Troy Cook Daniels, Pharmaceutical Chemistry: San Francisco

Professor Emeritus

Troy Cook Daniels, dean emeritus of the School of Pharmacy, died on February 9, 1985, bringing to an end a lifetime of service to the profession of pharmacy and pharmacy education. During a period of profound changes in pharmacy education in the United States, he became recognized as a leading figure for advancing the professional role for pharmacists. His important contributions could be attributed, in large part, to the curricular changes he initiated at his own institution that led to the preeminence of the School of Pharmacy and it becoming a model for other schools.

Troy Daniels graduated with the bachelor of science degree in pharmacy from the University of Michigan in 1923 and accepted an interim teaching appointment at the Washington State College in Pullman, Washington, where he taught pharmacy and pharmaceutical chemistry. Subsequently, he returned to the Midwest and received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Indiana University in 1928. He then accepted a call from the California College of Pharmacy in San Francisco. Located at its present site on Parnassus Heights since 1898, the college was then affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley. Under affiliation the college was financed and managed by an independent board of trustees, and the degree was conferred by the University. Full integration into the University occurred in 1934.

When Troy Daniels came to San Francisco in 1929, the college offered either a two- or three-year program in pharmacy. Most students enrolled in the two-year curriculum, which required half-a-day attendance several days a week, permitting them to engage in full-time employment. The courses were taught by practicing pharmacists who had received their education in similar programs. At the end of the course, graduates took the State Board examination. However, a five-year apprenticeship without college attendance also qualified prospective pharmacists to take the examination. During these early years the school was not accredited, but

Troy Daniels lived to see the fruits of his innovation when, soon after World War II, the school by consensus became, and is considered to be the outstanding School of Pharmacy in the nation.

Troy Daniels' initial academic appointment was as assistant professor of pharmacy. In 1933, he was promoted and his title was changed to professor of pharmaceutical chemistry. This change of appointment coincided with action strengthening the subject of pharmaceutical chemistry in the curriculum, in which he was the prime mover. In 1934, a four-year baccalaureate program in pharmacy was instituted, and in 1958, the program was changed to a six-year program leading to the doctor of pharmacy degree, consisting of two years of prepharmacy at a general campus and four years of professional study in the School of Pharmacy in San Francisco. If imitation is indeed the sincerest form of flattery, the fact that all 72 U.S. colleges of pharmacy have either adopted or are now considering a similar program, some thirty years later, is an indication of the position Troy Daniels held in determining the course of pharmaceutical education.

Early in his career, Troy Daniels developed a philosophy, relative to pharmacy education, which he maintained throughout his career. He emphasized the concept that a pharmacist has a unique service to offer, based upon familiarity with the physical and chemical properties of medicinal agents and the mechanisms by which they exert their therapeutic and toxic actions. Furthermore, he proposed that the best way for pharmacy students to receive such training was to have the basic science courses in the physical and biological sciences taught by instructors who are experts in the particular discipline. As a result of his insistence, people with doctorates in organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, physics, plant physiology, human anatomy, physiology, microbiology, pathology, and parasitology were added either as full- or part-time faculty members of the School of Pharmacy. Such an approach was highly unusual, if not unique, in the early 1930s. Today it is the normal pattern in all schools of pharmacy.

Troy Daniels also had a strong impact on graduate education in pharmaceutical chemistry. In 1939, he helped to establish a program that led to the M.S. and Ph.D. in pharmaceutical chemistry which has since grown from three students to 64. Recognizing the connection between the physical and chemical properties of drugs and their biological activities, the graduate program was and continues to be interdisciplinary in nature, requiring competence in both physical and biological sciences. The wisdom of this approach was demonstrated in 1960 when the school was awarded one of the first three NIH training grants in pharmaceutical chemistry. And when, in 1962, the American Pharmaceutical Association Foundation established research achievement awards in five selected fields, three of the first recipients recognized were from the San Francisco faculty. During his tenure as dean, several other faculty members and graduate students received the Ebert

Prize for the most outstanding research published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. His many scientific research papers and his pioneering chapter on the mechanism of drug action in the most widely used text in pharmaceutical chemistry further testify to his personal involvement in research and graduate education.

Troy Daniels became dean of the college in 1944, having served as assistant dean for seven years. He was clearly the leader of the faculty and was in contact with pharmacy practitioners and educators throughout the country. In those interactions with others, he quickly proved himself and took leadership roles in a number of organizations. He was a member of the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) from 1927 until his death, serving as chairman of the House of Delegates in 1956-57, as a member of the board of trustees of the APhA Foundation from 1963 to 1969, as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences from 1959 to 1966, and was made honorary president in 1967-68. He served as president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy in 1952-53, and as a member of the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (the agency which accredits schools of pharmacy) from 1945 to 1953. He was a member of the board of trustees of the first prepaid prescription insurance plan which grew to be the largest service organization of its type in the world.

In 1962, he was the first recipient of the APhA Foundation Achievement Award for the Advancement of Pharmacy. In 1967, both the University of California and his alma mater, the University of Michigan, bestowed upon him the honorary doctoral degree.

After World War II, he was one of five members of the APhA delegation invited to Japan to assist them in rebuilding the pharmaceutical education system in that country. As a consequence, he was made one of the few foreign members of the Japanese Pharmaceutical Association and was held in high regard by pharmaceutical educators throughout Japan. After his retirement, Dean Emeritus Daniels remained active in national and international committees as consultant to the pharmaceutical industry and as an author. He also carried out various assignments for the University.

The influence of Troy Daniels was such that he was the personification of pharmacy in all its facets during more than half a century. He was a leader who maintained his leadership by friendly persuasion and personal involvement with each of the people with whom he worked. Anger and outbursts of disapproval were generally foreign to his nature. He was a warmhearted and caring man; though he was not without opponents in his many forays, he had no enemy. To the faculty he was pater familias, and throughout his career he enjoyed the enduring respect, loyalty, and affection of his faculty and staff. Although he retired as dean almost two decades ago, his presence was always with us, and his concern for those who

worked with him never abated. On the occasion of his retirement as dean, the then president of the American Pharmaceutical Association spoke for all who knew him when he said: “It is a joy to honor you, Troy. But we do it with regret, for we know that an uncommon man like you will not soon come among us again.”

J.E. Goyan J.C. Craig E.L. Way