Scope and Content
Title: Frederick Jackson Turner Papers
Bulk dates: 1889-1932
Collection Number: mssTU
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1861-1932
Approximately 20,000 items in 259 boxes plus miscellaneous volumes. About 7,500 catalogued letters and documents;
photographs; maps; lantern slides; 5 boxes of papers written by his students; 34
file drawers of his working notes and other data.
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens
The Huntington Library
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2203
Fax: (626) 449-5720
Abstract: This collection contains the papers of American professor and historian
Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932). Subjects covered: Turner's education; family affairs; business
affairs, particularly with his publisher Henry Holt and Co.; ideas about the
frontier, sectionalism, historical scholarship, professional matters generally, and
politics; Turner's activities and experiences at Johns Hopkins University,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Harvard and the Huntington Library; teaching
career; work with the Harvard Commission on Western History; work with the
Dictionary of American biography project; and his role in the American Historical
Association, particularly the "Bancroft insurrection" of 1915.
Language of Material: The records are in English.
Open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services
Department. For more information, contact Reader Services.
The Huntington Library does not require that researchers request permission to
quote from or publish images of this material, nor does it charge fees for such
activities. The responsibility for identifying the copyright holder, if there is
one, and obtaining necessary permissions rests with the researcher.
[Identification of item]. Frederick Jackson Turner Papers, The Huntington
Library, San Marino, California.
Acquired by legacy from Frederick Jackson Turner and by gift from various members
of his family, 1928-1965. Letters and copies of letters have also been
contributed to the collection by individuals with whom Turner corresponded (see
letters in the collection having to do with its establishment, in the years
following Turner's death).
American professor and historian Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932) was born November 14,
1861, in Portage, Wisconsin, the son of Andrew Jackson Turner, a journalist,
politician, and local historian. After study at the University of
Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, Turner embarked on a teaching career in American
history, first at the University of Wisconsin (1889-1910) and later at
Harvard University (1910-1924). With the publication in 1893 of his essay "The Significance of the Frontier
in American History," containing his thesis that American society owed its distinctive characteristics to experience with
an undeveloped frontier,
he became a figure of national importance historically. Though
he wrote little, he was active in American Historical Association, and he was a guide and mentor to the future historians
who passed through his
classroom. His final years were spent in research at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, where
his activities became increasingly curtailed as his health deteriorated. He died in
Pasadena, California, on March 14, 1932.
Turner was married November 25, 1889, to Caroline Mae Sherwood of Chicago. They had three children: two who died in childhood
and Dorothy Kinsley (Turner) Main.
Scope and Content
The following notes on the Turner papers were compiled after only a three-month
examination of those papers. Hence they make no pretense of completeness or
accuracy. They are compiled only to serve as a general guide to later users of the
The following outline, or index, of the sections of this report that follow may make
its use easier:
1: Correspondence and Documents
Frederick Jackson Turner's correspondence, together with certain important documents,
has been expertly arranged in a series of flat boxes, each bearing a number, date,
and appropriate descriptive designation. Within each box the letters to and from
Turner, or the documents, have been placed in folders, each of which bears a
descriptive title and date. Arrangement within each box in chronological.
The correspondence an document boxes may be conveniently divided into several
General correspondence during Turner's life. This is
contained in Boxes 1 through 47. Included are letters written by and to Turner
between the time of his boyhood and his death on March 14, 1932.
General correspondence, 1932-1956. This is contained in
Boxes 48 through 52. Many of the letters in these boxes relate to the efforts of the
Huntington Library to assemble the Turner correspondence, to the publication of his
posthumous books, etc. A large number are extremely valuable for an understanding of
Turner, for they were written by friends and former students who frequently
reminisced at length on his virtues. Form of citation: TU Box 48, Correspondence,
Apr.-June 10, 1932.
Biographical and Autobiographical Material. This is
contained in Box 53, a large flat box. Contained in this box are diplomas received
by Turner, certificates of membership in learned societies, honorary degrees, and
the like. Box 62 also has biographical and genealogical data.
Manuscripts and Documents. These are in Boxes 54
through 57, covering the years 1877 to 1932. Materials have been placed in blue
folders, each labeled and dated, and arranged in chronological order. The boxes
contain some of Turner's earliest historical writings, notes for lectures and
seminars, drafts of essays, etc., clippings, and other personal data. For of
citation: TU Box 54, Manuscripts & Documents, 1877-1900.
The Turner-Hooper correspondence. This is contained in
eight boxes, the first seven of which are devoted to letters between Turner and Mrs.
William Hooper (Mrs. Alice Forbes Perkins Hooper). Mrs. Hooper, a daughter of
Charles Elliott Perkins, president of the Burlington Railroad, and wife of William
Hooper of a prominent New England family, became acquainted with Turner when he
first moved to Harvard University in 1910. She played a leading financial role in
establishing the Harvard Commission on Western History under his guidance. These
initial contacts led to a lasting friendship, which endured to the time of Turner's
death. Hence this is a unique correspondence, in which he discusses his political
beliefs, his writing, his teaching, his reading, and the ordinary events of the day
with a frankness that he displayed to few others. The correspondence is essential
for biographical purposes, and reveals Turner at his witty best. The eighth box in
the series contains letters between Mrs. Hooper and Max Farrand concerning the
disposition of the letters after Turner's death. Her comments on Turner's character
in these letters are revealing. Form of citation: TU-H Box 1, Turner-Hooper
Correspondence, 1910-1912. Also in Turner-Hooper Correspondencs, Boxes A-D:
correspondence from other people.
Turner Family letters These are now in Boxes A-K.
2: Manuscript Volumes
Included in the Turner papers are a number of items of importance which have been
separately preserved and catalogued. Notes on the contents of each of these volumes
follow. Citation is to: TU Volume 1, etc.
TU Vol. 1, Red Book. This contains letters from
students and friends written to Turner a the time he left the University of
Wisconsin to go to Harvard. They were solicited by one of his former students,
Professor James Alton James. Mounted in a red-colored book, they are normally in the
form of holograph letters. Folders in the correspondence boxes refer to each of
TU Vol. II, Blue Book. When Turner retired from
Harvard, his friends and former students held a dinner in his honor. This was
arranged by his students in his seminar for 1923-1924. Letters and telegrams written
by friends and former students who could not attend have been arranged in a
blue-covered book inscribed: "Frederick Jackson Turner May 24, 1924." In the book
also is an envelope holding newspaper clippings dealing with his retirement.
TU Vol. III (1 & 2), Commonplace Book. These
consist of two paper-bound notebooks in which Turner jotted down his thoughts,
quotations that appealed to him, rough drafts of orations, and miscellaneous items
during the period 1883-1887 when he was a student and graduate student at the
University of Wisconsin. This is a valuable collection of materials which indicate
his interests and the evolution of his historical concepts.
TU Vol. IV, A. J. Turner, History of Portage. A
volume prepared by Andrew Jackson Turner, Frederick J. Turner's father, entitled: "A
History of Portage, Wisconsin: A Talk to the local Women's Club." Typescript, 12
pp., fol. c.1900, bound in hard covers.
TU Vol. V, Letters of Condolence. Fifty-two letters
of condolence and appreciation addressed to Mrs. Frederick Jackson Turner between
March 15, 1932 and November 22, 1932. Chronologically arranged in a portfolio,
entitled: "Letters of Condolence and Appreciation Addressed to Caroline Mae
(Sherwood) Turner, on the death of Her Husband, March 14, 1932."
TU Vol. VI, Collection of Syllabuses. These include
both printed and manuscript syllabuses for period c. 1893 to 1909 on: English
history (probably prepared by Professor Allen), The Colonization of North America,
and The History of the West. Collected in hard-cover folder labeled: "Collection of
TU Vol. VII, Bibliography of United States History.
Manuscript bibliography of United States history, 1865-1910, prepared by
Turner for his section of the Channing, Hart and Turner, Guide. Additions and
corrections have been made in Turner's hand, and by others.
TU Vol. VIII, Dictionary of American Biography.
Turner was a leading instigator in the publication of the Dictionary of
American Biography under the sponsorship of the American Council of Learned
Societies. This bound volume, collected by Turner, contains most of his
correspondence in connection with the project.
TU Vol. IX, Town and Gown Club. A facsimile of a book
entitled "Golden Anniversary Town and Gown, 1878-1928." The Town and Gown Club was
an active organization in Madison, Wisconsin, to which Turner belonged. This book
contains its records and history during his years of membership. His name is listed,
but there are no comments or speeches by him recorded.
TU Vol. X, Diary and Correspondence Relating to Children.
This volume contains several telegrams and letters received by the Turners at
the time of the birth of their first daughter, Dorothy Kinsey Turner, on September
1, 1890. It also contains two diaries that Turner kept to record the day-by-day or
week-by-week development of his children. The first, describing Dorothy Kinsley
Turner, covers the period September 1, 1890 to September 1893. The second, a briefer
document, is a diary of Allen Jackson Turner, June 26, 1892 to October, 1892.
Handwritten on cheap paper mostly by Mrs. Turner.
TU Vol. XI, Journal of Camping Trip. A diary kept by
Mrs. Frederick Jackson Turner during the summer of 1908 when the Turners camped with
Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Van Hise, apparently in the Lake Superior country. Mr. Van Hise
was president of the University of Wisconsin. Handwritten in pencil on small sheets
TU Vol. XII, Household Account Book. Notebook
containing the household accounts, with notes of expenditures, of Mrs. Frederick
Jackson Turner, Cambridge, Massachusetts, for rent, food, etc. Covers parts of 1921
and 1922. Written in pen in Mrs. Turner's hand.
TU Vols. XIII-XVIII, Student Notebooks. Common
notebooks kept by Turner when he was a student at the University of Wisconsin. One
bears notation: "Prof. Allen Hist. of U.S. Fred. J. Turner, Feb. 17, 1883." The
remainder are undated, but presumably of the same period, and probably represent
reading and lecture notes compiled in Professor Allen's course or later during
Turner's graduate school career at Madison. Two notebooks marked "Am. History I
1492-1763," and "American History II 1763-1789," cover the colonial period. Three
more on the "Period of the Republic" deal with aspects of that story: 1) Foreign
Relations to 1820, 2) Political history to the Civil War, and 3) The Slavery
Controversy to 1876. A final notebook covers the Civil War period, with heavy
emphasis on battles.
TU Vol. XIX, Retiring Allowance Correspondence.
Eighteen letters bound in a folder by Turner concerning his allowance on
retirement. Included is the letter appointing him to his first teaching post in
TU Vol. XX, References on the History of the West.
Three copies of the Turner and Merk, List of References on the History of the
West (1920 and 1922), heavily annotated by Turner.
3: File Drawers 1-22
These previously consisted of one bank of eighteen wooden, typewriter-size file
drawers and four steel file drawers, numbered consecutively from one to twenty-two;
now housed in 91 upright holinger boxes, numbered 1-22 and subdivided in consecutive
letters. They contain the wide variety of materials accumulated by Professor Turner
during his lifetime of reading American history: reading notes, occasional lecture
notes, student papers, clippings from newspapers and magazines, maps that he
prepared or found useful, offprints, magazine articles, and sections of books torn
apart to e inserted at appropriate spots. Reference should be made to: TU File
Drawer No. 1A, 1B, etc.
A rough and tentative list of the contents of the various drawers follows:
File Drawers 1 through 9. These contain materials noted
above dealing with the period from early Colonial times to 1850. Contents of the
separate drawers are as follows:
• File Drawer No. 1. New England, 1492-1659; Middle Colonies, 1492-1659, South,
1492-1659, the West, 1492-1659; New England, 1660-1689; Middle Colonies,
• File Drawer No. 2. South, 1660-1689; General, 1690-1763; Middle Atlantic,
1690-1763; South, 1690-1763; New England, 1690-1763.
• File Drawer No. 3. South, 1690-1763; West, 1690-1763; Far West, 1690-1763; General,
1761-1782; New England, 1764-1782; Middle Atlantic, 1764-1782.
• File Drawer No. 4. West, 1764-1782; General, 1783-1788; New England, 1783-1788;
Middle Atlantic, 1783-1788; West, 1783-1788.
• File Drawer No. 5. General, 1789-1818.
• File Drawer No. 6. General, 1789-1818 continued.
• File Drawer No. 7. New England, 1789-1818; Middle Atlantic, 1789-1818; South,
1789-1818; West, 1789-1818; General, 1819-1829; New England, 1819-1829.
• File Drawer No. 8. Middle Atlantic, 1819-1829; South, 1818-1829; Middle West,
1819-1829; Far West, 1818-1829; General, 1830-1850.
• File Drawer No. 9. General, 1830-1850, continued.
File drawer No. 10. This drawer, which is seemingly out
of sequence, was found to contain far more useful material than the earlier drawers.
Principally important are the lecture notes and completed lectures, especially those
for the History of Liberty series given at Harvard University shortly after World
War I. In these Turner reviewed many of his ideas concerning the nature of American
society and its political institutions, often dwelling on his frontier and
sectionalism themes in doing so. The drawer also contains notes for his lectures on
political map studies, as well as a large number of maps that he apparently used for
illustrative purposes while lecturing. The reading notes interspersed among these
materials are largely for the 1830-1850 period.
File Drawers 11 and 12. In these Professor Turner
returned to his chronological sequence, as follows:
• File Drawer No. 11. New England, 1830-1850; Middle Atlantic, 1830-1850; South,
1830-1820; Middle West, 1830-1850; Far West, 1830-1850; General, 1851-1865.
• File Drawer No. 12. New England, 1851-1865; Middle Atlantic, 1851-1865; South,
1851-1865; Middle West, 1851-1865; Far West, 1851-1865.
File Drawer No. 13. This, too, is seemingly out of
place, a position probably explained by the fact that its contents were little used,
and hence were relegated to the lowest level. It contains nothing but the research
notes accumulated by Turner for his never-completed biography of George Rogers
File Drawer No. 14. This drawer, and File Drawer No. 15,
are the two most important for any student of Turner's historical concepts. Drawer
No. 14 was apparently that occasionally referred to by Turner in his correspondence
as the "Sectionalism" drawer; Drawer No. 15 he also sometimes designated as the
"Frontier" drawer. The division, however, is by no means exact, and both drawers
contain extremely valuable material on both subjects. In this drawer are the drafts,
in various stages of completion, of several of his articles on sectionalism, notes
and manuscripts of speeches, fragments of writing on the section, and the like. The
materials have been placed in folders and many of them labeled.
File Drawer No. 15. The contents of this drawer are even
more important than those of Drawer No. 14 for a study of Turner as historian. It
contains drafts of several of his articles, a number of speeches, essays in various
stages of composition, and a wide range of biographical materials. Most of the items
have been placed in folders, and labeled, many in the handwriting of Fulmer Mood.
Any student with limited time available would do well to begin with this drawer,
proceed to File Drawer No. 14 and to File Drawer 10, and then spend such time as
remained on the other drawers in this bank.
File Drawers 16 through 21. In these drawers Professor
Turner filed the results of his reading and research on the period since 1866. They
contain the usual items: reading notes, offprints, segments of books, articles,
magazine clippings, maps, student notes, student papers, and an unusually large
number of newspaper clippings, kept by Turner in his avid reading of contemporary
events. Virtually the only material prepared by Turner in these drawers is his
reading notes, and the drafts, usually first or second, of the sections that he
prepared for the Channing, Hart and Turner Guide. There is little of interest on his
frontier or sectional concepts, but the drawers do illustrate his catholic tastes,
and his wide reading. Occasional research notes are buried midst the clippings,
together with maps and charts that he probably used in teaching. The material
emphasized in individual drawers is as follows:
• File Drawer No. 16. General, 1866 to present.
• File Drawer No. 17. General, 1866 to present.
• File Drawer No. 18. General, 1866 to present.
• File Drawer No. 19. General, 1866 to present.
• File Drawer No. 20. New England, 1866 to present; Middle Atlantic, 1866 to present;
South, 1866 to present; Middle West, 1866 to present. The bulk to the contents are
in the latter category. At rear a few miscellaneous items, including skyscraper
• File Drawer No. 21. The West, 1866 to present. In this drawer materials are
arranged topically, under railroads, mining, cattlemen, agrarian movements, and the
like. Many of the books and articles have been annotated or underlined by Turner,
with his usual red pencil. At the rear of the drawer are several folders marked
"Miscellany" which contain a variety of reading notes, bibliography, etc., dealing
with an earlier period.
File Drawer No. 22. In this drawer are the lecture notes
apparently used by Professor Turner during his last teaching days at Harvard. The
first portion contains notes for a course that begins about 1860 and continues
through Reconstruction; the latter portion contains his notes for the second half of
History 39, spring semester, 1924. These cover the period 1880 to 1920. The notes
for each lecture are usually in rough form, with tables, maps and charts drawn by
Turner to use as illustrative material, and the like. In only a few instances are
the lectures written out in complete form.
4: File Drawers A-L
These previously consisted of one bank of twelve steel file drawers, typewriter paper
size, numbered consecutively A through L; now housed in 45 upright holinger boxes,
numbered A-L and subdivided in consecutive numbers. They contain (with one exception
noted below) the materials used by Professor Turner in writing his last book, The
United States, 1830-1850. Included are, in most instances, his reading notes,
outlines and fragments in Turner's hand, student theses, seminar reports, rough
drafts of maps, charts, and elaborate tables and statistical data on which the maps
were based. Rough drafts of the various parts of chapters are also to be found in
some of the drawers.
A rough and tentative listing of the contents of the various drawers follows: (Cited
as TU File Drawer A1, A2... etc.)
File Drawer A. [In folders at the front of the drawer
are the correspondence between the Huntington Library and Henry Holt & Co.
concerning the publishing of the book, and the accounts of Merrill H. Crissey,
Professor Turner's secretary.] *All Holt correspondence has been placed in TU Box
63.* Then follow drafts of the chapters, usually typed carbons heavily corrected in
Turner's hand. Drafts of the introduction and some other parts of chapters are in
Turner's hand. Each chapter is accompanied by a series of notes and memoranda by the
editors, which admirably illustrate the problems of posthumous publication.
File Drawer B. This contains the rough data and Turner's
notes for political developments during the period covered by the book. The large
quantities of statistical data gathered by Professor Turner as the basis for his
analysis of elections and for the maps of elections and congressional votes provide
admirable evidence of the factual basis for each of his generalizations. This
evidence was too voluminous to be shown in footnotes.
File Drawer C. The material contained in this drawer
deals largely with the public issues of the Jackson-Tyler administrations:
nullification, the tariff, the bank war, the independent treasury, foreign
relations, etc. Included are many copies of documents from archives in the United
States and Europe, in addition to the usual reading notes, seminar reports,
File Drawer D. Included in this drawer are materials for
the later political history of the period 1830-1850. Reading notes, maps, seminar
reports, offprints, documents, etc. are supplemented by a few of Turner's
rough-draft chapters extending through the Polk Administration. The rear of the
drawer contains materials not yet reduced to written form when death intervened,
extending the story to 1850.
File Drawer E. In this drawer are various drafts of the
manuscripts for the Lowell Institute Lectures that Turner delivered in Boston in
1918 on "The United States and its Sections, 1830-1850." Because many pages of the
lectures were later removed to be incorporated in "the" book, most of the lectures
are not complete. Enough of them remain to indicate the scope and interpretation of
File Drawer F. This is devoted to materials for the
chapter of the North Central States, 1830-1850. In contains a draft of the chapter,
as well as the usual notes, maps, reading materials, etc. Specific items such as the
effect of glaciation, population movements, the cost of moving west, and the like,
illustrate again the staggering amount of evidence that underlay each generalization
in the final draft.
File Drawer G. This is also devoted exclusively to
materials on the North Central States, with notes, memos, and manuscript drafts on
such topics a agriculture, transportation, business, banking,and the land system.
These are a number of preliminary drafts in Turner's hand of sections on canals, and
other small parts of the whole.
File Drawer H. In this drawer are comparable materials
dealing with the political and cultural history of the North Central States,
File Drawer I. This drawer contains reading notes and
similar materials for the first five chapters of the book: the introduction, the
United States in 1830, and the discussions of New England, the Middle Atlantic
states, and the South Atlantic states. In each case various drafts of the chapters
or fragments of chapters are filed with the other notes.
File Drawer J. In this are comparable materials for the
chapters on the South Central states and for Texas and the Far West. There are no
drafts of chapters included, but fragments of drafts are tucked in with the other
File Drawer K. This is devoted to materials on the Far
West that formed a basis for the latter part of the Texas and Far West chapter. The
usual reading notes, theses, pamphlets, offprints, etc. deal with such subjects as
Indians, trade, settlement of Oregon, etc.
File Drawer L. Largely compiled after Turner's death,
and having little relation to the other materials in this bank of drawers, this
drawer deals largely with the preparation posthumously of Turner's book of essays on
Sections in American History. Included is the correspondence between the editors and
Henry Holt & Co., the publishers, a folder of permissions from prior publishers
of the materials, copies of each of the original essays sent to the publishers to be
reproduced, and a variety of materials on sectionalism that have no connection with
the book: many maps by Turner, one manuscript on sectionalism, jottings by Turner on
the subject, offprints, articles, and similar materials on the subject.
5. Contents of 3 x 5 Files
The following brief notes on the contents of the drawers are based only on a hurried
examination, and are tentative. They are designed only to provide some introduction
to a 778 rather complex note-taking system. Citation: 3 x 5 File Drawer No. 1.
Drawer No. 1. Internal evidence (handwriting, a few
scattered dates, etc.) suggests that this drawer was compiled and used in the 1890's
and to about 1904. It contains bibliographical notes and brief reading notes on the
social and economic history of the United States, and was perhaps compiled in
connection with Professor Turner's course on that subject, given at the University
of Wisconsin. A number of notes suggest the type of reading that he was doing at the
time of the preparation of the "Frontier" essay. At the rear of the drawer is a
section on "Immigration" apparently of the same period. This was possible collected
when he was preparing the articles on immigration for the Chicago Record-Herald,
Drawer No. 2. This drawer was also probably compiled
during Turner's early teaching career. Material has been added later, however,
distinguished by a later handwriting and differing paper types. Most of the cards
contain bibliographical or reading notes, with the emphasis on sovereignty and
nationalism. The Revolutionary Period receives most attention, but early social
compacts are included as well as some later periods. Probably these notes were
connected with Turner's course on American Constitutional History, given at
Drawer No. 3. A calendar prepared by Turner of three
collections of manuscripts in the Library of Congress: the James Monroe, John Quincy
Adams, and Albert Gallatin papers. Individual cards, arranged chronologically,
describe each manuscript item.
Drawer No. 4. A similar compilation and abstracting of
the papers of James Barbour, Rufus King, and George Clinton, with a chronological
arrangement employed under the heading of each individual. The latter portion of
this drawer also contains a series of bibliography cards on American newspapers, and
others on American public figures in the period 1820-1850.
Drawer No. 5. This drawer contains a bibliography for
the period 1820-1830. Arrangement is topical, with headings under "Gazetteers,"
Drawer No. 6. A chronological file of the period
1820-1830. Cards are arranged by year, and sometimes even by month within the yearly
division. Most of the cards contain brief notes on research, dealing with all of the
public issues of the day. (Note: for the probable use of this material by Turner in
his writing, see note on his methodology, below, immediately after the description
of Drawer No. 21).
Drawer No. 7. This drawer contains research and
bibliographical notes for the period 1820-1830, as does Drawer No. 6. Those in this
drawer are, for the most part, arranged by subject, and deal largely with social,
economic, and political events during the decade.
Drawer No. 8. In this drawer Turner has arranged his
biographical notes on which he based his essay on "The Children of the Pioneers."
The first card in the box has a brief note in Turner's hand suggesting the method
that he was to follow. The drawer is especially interesting in revealing the
staggering amount of detailed work that underlay his statements.
Drawer No. 9. Internal evidence suggests that this
drawer, and those that follow, were for the most part arranged by Turner in his
Harvard period. This drawer contains bibliographical material and brief research
notes on the period from the Civil War to the 1880's, largely during the Grant and
Hayes Administrations. Within each presidential administration, material is arranged
under topical headings: "labor," "tariff," etc.
Drawer No. 10. The contents of this drawer are
comparable to those for Drawer No. 9, but for the period of the Harrison and
Cleveland Administrations. Bibliographical information and brief reading notes are
Drawer No. 11. Bibliographical and reading notes,
arranged topically, for the period since 1900.
Drawer No. 12. This contains a variety of material,
largely bibliographic. Included, moving from the front to the rear of the drawer,
are: a topical bibliography for the period 1865-1910, a bibliography on economic
history, largely in this period, a bibliography on immigration and racial groups,
apparently compiled later than that in Drawer No. 1; a small packet of cards held by
a clip containing notes that appear to be related to Turner's early research and
thought on sectionalism; and a miscellaneous bibliography dealing largely with the
Note: The remaining drawers in the file were those used by Turner in writing his
United States, 1830-1850. Their purpose will be made clear only after reading the
following note on Turner's methodology and writing techniques. This was sent by
Merrill H. Crissey, his secretary, to Avery Craven, on July 5, 1932, and is in TU
Box 49, Correspondence, June 11-Dec., 1933:
"Throughout the dictated portion of the book (including all the chapters on
Presidential Administrations), the procedure, in the case of each chapter, was,
first, to make a chronological card file of the raw material. Earlier researches had
yielded a mass of notes, partly on cards (3" x 5", white), partly on paper. The
former were at once put into a pasteboard-box file, by date; the latter were
transferred to cards, which likewise went into the file. Additional cards were then
prepared; material for these came from both secondary works (general histories and
biographies --for a skeleton of events --and special studies deemed valuable for a
particular phase of the narrative) and sources (principally the writings of
political leaders, the debates in Congress, and contemporary journals). Guide cards,
in color, were used for the years and months. Subject tabs (improved from gummed
manila paper) were affixed to note cards bearing on topics or events of chief
importance. This arrangement of notes made it easy to bring together material on any
outstanding subject an d facilitated correlations. The file of notes was
supplemented by sectional tabulations of Presidential-election votes and important
votes in Congress."
Mr. Crissey goes on to explain that Turner dictated from these notes, with the first
draft recorded in triple-space; the resulting manuscript was then corrected and
revised in several more versions.
The following listing of the contents of drawers used in the compilation of this book
uses the words employed by Turner in labeling each of the cardboard boxes from which
the notes were transferred to the metal file cases:
Drawer No. 13. "Correlation 1827-35."
Drawer No. 14. "Campaign 1836 and Topics."
Drawer No. 15. "1836 by States."
Drawer No. 16. "1837."
Drawer No. 17. "1838, 1839, 1840."
Drawer No. 18. "1841-1843."
Drawer No. 19. "Administration of James K. Polk,
1845-1849." In addition to the research notes referred to in Mr. Crissey's note
above, the drawers of this series contain occasional small maps drawn by Turner,
usually of congressional votes.
6: Black Boxes Nos. 1-14
The materials in these fourteen black boxes were apparently arranged by Mr. Merrill
h. Crissey, Professor Turner's secretary, either before or after Turner's death.
They consist of offprints, clippings from magazines and newspapers, pamphlets, small
booklets, and an occasional student paper. Many of the items have been heavily
underlined or annotated by Turner, and are valuable in indicating the nature of his
historical reading and thinking. The items are numbered throughout, in Mr. Crissey's
hand, from 1 to 298; the numbers that follow the drawer numbers below refer to this
classification. Suggested form of citation: TU Black Box No. 1 (1-25), Item 1.
Box No. 1 (1-25) Material dealing with the origin and
outbreak of the Civil War. In some instances heavily annotated and with side
comments by Turner.
Box No. 2 (26-40) Continuation of materials on the Civil
War. In addition to the usual offprints, clippings, pamphlets, etc., this box
contains three student papers prepared in Turner's courses.
Box No. 3 (41-64) A continuation of Civil War materials,
with emphasis on military events. one student paper, from Turner's Harvard period,
Box No. 4 (65-83) Largely magazine clippings, but with a
few additional items, dealing with the military history of the Civil War. Greatest
emphasis is on the Battle of Gettysburg.
Box No. 5 (84-100) A continuation of materials on the
military history of the Civil War, with later battles emphasized.
Box No. 6 (101-110) Materials dealing with diplomatic
aspects of the Civil War.
Box No. 7 (111-138) Reprints, pamphlets, clippings and
the like concerning the early phases of Reconstruction, and particularly the
administration of Andrew Johnson.
Box No. 8 (139-159) A continuation of materials of
reconstruction, with some also on the purchase of Alaska.
Box No. 9 (160-168) Miscellaneous materials, having
little relationship to contents of earlier boxes. Two items deserve special mention.
One is a series of pages clipped from the 1890 census report containing the
well-known passage on the closing of the frontier, underlined by Turner. The other
is an 1891 advance sheet on the 1890 census, dealing with the spread of population
between 1790-1890. (Items 163 and 164).
Box No. 10 (169-206) Pamphlets, magazine articles, and
newspaper clippings on technological developments and especially on the depletion of
natural resources in relation to growing population needs. Source materials for
Clark University address.
Box No. 11 (207-228) Materials dealing with political
history after Reconstruction, and emphasizing the Progressive Period. The last items
are on labor and immigration history and policies for the period.
Box No. 12 (229-249) Materials on labor are continued
from the last box; this box also contains items on the South in the twentieth
century. Newspaper clippings are more numerous than in many earlier boxes.
Box No. 13 (250-274) Beginning with a few items on the
South, this box also contains some materials on the Pacific Northwest and the
northern Great Plains. A few items deal with foreign policy in the twentieth
Box No. 14 (275-298) Clippings predominate in this box,
on politics in the 1880's and 1920's.
The following items are included in the collection of Turner papers:
Maps. Maps drawn or used by Turner are in two
filing-case size drawers. These include many political maps ofir others of a like
nature used to illustrate his sectionalism concept. Note: In addition to the maps in
these two drawers, hundreds of others are scattered through the large file drawers
containing his research and reading notes.
Student Thesis. One large file drawer contains a number
of theses prepared in Turner's classes and seminars. These have been arranged
alphabetically and labeled by Merrill H. Crissey, Mr. Turner's secretary. They have
also been dated where this is possible. Note: Many other theses, term papers, and
seminar reports prepared in Professor Turner's classes are scattered through File
Drawers 1-22 and A-L.
Lantern Slides. The lantern slides used by Turner in his
teaching and lectures are collected in nine special boxes. These are apparently
exactly as they were left by Turner, with one box containing slides for the lecture
given at Pasadena, probably untouched since the lecture was given. Many of the
slides are of political maps, elections, congressional votes, etc., prepared by
Ephemera. Miscellaneous materials having only a remote
connection to Turner's career as teacher or scholar have been assembled in a flat
cardboard box labeled "Ephemera." Most of these are of little value to the student.
Included are many of the advertisements and similar material received through the
mails after his death.
8: Index cards
These index cards consist of typewritten and handwritten notes regarding Turner and
There are roughly eight sections in this collection: 1) Correspondence and
Documents, 2) Manuscript Volumes, 3) File Drawers 1-22, 4) File Drawers A-L, 5)
3 x 5 File Drawers 1-19, 6) Black Boxes 1-14, 7) Miscellaneous, 8) Index
Jackson, 1861-1932--Frontier in American history
Henry E. Huntington
Library and Art Gallery
Frontier and pioneer life--United
Sectionalism (United States)
and government--19th century
Manuscripts for publication--United