets. The files of Judith Kaufman, Franklin's assistant, contain the correspondence of Franklin, Kaufman
and Judith Cole, who was responsible for the White House Talent Bank of women job candidates. An "Issues" file includes Administration
policies on domestic issues such as aging, crime and the economy, and comments by Wilma Scott Heide, President of the National
Organization for Women and Rep. Bella Abzug. There are also files on prominent women and political figures. Files on "Women-Publicity
and Public Relations" concern the 1972 campaign.
The second Subject File sub-series in the Barbara Franklin Reference File includes a large newsclipping file on women. There
are also materials on Administration directives, speeches, and government agency affirmative action policies for women.
The Outside Women's Organizations File contains correspondence from United States and international women's professional,
religious, political and academic organizations. The files were originally started by Barbara Franklin's office in 1971 and
updated by Patricia Lindh in 1974. Notable correspondents, whose materials can be found throughout the Anne Armstrong files,
include Bernice Sandler of the Association of American Colleges and the Women's Equity Action League, Jacqueline Gutwillig
of the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Margaret Belcher of the National Association of Negro Business and
Professional Women's Clubs, Osta Underwood of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Wilma Scott
Heide of the National Organization for Women, and Elizabeth Chittick of the National Women's Party. Also of interest is a
letter from Pat Nixon (April 17, 1972) to Lorraine Beebe of the National Women's Political Caucus.
The Publications File includes printed materials, periodicals and statistical reports concerning women from state governments,
the Senate, the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the Women's Bureau of the Department
of Labor, the President's Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities, the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status
of Women, the Republican National Committee, the American Enterprise Institute, the American Political Science Association
and other organizations.
The briefing books file of staff member Helena E. "Beth" Gordon, Correspondence and Research Coordinator, contains notebooks
and folders for Anne Armstrong's meetings of trips. Correspondents include: Fred Slight, Kathie Berger, David Wheat, Vera
Hirschberg, Jean Spencer, and Pamela Powell of Anne Armstrong's staff, John Shales, John Mollering, William Timmons, Roy Ash,
Leonard Garment, Kenneth Cole, and Republican National Committee officials Peter Roussel and George Bush. Subjects include
state and local politics and Bicentennial activities (including American Indian Bicentennial activities in Oklahoma and Oregon),
the Legacy of Parks programs, the economy, election reform, foreign affairs, Watergate, and Hispanic, youth and women's programs.
Further information about Anne Armstrong can be found in the White House Central Files Staff Member and Office Files of her
staff members Pamela Powell, Fred Slight, and David Wheat. Files related to women's job appointments include the White House
Special Files, Staff Member and Office Files of Frederick Malek and the White House Central Files, Staff Member and Office
Files of Barbara Franklin, Nola Smith and David Smyth. Also of interest are the White House Central Files, Staff Member and
Office Files of Herbert Stein (Council of Economic Advisors' studies and programs on the economic status of women), Charles
Clapp (Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities), and Andre Buckels, Leonard Garment and Bradley Patterson (Bicentennial).
The White House Central Files, Subject Files include FG 75 (American Revolution Bicentennial Administration), FG 90 (Commission
on Civil Rights), FG 145 (Cabinet Committee on Opportunity for Spanish Speaking People), FG 147 (Interdepartmental Committee
on the Status of Women), FG 221 (Task Force), and HU 2-5 (Human Rights-Women). The Gerald R. Ford Library contains the files
of Anne Armstrong and the combined files of Patricia Lindh and Jeanne Holm, Special Assistants to the President for Women.
The Anne L. Armstrong Files series is comprised of the Alphabetical File subseries; the Administrative File subseries; the
Subject File subseries; the Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File subseries; the Staff Miscellany File subseries; the Jill
Ruckelhaus, Patricia Lindh, and Jean Spencer File subseries; the Vera Hirschberg File subseries; the Office of Women's Programs
Files subseries; the Barbara Franklin Reference Files: Office Files subseries; the Barbara Franklin Reference File: Subject
Files subseries; the Outside Women's Organizations File subseries; the Publications File subseries; and the Beth Gordon Briefing
Books File subseries.
The Alphabetical Files subseries includes Armstrong's correspondence with administration officials, Republican party members,
and Texas and Louisiana political and personal acquaintances, including Roger Ailes, George Bush, Gerald and Betty Ford, Governor
Ronald Reagan, and Senator Strom Thurmond. Included in this correspondence is memoranda, notes, news clippings, speeches,
resumes, and invitations related to the Republican National Committee and various administration programs.
The Administrative File subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, and press releases on topics including the Equal Rights
Amendment (ERA), price controls, women, minority and Hispanic programs, and the Bicentennial.
The Subject File subseries contains material related to the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, job appointments,
and a collection of ERA endorsements from former and current Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Senators.
The Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File subseries contains correspondence, reports, resumes, speeches, mailing lists,
and telephone messages related to various subjects, such as ERA, women's programs, credit legislation, and Watergate. Also
included in this subseries is material concerning Armstrong's meetings with agency heads and leaders of women's organizations
from a variety of fields.
The Staff Miscellany File contains materials that may duplicate or supplement information found in the Alphabetical File subseries
and the Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File. Subjects include programs and events, sex discrimination, and Mrs. Patricia
Nixon's reception for a symposium on the economic status of women.
The Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh, and Jean Spencer File subseries contains material related to federal policies and congressional
legislation on women's employment issues, such as military status, sex discrimination, and education, including Title IX of
the Educational Amendments Act.
The Vera Hirschberg File subseries provides information about Federal government affirmative action plans and visits made
by Armstrong to federal agency heads.
The Office of Women's Programs Files subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, notes, speeches, reports, congressional
testimony, news clippings, publications, and press briefings concerning federal policies and congressional legislation on
women's issues, notably the ERA, child care, credit, domestic workers, and International Women's Year.
The Barbara Franklin Reference File: Office Files subseries is comprised of material from the office of Barbara Franklin,
Staff Assistant for Executive Manpower, under Fred Malek of the White House personnel office. The subseries includes carbon
copies of correspondence, memoranda, reports, and schedule proposals relating to the administration's ERA position, Presidential
statements, and a first year progress report on the administration's accomplishments for women.
The Barbara Franklin Reference File: Subject Files subseries contains carbon copies and originals of correspondence and memoranda;
fact sheets and periodicals concerning women's issues; contacts with government officials and personnel media, public figures
and organizations; and domestic issues during the 1972 campaign.
The Outside Women's Organizations File subseries contains materials on American and international women's academic, professional,
and religious organizations.
The Publications File subseries contains pamphlets, reports, books, Senate hearings, speeches, and membership directories
from government and private sources on the status of women, women's employment, flexible hours, ethnic women, and sports education.
The Beth Gordon Briefing Books File subseries includes material on topics such as state and local politics, the Bicentennial,
the economy, the 1974 federal budget, the Federal Property Council and the Legacy of Parks programs, Watergate, and programs
for women, Hispanics, and youth.