The Centennial Record of the University of California, 1868-1968.
A Centennial Publication of the University of California.
Compiled and Edited by Verne A. Stadtman and the Centennial Publications Staff
A large, modern American university has too many dimensions to fit comfortably into traditional forms of written description. Chronology deceives because some university divisions are at once young in years but mature in function and development. Enumeration of constituents is misleading because university people are different people in different circumstances--now administrators, then scholars, at other times teachers or alumni. Spatial dimensions are meaningless because they are transcended always by the knowledge that is carried to every corner of the earth and even into the heavens by men and women who have partaken of the university's educational offerings.
Despite these difficulties, we resolved to attempt a thorough description of the University of California in one of the publications prepared in celebration of its centennial. This somewhat unusual book is the result of that resolve. Used as a reference book, it yields information about many specific University achievements and endeavors. As a total record, it enables the reader to view the University of California from several different perspectives. However it is used, it is perhaps most significant as a summary of truly magnificent achievements of the people of California who, in return for their generous support, have demanded that their state University aspire always to the highest attainments.
This book commemorates the centennial of the University of California by exposition. Here, in facts unadorned by compliments and arranged for convenient reference, the University speaks for itself.
ARRANGEMENT: The arrangement of this record makes possible an overview of the complete University as well as close-ups of some of its major components. Items are arranged alphabetically at two levels. At the “primary” level are found articles that can be read and understood without dependence upon information contained in other items. Primary articles are frequently followed by one or more “secondary” presentations. These are other articles, rosters, or tables which amplify and provide specific information about some part of the subject discussed in the primary article. Each campus of the University is the subject of a primary article. These campus articles always begin on a new page and are introduced with larger than usual headings.
INDEX AND CROSS REFERENCE: A topical index is included at the back of the volume. Cross reference titles appear in bold face type in their normal alphabetical sequence when they refer to a topic discussed under a different (e.g., more current) title. Significant words in any topic title mentioned in the text will often be set in capital and small capital letters to indicate that the reader will find a primary article on that topic in its normal alphabetical sequence.
AUTHORS: Articles and exhibits contained in the Centennial Record have been prepared by contributors and by members of the Centennial Publications staff. Those articles signed with initials were prepared by staff members. Articles written by contributors are signed with their names. A list of contributors is included in the appendix.
DOCUMENTATION: Documentary references are noted after most primary articles. Further documentation for many secondary articles is available in the Centennial Record manuscript files (University of California Archives, Berkeley). Contributors hold first responsibility for accuracy of articles appearing over their signatures. All staff-prepared articles and exhibits have been reviewed before publication by appropriate authorities.
CHRONOLOGY OF PREPARATION: Most articles in the Centennial Record were prepared between January 1, 1965 and January 31, 1966. In a very few instances, and notably in items concerning the composition of the Board of Regents, it was possible to update information while the book was being printed. Such changes were made as recently as January, 1967.
THE STAFF: The Centennial Record is actually the product of a diligent and able core staff of five people assisted as needs required by students, students' wives, and others who came to help. Our historical consultant: Miss May Dornin. Our writers: Miss Janis P. Hull, Mr. Edward H. Franklin, Mrs. Harriet S. Nathan, Miss Mary Anne Stewart, Mr. Richard H. Colton, and Mr. Channing L. Grigsby. Our secretaries: Mrs. Mary Roberta Orme and Mrs. Katherine Jacobs. Typists and clerks: Miss Patricia J. Anderson, Miss Valerie M. Brooks, Mrs. Susan V. Dunn, Victor Fischer, Miss Joyce F. Hayes, Miss Susan Howard, Miss Louise A. Reed, Mrs. Rochelle N. Silliman, Mrs. Edith Slater, and Mrs. Linda F. Tansey.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The compilation of the Centennial Record has required the assistance of hundreds of people--as authors, as information sources, as reviewers, and as consultants. We are deeply grateful for the help of all of them.
We are especially grateful to the lady and ten gentlemen who served as our liaison on the campuses. They are: Robert Bynum, Davis; Donald Clark, Santa Cruz; Wayne Clark, Irvine; Mrs. Helen Freeland, Riverside; Cy Greaves, San Diego; Andrew Hamilton (assisted by Virginia Carew and Judith Franklin), Los Angeles; Richard Hafner, Berkeley; Robert Kelley, Santa Barbara; Thomas Manar, San Diego; Ernest Miller, Davis; and Dr. Ian Monie, San Francisco. Although all of these people held full-time jobs when President Clark Kerr asked them to help us, they soon became ex officio members of the Centennial Publications staff ... drafting articles, collecting information, prodding delinquent authors, checking and rechecking manuscripts. The Centennial Record simply could not have been produced without them.
|VERNE A. STADTMAN|
A Brief History of the University of California
The hope for a University of California was expressed at the first Constitutional Convention in Monterey in 1849--a year after the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill and a year before California's admission to the union. But the new state, for all of its apparent wealth, lacked the means to support government and education. To fill the vacuum, private schools and academies sprang up. Among the founders was a handful of churchmen sent by the American Home Missionary Society of New York to minister to human souls in the mining camps and boom towns. They opened the Contra Costa Academy in Oakland in 1853. Two years later, it was incorporated as the COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA. Through a transfer of its buildings and lands to the state, this institution gave impetus to the creation of the University of California.
Supporters in those early years included the Rev. Samuel H. Willey, who had arrived in 1849 for work in the territorial capital of Monterey; Sherman Day, the son of Yale's President Jeremiah Day; the Rev. Henry Durant of Yale--who was to become head of the College of California and first President of the University; and the Rev. Dr. Horace Bushnell, who came to California for his health but devoted his visit to a search for a site for the future university.
Land and a Charter
Debt stalked the College of California from the beginning and bill collectors routinely waylaid Durant in the streets of Oakland.
Despite intense dedication on the part of Durant, the students, trustees, and friends of the college, the future remained doubtful.
In 1853, Congress had bestowed upon the state 46,000 acres of public lands, proceeds of the sale of which were to be used for a “seminary of learning.”
In 1862, the MORRILL ACT offered a grant of public lands to each state that would establish a college teaching agriculture and the mechanic arts--and California's share was 150,000 acres. Taking advantage of this grant, the legislature in 1866 established an AGRICULTURAL, MINING AND MECHANICAL ARTS COLLEGE.
The new college had funds but no campus. The College of California bad an adequate site, but limited funds. Therefore, when the College of California in 1867 offered its buildings and lands to the state on condition that a “complete university” be established to teach the humanities as well as agriculture, mining, and mechanics, the legislature accepted. The act of 1866 was repealed, and a new act passed. Signed by Governor H. H. Haight on March 23, 1868--Charter Day--the new act created the University of California.
The college property, in addition to the Oakland site, included land for a new campus among the oak trees and open fields, four miles to the north.
After prolonged deliberation by leaders of the university movement, the surrounding townsite was named for George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, who had visited America in 1729 in the hope of founding an educational institution for the evangelization and education of “aboriginal Americans.” Finding the time not right, he provided the model for Columbia University and endowed three scholarships at Yale.
He is the author of the poem whose lines bold a special meaning for Californians:
|“Westward the course of empire takes its way;|
|The four first acts already past.|
|A fifth shall close the drama with the day;|
|Time's noblest offspring is the last.”|
The act establishing the University entrusted its organization and government to a corporate body entitled the REGENTS Of the University of California.
The “tiny band of scholars” on hand when the University opened in Oakland in 1869 included ten faculty members and 40 students. Several of the students had been enrolled in the College of California. Graduates of the college legally became alumni of the University in 1868. Of the University charter class, 12 were graduated in 1873, to be known thereafter as “The Twelve Apostles.”
Classes began at Berkeley in 1873 on completion of North and South Halls (the latter building still stands).
The Regents of the University touched off a furor when they elected as first President Civil War General George B. McClellan, who had opposed Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency of the United States in 1864.
General McClellan declined the honor, however, and in 1870
The act establishing the University provided that, “for the time being, an admission fee and rates of tuition such as the board of regents shall deem expedient, may be required of each pupil ... As soon as the income shall permit, admission and tuition shall be free to all residents of the State.” Thus, three months after opening the University, the Regents abolished tuition. Although repeated attempts to reimpose it have been made, the University remains tuition-free to California residents.
A different type of charge--an incidental fee--was levied to cover the cost of student services, including health care. This fee has risen through the years as the variety and cost of such services have increased.
The original plan of the University to admit men only was changed by the Regents in 1870 and 17 women registered that fall. Four years later, President Gilman was to remark that the proportion of women who ranked high in scholarship was greater than that of men.
In 1872, Durant resigned, stating be believed a younger man could better advance the interests of the University. Once again the Regents turned to Daniel Coit Gilman of Yale who, this time, accepted the appointment.
A distinguished educator sought by many universities, Gilman served the University of California for three turbulent years.
Dissension rose on every side and, for a time, the critics and enemies of the University jeopardized its very existence. Criticism centered on the relative emphases to be laid, or being laid, on the literary, agricultural, and scientific departments, and on the use of funds. Competing segments of the state's young economy pressed their interests.
A legislative investigation of alleged mismanagement of the University's land-grant funds was undertaken. Although it resulted in the return of a clean ledger, it affirmed that there bad been a want of clear understanding both as to the grant and the management of the University.
Because of these frustrations President Gilman offered his resignation in 1874, but was dissuaded by the Regents. The following year, however, the offer of the presidency of Johns Hopkins University was too great a temptation and he accepted it.
In the perspective of history, Gilman's ability to articulate the role of a university stands out.
Between 1874 and 1899, the University would have five presidents: John LeConte, 1874-81; William T. Reid, 1881-85; Edward S. Holden, 1885-87; Horace Davis, 1888-90; and Martin Kellogg, 1893-94 (acting, 1890-93).
The University's financial problems seemed endless.
In 1887, the legislature levied a cent of tax on every $100 of taxable property in the state. A decade later, the tax advanced to two cents; yet, in the early years, it was seldom easy to get the necessary appropriations for the University.
Many years were to pass, too, before the citizens of California gave large donations to their University; but even the smallest of those first gifts was important. In 1871, for example, a gift of $500 bought a modern encyclopedia and numerous volumes of history and literature.
As Californians began to feel a personal pride in the University, there began a tradition of generous private support that has made possible the steady climb to eminence. Indeed, most of the early buildings on the Berkeley campus were the result of gifts; and up until 1940, more than half of all the lands and buildings of the University came from sources other than state appropriation.
The first large benefaction came from the Honorable Edward Tompkins of Oakland, one of the first Regents. Aware of the new commerce opening up between California and the Orient, he gave property--to be held until it became worth $50,000--for the endowment of the Agassiz Professorship of Oriental Languages.
The first foreign student enrolled at the University at around the turn of the century. Three decades later, the University received a gift of $1,750,000 from John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to establish an International House at Berkeley. (Today, the University's foreign student enrollment of 4,000 is the largest in the nation.)
The University's first great scientific station--the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton--was a nineteenth-century gift from a colorful San Franciscan, James Lick. The observatory, which is the site of a 120-inch telescope, the second largest in the world, is famed for its research into the evolution of stars, the history of the galaxy, and other mysteries of space that have intrigued mankind. (Lick now is operated by the new Santa Cruz campus.)
A gift of immense importance was that of Dr. Hugh H. Toland, who, in 1873, gave the Toland Medical College in San Francisco, consisting of property worth about $100,000, to the University.
Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco was established by the legislature with generous financial assistance from judge Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first chief justice of California, who paid $100,000 into the state treasury on condition that the state pay annual interest of seven per cent toward maintaining the school.
Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst, who became a Regent in 1897, was a benefactress of great generosity. In 1891, she endowed five scholarships for “worthy young women.” Later, she provided funds for the University's first comprehensive building plan and endowed two buildings at Berkeley, including the Hearst Memorial Mining Building which is dedicated to the memory of her husband, Senator George Hearst.
Mrs. Jane K. Sather, in memory of her husband Peder--who had been a trustee of the College of California--endowed two professorships and gave to the campus two of its enduring landmarks, Sather Tower (the Campanile), and Sather Gate.
These were but a few of the generous benefactions so important to the University in the early decades.
Growth for the Twentieth Century
The approach of a new century brought a quicker tempo and a broadening responsiveness by the University to the needs of the state and nation.
Although the first two years of undergraduate study continued to be general in nature, the variety of upper division courses rapidly increased to meet the requirements of a developing society.
Isolated by geography from the great eastern centers of learning, the University was developing the distinctive Californian characteristics of restlessness and seam-bursting vigor. Agriculture, the humanities, and most of all, engineering, were to form the bases of its early claims to fame.
Scholars and scientists of international reputation were attracted to Berkeley. Eugene W. Hilgard, one of the nation's great geologists and soil chemists, joined the faculty in 1875 and laid the foundations of the College of Agriculture. Five years earlier, the Regents had recognized the need for agricultural extension by authorizing “the Professor of Agriculture” to visit as many agricultural centers in the state as possible and extend to them the advantages of the college.
Samuel B. Christy became dean of the College of Mining in 1885, with the responsibility of laying out laboratories for one of the first adequately equipped mining schools in the world. Under his direction, the reputation of the college was firmly established; soon students were coming from lands as distant as Peru and South Africa. Frank H. Probert, an English mining engineer, who became dean in 1917, continued the tradition of strong leadership.
The College of Civil Engineering also performed notable service in the building up of the young state. Shortly after the turn of the century, engineering added a Department of Irrigation headed by the international authority, Elwood Mead, whose advice was constantly in demand by countries plagued with the problems of dry climate. Later on, under Charles Derleth, the college would be called upon by the federal government in the planning stages of such mammoth projects as the Hoover Dam.
Science, in the early years, was mainly centered in the College of Chemistry where the foundations were well laid by a few eminent scientists. In 1912, Gilbert N. Lewis joined the staff to serve with distinction as professor of physical chemistry and dean of the college.
By the middle 1890's, Charles Mills Gayley was building an English department that would become famous. Henry Morse Stephens, before his death in 1919--and after him, Herbert E. Bolton--made the study of history and California seem almost synonymous. Alexis Lange, who became dean of the School of Education, was the father of the junior college plan so widely followed today.
San Franciscans were eager to develop trade with the Orient and Berkeley's College of Commerce was originally intended to train young men for the export trade. Almost immediately, however, it enjoyed a more broadly based success. Industry and business throughout the state, it turned out, also wanted college-trained men. The opening of the Panama Canal in 1915 stimulated California's commerce with Europe and South America, resulting in still greater enrollments in the college.
Secretary of State Elihu Root, in the first decade of the new century, called attention to the poor quality of America's consular officers, then largely political appointees, and the University responded with a course for the training of foreign service personnel.
Among new departments created early in the century were anatomy, anthropology, architecture, biochemistry, household art, household science, hygiene, physiology, Sanskrit, and Slavic languages. There was a vigorous expansion of existing departments. The Department of History and Political Science became three: history, political science, and economics.
The University summer sessions, begun in 1899 to train teachers in physics and chemistry, met with an enthusiastic response.
Benjamin Ide Wheeler--a distinguished scholar, a man of immense vigor--came to the University as its President in 1899--and served in that capacity for 20 years. They were booming years for the University and President Wheeler seemed ideally suited to the times.
“The only thing that is of interest to me in a university,” he said, “is men and women.”
And although he saw the intimate relation of the University to the state, the importance of research, the necessity of a great library and spacious buildings (and was himself one of the University's most persuasive fund-raisers), he regarded the primary role of higher learning as the development of character.
Self-government by the student body had begun in 1887 when the Associated Students of the College of Letters and Science was organized. Early generations of students were a lively lot, and it was President Wheeler who initiated a system that finally proved satisfactory to all. Under “senior rule,” the senior class became the real disciplinary and law-making body. So effective did this system prove that the faculty in practice gave up all but an advisory role.
Shortly after Wheeler's Presidency, the faculty itself demanded a freer rein in the control of its affairs on the premise that if students could be trusted with self-government, so could their elders. This won for the Academic Senate the right to set its own rules, select its own members, and appoint its committees.
When Wheeler came to the University, there had been 2,600 students; by his retirement in 1919, the number had almost tripled.
During that period, the University began the lateral growth that has accelerated through the years. The University Farm School was established at Davis, the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside, the Scripps Institution for Biological Research at La Jolla, and the HOOPER FOUNDATION for Medical Research in San Francisco. The Southern Branch of the University at Los Angeles was just coming into being. University Extension, which had been established in 1892, matured rapidly during President Wheeler's administration.
Graduate work expanded and was formally recognized in the establishment of the Graduate Division.
In the main, however, President Wheeler is remembered for what he himself regarded as a university's noblest work--the building of responsible and enlightened citizens.
Growth of the Campuses
By 1923, the University of California led the universities of the United States and the world in enrollment with 14,061 full-time students--surpassing that of Columbia University.
By the end of the 1920's, it had conferred more than 40,000 degrees. Its alumni included four governors of California and several United States senators and congressmen. Other graduates were occupying positions of responsibility in all avenues of life and in many parts of the world.
In terms of academic and scientific achievement, the University was not yet among the vanguard of the nation's great centers of learning; but it would rapidly achieve this status.
Westward migration was swelling the population of California and the University was hard-pressed to grow quickly
The reaction from the Regents was, “It doesn't seem to be enough.” Thereupon, President Barrows increased the deficit to $670,000 and received the Board's approval.
An initiative measure which would have provided an income from the state of more than $4 million was submitted to the voters in 1920. Although failing to pass by a narrow margin, it paved the way for financial aid by legislative act a few months later.
The geographic size and shape of the state and the growth pattern of its cities created need not only for a large campus at Los Angeles, but for smaller ones to serve other regions. For these new campuses, there would not be the protracted growing pains that had accompanied the development of Berkeley. The need was better established in the public mind. Legislatures were generous in their support; alumni and other citizens gave liberally of the “extra” that make the difference between the merely adequate and the exceptional.
Today there are nine campuses, BERKELEY, DAVIS, IRVINE, LOS ANGELES, RIVERSIDE, SAN FRANCISCO, SAN DIEGO, SANTA BARBARA, and SANTA CRUZ, and more than 100 research stations and affiliated schools and activities. They span and crisscross the state of California, from a peak in the Sierra Nevada (the White Mountain Research Station) to below sea level in the Imperial Valley (an agricultural field station).
The Modern University
William Wallace Campbell, a professor of astronomy and for many years director of Lick Observatory, served as President of the University in the important years 1923-30.
His administration was characterized by steady growth and rising enrollments, the latter trend continuing even when the on-set of the Depression foreshadowed a curtailment of physical development.
Until the 1930's, the University remained a lively but predominantly regional institution. If one year can be said to have marked a turning point, it was 1934. That year the American Council of Education asked 2,000 leading scholars of the United States to analyze the graduate schools of the nation's universities.
The survey covered 36 fields of learning. Universities were rated on the basis of their “distinguished” or “adequate” departments. For the first time, the Ivy League was compelled to acknowledge serious competition in the west. California rated as many distinguished and adequate departments as any university in the country.
In 1930, Robert Gordon Sproul became the first native Californian and alumnus of the University to serve as its President.
He was to guide its fortunes longer than any of his predecessors--through three cataclysmic decades that included the Depression, World War II, and the birth of the atomic bomb. And he was to see the University attain world renown for scientific achievement in a period when the body of scientific knowledge began to expand at a rate unprecedented in history.
A graduate of the Berkeley campus with a degree in engineering, Sproul became vice-president and comptroller at the age of 34. In addition, he served as secretary of the Regents. As an undergraduate at the University, he had been active in student affairs and athletics; as President, he demonstrated an intuitive grasp of the problems of the undergraduate.
None exceeded him in skill at winning over legislative critics and converting them into staunch allies of the University.
When President Sproul assumed office, the University had become the first major institution in the country to expand to a multi-campus plan. The problem of maintaining unity of purpose and spirit among the diverse segments had assumed major proportions.
For many years, President Sproul spent about half of his time at Berkeley, a third at Los Angeles, and the rest among the other campuses. In 1936, he and his family transferred their main residence to Los Angeles for a year.
The burden of his tasks was somewhat lightened in the early 1950's when considerable local autonomy was granted to the chancellors at Berkeley and Los Angeles and to the provosts and directors on the other campuses.
Two of his innovations, designed to forge a stronger unity among the campuses, have become part of the University's traditions; the annual conference of the California Club, which enables student leaders from each campus to meet, exchange ideas, and explore common problems; and the annual All-University Faculty Conference, which serves a similar function for the faculty.
With a view to insuring academic excellence, President Sproul from the beginning hammered away at a single theme. The University of California must be able to compete for top faculty members--not merely with other universities in California but with the leading institutions in the country. His powers of persuasion in the legislature were such that UC was able to match, in salaries and in the facilities for teaching and research, the best that the eastern universities could offer. Over the years, he attracted a brilliant array of talent in virtually every branch of learning. Thus it was possible for the University, while expanding horizontally, to maintain quality.
In 1929, Ernest O. Lawrence had invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, the first of a succession of “atom-smashers,” in recognition of which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. This in turn was the first of a succession of Nobel Prizes to come to members of the faculty.
The University contribution to national defense began in the late 1930's. With the advent of World War II, every campus became a center of research and training. Thousands of members of the academic community were granted leave to engage in war work, to join the armed forces, or to devote full time to scientific research. Under the University War Training Program, the campuses and UNIVERSITY EXTENSION undertook the technical training of manpower for California war industries. Vitally needed research went into the improvement of nutrition for the civilian and military population, into medicine and public health, the social and physical sciences. Out of this effort came major breakthroughs, notably in the health and physical sciences.
The University-operated LOS ALAMOS Scientific Laboratory produced the first atomic bombs, whose use toward the end of World War II came as a shocking revelation of man's power to destroy. Soon, however, the nation's hopes could turn toward peaceful uses of this vast new potential of energy, and primarily they would turn toward the universities.
For the University in those years, there were many measures of greatness. The faculty had long led in the number of recipi
The library at Berkeley, although sixth in size, ranked third best in the nation for the quality of its collections, with only the Library of Congress and Harvard Library leading. The UCLA library, one of the youngest in the country, was also one of the most rapidly growing, having passed the one-million mark in 1953.
Physical development of the campuses, which had lagged during the depression and been further delayed by war, would boom during the 1940's and 1950's. It had to, for the University anticipated an immediate peak in the form of huge veteran enrollments and a subsequent period of sustained growth. Between 1944 and 1958, the University acquired the Santa Barbara campus and developed liberal arts colleges at Davis and Riverside. The Medical School at Los Angeles was begun in that period. Meanwhile, graduate programs were expanding rapidly and there was great demand for postdoctoral training in the medical and physical sciences.
In California and throughout the nation, a new tide was running in student demand for college admission. At the beginning of Sproul's long Presidency, new state and junior colleges had started springing up everywhere. Each session of the California legislature brought greater pressure and competition for new campuses and budgets. President Sproul recognized that, unless means could be found for their orderly development, the institutions of public higher education faced a potentially disastrous course of competition.
He saw this as a national problem but one that held particular urgency for rapidly growing California. In 1931, he had persuaded the Regents and the legislature to provide matching funds for a study by the Carnegie Institute. The result was one of three studies. The others: the Strayer Committee Report, authorized by the legislature in 1947; A Restudy of the Needs of California in Higher Education, authorized in 1953. during ensuing decades that led, finally, to the Master Plan for Higher Education in California, 1960-75.
Robert Gordon Sproul retired in 1958. As President Emeritus of the University, he makes his office in a building named in his honor. He was succeeded by Clark Kerr, formerly Chancellor at Berkeley.
* The others: the Strayer Committee Report, authorized by the legislature in 1947; A Restudy of the Needs of California in Higher Education, authorized in 1953.
The Master Plan
By 1958, the University had 44,000 students and foresaw that its enrollment would rise to almost 120,000 by 1975. A modest projection, as later became apparent. Facilities would need to be tripled in that period.
The state and junior colleges also needed new classrooms and campuses and larger faculties.
The problem might have daunted California--soon to become the most populous state--had there not been early recognition of the need for planning.
In 1959, the legislature requested the Liaison Committee of the Regents and the California State Board of Education to develop a long-range plan. A survey team under the direction of the two boards produced the Master Plan. This was approved in principle by the Regents and the state board in December, 1959. A special session of the 1960 legislature passed the Donahoe Higher Education Act, incorporating most of the Master Plan recommendations, and approved other legislation to implement the plan.
Thus the state was able to move forward with expansion of all segments of public higher education without wasteful duplication. In order to provide for new campuses and enlargement of others, the public generously voted large construction bond issues in 1956, 1958, 1962, and again in 1964.
Under the plan, the University continued to meet its traditional obligations: university-level instruction and professional teaching, research, and public service.
New admission standards were introduced in 1962 under which the top 12.5 per cent of California high school graduates were eligible for the University.
The plan provided for the University's lower division enrollment to be somewhat decreased relative to upper and graduate division enrollments.
Certain lower division curricula were abolished, since increasing numbers of students would do their lower division work at junior colleges.
The University and the state colleges established a joint Graduate Board to develop procedures for a cooperative doctoral program and the awarding of joint doctorates in selected fields.
In accordance with the plan, the University extended the use of its libraries to the faculties of other institutions of learning in the state (see HIGHER EDUCATION, CALIFORNIA).
+ A modest projection, as later became apparent.
Achievements of the 'Sixties
By 1960, UC's enrollment was almost 50,000. Its seven campuses and many research stations were spread across thousands of acres. The whole enterprise cost $360 million a year to run, and the cost--like enrollment and everything else--was skyrocketing. As a complement to sheer size, however, the University now offered an enviable diversity of academic and cultural fare and opportunities for research that could be matched by few other institutions.
President Kerr's approach to mass education was to decentralize administrative authority to the campuses and, in academic planning, to the extent possible, make the large seem small and personal.
The Regents early adopted his recommendation for a major administrative reorganization under which much of the daily operating responsibility for the campuses was decentralized to the chief campus officers. Throughout the first half of the 1960's, decentralization continued by stages, resulting in a substantial reduction of the University-wide administrative staff and a greater autonomy for the campuses.
In 1961, the Regents adopted a University Academic Plan outlining the needs of the foreseeable future and emphasizing the theme of unity with diversity. There would be established in the next few years a new law school at Davis, engineering programs at Davis and Santa Barbara, medical schools at San Diego and Davis, architecture and urban planning at Los Angeles, and expanded medical enrollments at San Francisco and Los Angeles.
New general campuses at San Diego, Irvine, and Santa Cruz offered University planners a rare opportunity for innovation and experiment. As the first campuses to be designed from the start with a view to eventual huge enrollments, they were encouraged to evolve along lines that would foster individuality yet at the same time meet the University's traditional standards of excellence.
Both San Diego and Santa Cruz adopted “cluster college” plans, a concept that would help reduce the feeling of bigness while making the undergraduate educational experience more meaningful. Irvine, located in the most rapidly growing county in California, would emphasize the relation of campus to environment by offering strong programs in urban planning and environmental design.
And, keeping in mind enrollments by the year 2000--when 273,000 students would be attending the University--the administration was planning potential future campuses. Areas under consideration were the San Joaquin valley, the San Gabriel or San Fernando valley, the North Bay or North Coast area, and the Northern Sacramento valley.
In the first half-dozen years of President Kerr's administration, the “knowledge explosion” and society's efforts to keep abreast of it, demanded more kinds of classes at higher instructional levels and a constantly growing range of research.
Ten new schools or colleges were created, 80 new programs leading to master's degrees, and 68 to the doctoral degree. Many of these advanced programs were established at Davis, Riverside, and Santa Barbara, and several at San Diego.
The Regents approved an important long-range plan guaranteeing access to outstanding research libraries for the new and smaller campuses. Berkeley and Los Angeles continued to develop their collections as primary research sources, while their catalog cards were given University-wide distribution. Vehicles began plying daily between small and large campuses to facilitate intercampus borrowing.
This plan encouraged the smaller campuses, in addition to building up their basic libraries, to acquire collections unique within the University. Substantial economies were achieved by having the San Diego campus buy and catalog books, not only for its own new undergraduate library but, simultaneously, for those of Santa Cruz and Irvine.
Between 1958 and 1964, the University's instructional staff increased from 4,125 to 5,963 and every campus now claimed its share of luminaries. Both faculty and students were reflecting credit on their institution with a growing roster of honors.
Six more scientists received the Nobel Prize, bringing the University's total to 12. Twenty-nine members were elected to the National Academy of Sciences, for a total membership of 87. Guggenheim Fellowships won by the faculty in that period totaled 299. Students ranked high in Woodrow Wilson and National Science Foundation Fellowships and in Rhodes Scholarships to Oxford University.
Meanwhile, scholars were finding new opportunities for the development of special interests in the humanities. A University-wide CREATIVE ARTS Institute was established, enabling a number of faculty members to devote substantial periods of time to creative activity.
Students were taking advantage of an opportunity rare in public higher education provided by an EDUCATION ABROAD PROGRAM. The first overseas center was set up at the University of Bordeaux in 1962. Today the list of approved study centers includes Goettingen, Padua, Madrid, Tokyo, Bogota, Edinburgh, Hong Kong, Sussex and Birmingham, England, Lund, University of the Andes, and Delphi.
In the early 1960's, the Regents created a special scholarship program for outstanding students needing financial aid, and made available a number of tuition scholarships for exceptional students from other countries, thus supplementing programs that had been supported for many years by alumni and the state. The Regents also provided matching funds to campuses undertaking Special Opportunity Programs designed to encourage qualified high school students from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend the University.
During this period, the University accelerated and broadened its services to the people and government of California. Special institutes of governmental and public affairs at Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Davis were conducting research on metropolitan, state, and regional problems. The exciting potential of cybernetics was explored on several campuses. University scientists continued to work toward solutions to such problems as smog control, water conservation and the desalinization of sea water, traffic and airport safety, sewage disposal, forestry conservation, and the assurance of adequate food for a growing population.
The demand for “lifelong learning” was reflected in the expansion of offerings by University Extension which, in a single year, had more than 200,000 registrations for courses. A high proportion of the state's lawyers, dentists, and doctors were availing themselves of programs offered by Continuing Education of the Bar and Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences. Engineers, scientists, teachers, and businessmen--the majority holding at least one degree, and many with a master's or a doctorate--were returning to the classroom at intervals throughout their careers.
Few California homes, professions, industries, farms, or human lives were not in some way served by the University. Though an institution still less than a century of age, its impact upon society had become immense.--MARGARET CHENEY
Chronology of the University of California
1853--Contra Costa Academy opened in Oakland, June 6.
1855--College of California chartered, April 3.
1860--Dedication of Berkeley site by College of California trustees, April 16.
1866--Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College created by the legislature. Berkeley named by Frederick Billings.
1868--Legislation creating the University of California signed by Governor Henry H. Haight, March 23.
1869--University of California opened in Oakland, September 23; the following colleges were established and began instruction: College of Letters (now College of Letters and Science); College of Agriculture; College of Chemistry; College of Mechanic Arts (one of the forerunners of the College of Engineering, established 1931); College of Mining (one of the forerunners of engineering); and the College of Civil Engineering (another of the forerunners of engineering).
1870--Henry Durant elected first President of the University, August 16.
1872--Daniel Coit Gilman accepted the Presidency following Durant's resignation.
1873--Medical School founded as a result of gift by Dr. H. H. Toland. California Pharmaceutical Society affiliated with the University. First Commencement held at Berkeley.
1874--Lick Observatory established by gift from James Lick; accepted by the Regents as the Lick Astronomical Department of the University in 1888.
1875--John LeConte became President of the University upon Gilman's resignation.
1878--Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco opened, August 9.
1881--W. T. Reid became President of the University upon LeConte's resignation. Los Angeles State Normal School established. College of Dentistry established in San Francisco.
1885--Edward S. Holden elected President of the University upon Reid's resignation.
1888--Horace Davis elected President of the University upon Holden's resignation.
1890--Martin Kellogg elected President of the University pro tempore upon Davis' resignation.
1891--University Extension inaugurated.
1892--First Stanford-California football game played, March 19.
1893--Martin Kellogg elected President of the University. Mark Hopkins Institute of Art (now San Francisco Art Institute) established.
1895--Graduate Council (forerunner of the Graduate Division at Berkeley) established as a standing committee of the Academic Senate.
1898--College of Commerce established at Berkeley. Medical Department and Colleges of Pharmacy and Dentistry moved from privately owned buildings in downtown San Francisco to buildings on Parnassus Heights (present site of the San Francisco campus).
1899--Benjamin Ide Wheeler inaugurated as President of the University upon Kellogg's resignation.
1900--Summer School began. Regents adopted the architectural plan for the Berkeley campus created by Paris architect Emile Bérnard, winner of the international competition sponsored by Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst.
1901--Marine Station at La Jolla (now Scripps Institution of Oceanography) endowed by Ellen B. and E. W. Scripps; made part of the University in 1912.
1905--University Farm School at Davis created by the legislature.
1906--Following San Francisco earthquake, College of Medicine transferred the first two years of instruction to the Berkeley campus.
1907--Citrus Experiment Station established at Riverside. Training School for Nurses established at San Francisco. University Hospital began operation.
1909--University Farm School at Davis began operation.
1911--Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside officially named; John Webber appointed first director.
1912--School of jurisprudence (now School of Law) established at Berkeley. Extension Division established.
1914--Agriculture Extension Service supported jointly by University and U.S. Department of Agriculture. School of Education organized at Berkeley.
1917--University of California Hospital opened in San Francisco.
1919--David Prescott Barrows elected President of the University upon Wheeler's resignation. Los Angeles State Normal School became Southern Branch of the University of California; Ernest Carroll Moore named first director (title changed to vice-president and director in 1930, to vice-president and provost in 1931). College of Letters and Science established at Los Angeles.
1923--William Wallace Campbell elected President of the University upon Barrows' resignation.
1926--School of Librarianship established at Berkeley.
1927--Regents changed name of the "Southern Branch" to the University of California, Los Angeles.
1929--Robert Gordon Sproul elected President of the University upon Campbell's resignation. University of California, Los Angeles moved to Westwood campus; first USC-UCLA football game played, September 28.
1930--Ernest O. Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley.
1936--Schools of Business Administration established at Los Angeles.
1939--School of Nursing established at San Francisco. School of Education organized out of old Teachers College; College of Agriculture established at Los Angeles.
1941--School of Optometry established at Berkeley.
1943--School of Business Administration established at Berkeley. Davis campus taken over by the Army Signal Corps (1943-45).
1944--Santa Barbara State College became a campus of the University; Clarence L. Phelps named first provost. School of Public Health and School of Social Welfare established at Berkeley.
1945--Clarence A. Dykstra named provost of the University; College of Engineering and School of Medicine established at Los Angeles.
1946--School of Forestry established at Berkeley. J. Harold Williams named provost at Santa Barbara.
1947--School of Social Welfare established at Los Angeles.
1948--Clarence A. Dykstra named vice-president and provost of the University (Los Angeles).
1949--Gordon S. Watkins named first provost at Riverside, five years prior to opening of the College of Letters and Science. School of Law and School of Nursing established at Los Angeles. School of Veterinary Medicine opened at Davis.
1950--School of Criminology established at Berkeley.
1951--College of Letters and Science at Davis enrolled its first student.
1952--Clark Kerr named first chancellor at Berkeley. Raymond B. Allen named chancellor at. Los Angeles; name of the Los Angeles campus changed to University of California, Los Angeles. Stanley B. Freeborn named first provost at Davis; title changed to chancellor in 1958.
1954--College of Letters and Science opened at Riverside. Santa Barbara campus moved to Goleta site.
1955--Clark George Kuebler named provost at Santa Barbara. Herbert C. Moffitt Hospital opened in San Francisco.
1956--Herman T. Spieth named provost of the Riverside campus; title changed to chancellor in 1958. Elmer R. Nobel named acting-provost at Santa Barbara; title changed to vice-chancellor and acting chief campus officer in 1958.
1958--Clark Kerr elected President of the University upon Sproul's retirement. Glenn T. Seaborg named chancellor at Berkeley. John B. deC. M. Saunders named first provost at San Francisco; title changed to chancellor in 1964. Santa Barbara designated a general campus of the University and renamed the University of California, Santa Barbara. Regents authorized establishment of an Institute of Technology and Engineering at La Jolla (now the School of Science and Engineering). School of Dentistry established at Los Angeles.
1959--Vern 0. Knudsen named chancellor at Los Angeles. Emil M. Mrak named chancellor at Davis; Regents declared Davis a general campus of the University. Samuel B. Gould named first chancellor at Santa Barbara. Riverside named a general campus of the University. Regents approved development of the La Jolla site as a general University campus; named University of California, San Diego in 1960. Site on the Irvine Ranch in Orange county tentatively selected for new campus of the University. College of Environmental Design established at Berkeley.
1960--Franklin D. Murphy named chancellor at Los Angeles; School of Library Service and School of Public Health established at Los Angeles. College of Agriculture established at Riverside. The Irvine Company offered 1,000 acres as a gift to the University for site of new campus; deed recorded, January 20, 1961.
1961--Edward W. Strong named chancellor at Berkeley. Herbert F. York named first chancellor at San Diego. Dean E. McHenry named first chancellor at Santa Cruz. Graduate Divisions established at San Francisco, Riverside, Davis, and Santa Barbara. College of Letters and Science and College of Engineering established at Santa Barbara. Cowell Ranch property at Santa Cruz designated by the Regents as the south central coast site for a general campus of the University. College of Fine Arts established at Los Angeles.
1962--Vernon I. Cheadle named chancellor at Santa Barbara; School of Education established at Santa Barbara. Daniel C. Aldrich, Jr., named first chancellor at Irvine. School of Architecture and Urban Planning established at Los Angeles. College of Engineering established at Davis.
1964--Ivan Hinderaker named chancellor at Riverside. John S. Galbraith named chancellor at San Diego; San Diego campus commenced undergraduate instruction; School of Medicine at San Diego began organization, with plans to accept first students in the fall of 1968. School of Law established at Davis, with the first students to be admitted, fall, 1966. Graduate Divisions established at Santa Cruz and Irvine.
1965--Martin Meyerson named acting chancellor at Berkeley, serving from January to July; Roger W. Heyns named chancellor at Berkeley. Irvine campus opened; first student-faculty convocation held in Campus Hall, September 26. Cowell College began instruction at Santa Cruz. Establishment of a School of Medicine authorized for the Davis campus.
See FACULTY GOVERNMENT.
With the advance of science in the nineteenth century emerged the modern university. Lehrfreiheit and Lernfreiheit, freedom of teaching and of learning, quickened the work and life of the German universities. These freedoms meant, for the professor, freedom of teaching, inquiry and publication--conditions considered both unique and essential to the work of the scholar. For the student, they meant freedom from both administrative conditions governing class work and from institutional restrictions on his private life. To their professorial chairs in America, many young scholars brought from German universities both their doctor of philosophy degrees and an appreciation of the idea of academic freedom.
In America, Lernfreiheit meant essentially the elective system and Lehrfreiheit meant the beginning of a long and some-what disruptive effort to secure the scholarly freedom implied in the term. Tenure and greater faculty self-government were considered necessary first principles. The University of California was not untouched by this time of tension and experienced its share of institutional turmoil as the idea of academic freedom took hold in American colleges and universities.
In the later years of Benjamin Ide Wheeler's presidency (1899-1919), his health began to fail. During these same years, World War I broke out and charges of disloyalty to the allied effort cost some University faculty members their jobs and impaired the prestige of Wheeler himself. In April, 1918, the Regents gave to a Council of Deans, composed of three prominent faculty members, many of the powers of the ailing Wheeler. The new triumvirate (also known as the Administrative Board) lacked Wheeler's administrative skill and were confronted by difficult University problems. The University was feeling the pinch of war-time economies and the faculty was becoming increasingly restive about arbitrary administration and inequities resulting from promotion and salary practices. In the midst of the administrative confusion and internal dissension that characterized the reign of the Council of Deans, the faculty sought a stronger role in University government. They used the advisory powers of the Academic Senate to secure from the Regents greater responsibility in the appointment, promotion, and dismissal of colleagues; in the determination of educational policy; in the formulation of the budget; and in the internal conduct of the Academic Senate. The delegations of responsibility won in this “Faculty Revolt” (December, 1919-June, 1923), are keystones of the strong FACULTY GOVERNMENT that has characterized the University ever since.
Academic freedom was the topic of David P. Barrows' in augural address in 1920, but the first statement on academic freedom to have force as University policy was made by President Robert Gordon Sproul before the Northern Section of the Academic Senate, August 27, 1934. This statement, slightly
Impartiality and competence founded in the empiricist credo has qualified academic freedom in the University and typified it in America.
Tenure--the right of a professor to his position except for good cause and with dismissal only after a hearing by a committee of his peers--was not recognized in the standing orders of the Regents until 1958. In practice, however, the principle had been followed from the time of the “Faculty Revolt” of 1920--except when violated on the occasion of the “Loyalty Oath” controversy.
Both the “Loyalty Oath” controversy of 1949-52 and the “Free Speech Movement” of 1964-65--in which the University underwent its two most disruptive difficulties--suggest more for academic freedom and the University than the mere affirmation of earlier concepts and practices or the matter of governance. They reflect the ever-changing idea of freedom itself as it seeks definition, stability, and support in America's institutions of higher learning. No one can predict its path, though one can observe the extension of both Lehrfreiheit and Lernfreiheit in the context of the more permissive American norm and as a stronger reflection of deep sympathy and concern for freedom of speech.--DAVID P. GARDNER
REFERENCES: William W. Ferrier, Origin and Development of the University of California (Berkeley, 1930); R. Hofstadter and W. Metzger, The Development of Academic Freedom in the United States (New York and London, 1955); R. Hofstadter and W. Smith, American Higher Education: A Documentary History (Chicago, 1961); Frederich Paulsen, The German Universities: Their Character and Historical Development (New York and London, 1895); Minutes of the Academic Senate, Northern Section (September 19, 1949); Minutes of the Academic Senate, Southern Section (September 22, 1949); Report of the Secretary of the Regents (1917-18); Minutes of the Regents of the University of California (December 19, 1958); University Regulation No. 5,as read by the President of the University before the Academic Senate (August 27, 1934) and as promulgated in revised form (June, 1944).
See FACULTY GOVERNMENT.
The chief executive of the University is its President. He reports to the Regents and has full authority and responsibility for the administration of academic and student affairs of the University. He also administers such business and fiscal operations as are not specifically the responsibility of the secretary, treasurer, or general counsel of the Regents.
The functional divisions of the University administration, such as academic planning, business and finance, and physical planning, are directed by such vice-presidents as may be named by the Regents on the recommendation of the President. (There were nine vice-presidents of the University in February, 1966.) Some other specialized activities, such as University of California Extension and the Agricultural Sciences, are directed by deans. (There were four such deans in February, 1966.) All of these officers report to the President.
The campuses of the University are administered under the direction of chancellors, who also report to the President. To these officers, the President has, over recent years, delegated increasing authority. At the campus level, there has been considerable redelegation of authority to college deans and department chairmen.
Coordination of administrative activity is made possible by monthly meetings of a council of chief campus officers--the Council of Chancellors--and meetings of the chief University-wide officers--the President's cabinet. Matters involving faculty appointments and promotions, educational policy, faculty welfare, and privilege and tenure are traditionally referred by the President to committees of the Academic Senate for advice. President Clark Kerr instituted the practice of meeting frequently with such committees in person.
The Emergence of an Administration
For the first three decades of the University's existence the REGENTS exercised administrative control on almost a daily basis. Their committees routinely decided day-to-day administrative questions. Their secretary was often also secretary of the Academic Senate and business manager of the University. In these capacities he met regularly with the Regents' Committee on Internal Affairs and held authority that was in many regards superior to that of the President.
According to the ORGANIC ACT, the President was the “President of the several faculties and the executive head of the institution in all its departments,” with “authority, subject to the Board of Regents, to give general direction to the practical affairs of the several colleges.” But in the early years, he was considered to be concerned almost exclusively with academic affairs. In those matters, the second-in-command was a dean of the faculty. The first such dean was appointed by the Regents in 1869. After he was dismissed in 1870, the position was filled by the members of the Academic Senate in annual election. In 1884, both the concept and the title of the office was changed. It was finally abandoned in 1896 and thereafter until 1909 the President of the University kept in touch with academic affairs through direct conferences with the deans of the academic colleges.
Beginning in 1890, an effort was made to distinguish more clearly between the policy functions of the Regents and the administrative responsibilities of the President. These efforts were climaxed in 1899 when Benjamin Ide Wheeler accepted the University's presidency only on condition that the Regents agreed that the President should be the “sole channel of communications between the faculty and the Regents; have the sole initiation in recommending appointments and promotions and other academic personnel matters; and have authority for the direction, subject to the Board of all officers and employees of the University.” The agreement significantly strengthened the position of the President, but officers of the Regents (the secretary and treasurer) continued to manage the University's business and financial affairs.
By 1909 a total of 40 individuals were listed as “Administrative Officers” of the University. Among them were deans of the various colleges at Berkeley and San Francisco, chairmen of “Committees on Graduation” for the various colleges, a University physician, a dean of the graduate school, a dean of the lower division (later to be known as dean of students), a dean of women, a recorder of the faculty (later called the registrar), secretary to the President, accountant, purchasing agent, and superintendent of grounds and buildings. In 1909, on the recommendation of the Academic Senate, the Regents established the position of dean of the academic faculties, who was authorized to “sign all documents requiring the signature of the President of the university,” when the President was out of the state.
For a brief interlude beginning in April, 1918 and ending with the appointment of David P. Barrows as President in 1919, the University was administered by a Council of Deans (also known as the Administrative Board). The members of the council, Charles Mills Gayley, Henry Morse Stephens, and William Carey Jones, served initially as advisors to the ailing President Wheeler but gradually were given full executive authority.
In August, 1923, the dean of the academic faculties was redesignated “dean of the University” and was “entrusted with the duty of assisting the President in the administration of the University in all of its divisions, elements, and activities.” During the absence or disability of the President, the dean was empowered to assume the duties of the chief executive. Two years later, the Regents announced the creation of two new administrative positions: “vice-president of the University in respect to academic and scholastic matters,” and “vice-president of the University in respect to matters of finance and business management.” Walter M. Hart, the incumbent dean of the University, was given the additional appointment of the first of these vice-presidencies.
The “vice-presidency in respect to matters of finance and business management” was added to the titles and functions then held by Robert Gordon Sproul. Due to a series of events beginning in 1911, these titles were numerous. In that year, the Regents created the position of comptroller to assume responsibility for that part of the secretary and land agent's duties involving finances and business management. Ralph Merritt was the first person to hold this new position. In 1918, when the Regents' secretary and land agent, Victor Henderson, went into military service, the functions of his office were again combined with those of the comptroller. After Merritt resigned from the University in 1920, Sproul succeeded him and inherited all of his titles and functions. In 1925, therefore, Sproul's titles were vice-president, comptroller, secretary of the Regents and land agent. He became President of the University in July, 1930.
In the same year that Sproul became President, the office of comptroller was once again separated from that of the secretary and land agent and the University's internal business management was separated from the management of the Regents' investments. In 1938, the comptroller was made “responsible” to both the Regents and the President. Four years later, the accounting officer was instructed by the President to report directly to him rather than to the comptroller, and in 1949, the former office of the comptroller was renamed “vice-president--business affairs,” remaining responsible to both the Regents and the President. The chief accounting officer was retitled “controller” in 1950 and reported directly to the Regents.
Administering Far-Flung Campuses
In the beginning, of course, all administrative activities of the University were carried on in Berkeley. When the professional schools developed in San Francisco, their deans reported directly to the President. When the University Farm was established at Davis, a local director (later assistant dean) reported to the dean of the College of Agriculture at Berkeley, as did the director of the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside. Directors of the Lick Observatory, and of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and later, the director of the Southern Branch at Los Angeles, reported directly to the President.
In July, 1930, the two vice-presidencies created in 1925 were superseded by two new ones to be filled upon the President's recommendation and to have such duties as the President determined. One of the positions was filled by Monroe E. Deutsch, who held the additional title of dean of the University. The other vice-presidency was filled by Ernest C. Moore, who had played an important role in the transformation of the Los Angeles State Normal School into a campus of the University. Vice-President Moore also held the title of director, Los Angeles. In 1931, both Deutsch and Moore, retaining their vice-presidencies, received new titles as “provost of the University,” and “provost of the University at Los Angeles,” respectively.
The creation of the new titles did not alter what was basically a centralized system of University administration, however, and in 1937 the Regents affirmed the policy of “A single University of California, with a centralized administration ... with one president and such vice-presidents as are necessary.”
In 1942, Dr. Earle Hedrick retired as vice-president and provost of the University at Los Angeles. For the next three years, that campus was administered by a committee of three persons and the President. On October 22, 1943, with the advice of the President, the Regents began to move toward decentralization of campus administration by giving the provost of the University, resident at Los Angeles, “full authority under the President to administer the departments on the Los Angeles and La Jolla campuses, with the exception of the Department of Agriculture, for which special organizational arrangements are necessary on all campuses because of its relationship with the Federal Government.” President Sproul described the intent of the action as being to “centralize policy making in the office of the President of the University, and to decentralize the execution of policies as they affect the University of California at Los Angeles.”
The first provost to assume the new authority at Los Angeles was Clarence Dykstra, in 1945. In 1948, he was given the additional title of vice-president of the University. In January, 1945, the President announced delegation of authority comparable to that of the provost at Los Angeles to the provost resident on the Berkeley campus. However, the office of the provost at Berkeley was not separated physically from that of the President.
With the addition of Santa Barbara State College to the University in 1944, a provost, Clarence L. Phelps, was appointed as its chief officer. The building of a College of Letters and Science at Riverside was begun with the appointment, in 1949, of a provost to direct its development.
Administrative authority remained largely undelegated and was concentrated in the Regents, the President, and the comptroller throughout the 1940's. For example, the Regents adopted a line-item budget, and all modifications or amendments required Board approval. In addition, business management, accounting, non-academic personnel, admissions, public information, and many other activities on each campus were directed by University-wide officials and were outside the jurisdiction of chief campus officers. Agriculture, public health, the graduate division, and several research institutes were organized as “state-wide” departments outside local campus authority.
With the retirement of the Berkeley provost in 1947, further centralization occurred when the President reassumed direct administrative control over the Berkeley campus. He carried this responsibility for the next five years.
By the end of World War II, the University's administrative organization had been shaped by a series of adjustments to growth and the unique problems of geographically dispersed operations. The work of the President had become impossibly burdensome. Confronted by this situation in 1948, the Regents employed the Public Administration Service, a management consulting firm, to make a comprehensive review of the
To relieve the burdens of the Presidency, the Regents authorized the appointment of an executive vice-president in 1949 but the position was never filled.
On March 30, 1951, the first steps toward effective decentralization were taken. The heads of campuses (at Los Angeles and Berkeley they were “chancellors” after July, 1952) were given direction over all but “statewide” activities on their campuses. They were authorized to nominate all candidates for faculty and other positions and, on April 22, 1952, the President directed that all department chairmen were responsible to their local chief campus officer through their deans and directors. The chief campus officers were also given increasing direction over campus business operations--excepting physical planning, building construction, and purchasing.
Between 1951 and 1958, the Regents also gave the President more discretion in budget procedures and authorized him to transfer funds within budgetary totals. He was also given authority to solicit and accept gifts and to negotiate research contracts up to $15,000. In January, 1954, the President redelegated much of this authority to chief campus officers.
The Regents also began to delegate administrative responsibility involving academic personnel. For instance, they decided to act directly only on appointments and promotions of faculty members to tenure rank. At the same time, the practice of including a list of all faculty members and their salaries in the annual budget document was discontinued.
In April, 1958, shortly before Clark Kerr assumed the Presidency, the management consultant firm of Cresap, McCormick and Paget was employed to “review the organization and procedures of the overall management of the University.” The firm proposed two major changes in administrative policy and organization: 1) that the President be made the sole officer of the University reporting directly to the Board, together with the officers of the corporation (i.e., the Regents); 2) that, to the maximum extent possible, the chief campus officer (chancellor or provost) be given administrative authority over all aspects of campus affairs and that direct line administrative relationships between University-wide officers and campus staff be eliminated.
Pursuant to these proposed changes, the vice-president--business affairs and the controller were placed under the jurisdiction of the President. In 1958, Harry R. Wellman was appointed vice-president of the University, giving the institution, for the first time, an officer who was, in all respects, second in command. In the same reorganization, several University-wide officers were redesignated as vice-presidents or University deans with responsibilities for major functional divisions of the administration.
The administration of the University continues to be under almost constant study. The firm of Cresap, McCormick and Paget, which submitted the master report that led to extensive changes from 1958 to the present, has undertaken 16 follow-up studies on specific administrative problems and programs. Some of these have resulted in the introduction of improved techniques and the use of modern equipment and procedures to obtain savings in administrative expenditures.
There has also been intensive study by the University's staff. In May, 1965, the President presented to the Regents the first of a series of reports that would, if implemented, result in still more major reorganization. The three assumptions of the reports were:
- 1) There will continue to be one University of California as provided in the Constitution of the State of California.
- 2) The Board of Regents will retain its historic position as the final governing authority of the University.
- 3) The University will continue to embrace the Master Plan for HIGHER EDUCATION, which is serving the state so effectively.
Specific proposals involve greater delegation of authority from the Regents to the administration, increased delegation of authority to the campuses, and increased delegation of authority on the campuses to deans and department chairmen.
Decentralization after 1958
As the Regents delegated more authority to the President, he has redelegated considerable amounts of it to the chancellors of the various campuses.
In 1958-59, the accounting and non-academic personnel offices were decentralized. Budgets of the School of Public Health, and the Institutes of Geophysics, Industrial Relations, Marine Resources, and Transportation and Traffic Engineering were transferred to campuses. The President authorized the chief campus officers (“chancellors” on all campuses except San Francisco after September 19, 1958, and at San Francisco after 1964) to exercise greater authority in making campus budgetary adjustments and approving personnel actions. Before March, 1959, 100 per cent of all transfers of funds required University-wide processing. After that time, 80 per cent of such transfers could be made at the campus level.
In 1960, local campuses were given authority for administration of offices of admission, educational placement, architects and engineers, and purchasing. In 1961, chancellors were given authority over campus publications and graduate divisions. By 1962, of the many programs once considered “statewide,” the only units that remained so budgeted and directed were University of California Extension, Relations with Schools, Agricultural Extension, the Agricultural Experiment Station, and the University Press.
Beginning in 1961, the dollar level on proposals for research grants and contracts that could be negotiated by the President without Regental concurrence began to be increased. The President, in turn, delegated authority to solicit contracts and grants to the chancellors. The level of the amounts that could be negotiated by the President and the chancellors had reached $1 million by 1966. The effect was to reduce substantially the number of grants and contracts that had to be processed at the University-wide level.
In 1966, the chancellors also were given authority to make tenure appointments and promotions of faculty members and were authorized to approve all in-scale merit salary increases. They also were authorized to award and execute construction contracts for their campuses and to appoint architects.
As the University of California continues to grow, its administration remains subject to review so that maximum efficiency with the least possible expense can be realized.--VAS, MD
REFERENCES: “The Organic Act,” Stats. (1867-68), 248; University Bulletin, September 29, 1965, 53-58; Report of the Secretary of the Regents (1868-69), (1924-25), 148, (1930-31), 13; Manual of the Academic Senate (1925), 183, (1931), 189; University Chronicle (July, 1909), 270; President's Report to the Regents (1886), 77; Academic Council, Report of the Special Committee on the Deanship (Leaflet, 1896); Report of the Committee on the Definition of the Duties of Deans (Leaflet, 1896); Minutes of the Academic Senate (October, 1870), (May, 1909); Minutes of the Academic Council (August, 1923); Code of the Academic Senate (1923); Clark Kerr, A Progress Report on Administrative Changes and Development at the University of California, to members of Committee on Finance of Board of Regents (1965); Clark Kerr, Status Report on Administrative Decentralization, to the Regents (January 18, 1966); Faculty Bulletin (March, 1951), (April, 1951), 1.
The ORGANIC ACT of 1868 made several specific references to the powers and duties of the President of the University after stating that he be elected to office by the Board of Regents. Most significantly he was charged with being the "President of the several faculties and the executive head of the institution in all its departments. . ." The present bylaws of the Regents regarding the duties of the President state that he "shall be the executive head of the University and have full authority and responsibility over the administration of academic and student affairs and business and fiscal operations of the university." Twelve men have held the office in the 96 years since Henry Durant was first elected to the post in 1870, with President Wheeler and Sproul accounting for 48 of those years between them.
[Photo] Henry Durant 1870-1872
HENRY DURANT, Congregational clergyman, and first President of the University (1870-72), was born in Acton, Massachusetts on June 18,1802. He attended Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, and Yale University, graduating in 1827. While studying for the ministry at the Yale Theological Seminary, he tutored at the university. He was ordained pastor of the Byfield, Massachusetts, Congregational Church in 1833, and, in that same year, married Mary E. Buffett of Stanwich, Connecticut. After 16 years in the ministry, he resigned his pastorate to become head of the Dummer Academy at Byfield, a position which he held from 1849-52.
When California was admitted to the Union in 1850, Durant became absorbed in ideas for the development of higher education in the new land. His decision to come west may have been hastened by the death of his daughter.
Durant arrived in San Francisco by ship May 1, 1853 shortly before a joint session of the Congregational Association of California and the Presbytery of San Francisco at Nevada City. Encouraged by his fellow clergymen at this meeting, he rented a house in the young community of Oakland on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, and on June 6, opened the Contra Costa Academy as a private school for boys. In April, 1855, the school was chartered as the COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA.
In 1860, the College of California began instruction with Durant as professor of Greek and Latin.
In 1867, the College of California offered to disincorporate and give the state its lands and properties in order that the state's resources for higher education could be combined into a true university. When this offer was accepted by the state, it was implemented by a report prepared by a committee of which Durant was a member. This report was expanded in the ORGANIC ACT that brought the University of California into being on March 23, 1868.
On August 16, 1870, the Regents elected Durant as first President of the University. He undertook the office with zest, but as his 70th birthday approached in the summer of 1872, he observed that the upbuilding of the new university required the energies of a younger man and resigned his position.
Following his resignation, he engaged in real estate enterprises. He was elected mayor of Oakland and while serving in this office died suddenly on January 22, 1875.
Durant left no writings. His contribution was the unceasing effort which brought into existence the College of California and the University of California.--MD
Daniel Coit Gilman
[Photo] Daniel C. Gilman 1872-1875
DANIEL COIT GILMAN, geographer and second President of the University (1872-75) was born in Norwich, Connecticut on July 6, 1831. His ancestry was Welsh on both sides, his father's family having come to America in 1638, his mother's in 1647. He attended Norwich Academy and Yale University, graduating in 1852. A year of graduate study in geography at Harvard was followed by two years as attaché to the American Embassy at St. Petersburg. While in Europe, he became interested in the rise of scientific and technical institutions of learning as opposed to classical universities.
Gilman spent the next 16 years at Yale, first as librarian, then as professor of physical geography and secretary to the governing board of the Sheffield Scientific School. He declined offers of a presidency from the University of Wisconsin in 1867 and from the University of California in 1870.
However, discord developed between the "old Yale" element which wished to maintain the classical curriculum, and the "young Yale" group, which hoped to secure Gilman's appointment as president of Yale, and which would introduce more science and stronger lay influence in Yale's government. Personal matters also intervened. His wife, Mary Ketchum of Norwich, whom he married in 1861, died in 1869 leaving two little daughters. The younger of these became ill, and a milder climate was prescribed for her benefit. Accordingly, when a second offer of the Presidency was made by the University of California in September, 1872, Gilman accepted.
The University was still in temporary quarters in Oakland when Gilman arrived. One building was under construction at Berkeley, but funds had failed to materialize for a second one that was planned. Gilman at once sought out leaders in the community, formed the Berkeley Club to cement "town and gown" relationships, obtained financing for a second building, and whenever possible, gave addresses to arouse interest in the University. On December 1, 1873, 14 months after his arrival, he could report not only the establishment of the University on its permanent campus, but the beginning of instruction in science and engineering, formerly largely theoretical, and the bestowal of a number of important private gifts. Among these were the endowed Toland Medical College in San Francisco, an endowment for a professorship in Oriental languages, ten additional acres of land for the Berkeley campus, and funds for the purchase of books for the library.
The following year, criticism of the management of the University and its funds was made by organized agricultural interests within the state. Although a legislative committee justified the administration of the University and most of the criticism was counteracted, the episode distressed Gilman. When he was offered the presidency of the newly established Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, he accepted and resigned from the University of California in March, 1875. In an editorial, the Overland Monthly of San Francisco called him "a man of surpassing talent for organization, of extraordinary insight and sympathy as to the strong and weak points of colleges and students, who can do more with poor material than most men can do with good."
Gilman returned to Berkeley in October, 1899 to speak at the inauguration of President Benjamin Ide Wheeler. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901 and was persuaded by Andrew Carnegie to undertake the presidency and organization of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. He retired from this position in December, 1904 and died in Norwich, October 13, 1908 survived by his daughters and his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, whom he married in 1877.--MD
[Photo] John Leconte 1876-1881
JOHN LECONTE, physician, physicist, and third President of the University (acting president, 1875-76; president, 1876-81) was born of French Huguenot descent in Liberty County, Georgia on December 4, 1818. He
LeConte attended Franklin College (later the University of Georgia), graduating in 1838. He received the M.D. degree in 1841 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City.
Shortly after graduation, he married Eleanor Josephine Graham of New York and began the practice of medicine in Savannah, Georgia. He preferred teaching to medicine, however, and in 1846 became professor of physics and chemistry at Franklin College. In 1855, he accepted the position of professor of chemistry in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, but resigned after a year to teach physics, which he preferred, in South Carolina College (later the University of South Carolina).
He was an officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, supervising a niter works in Columbia, South Carolina. After the war, with his home and property destroyed, his livelihood precarious, and feeling running high in the north against men from the south, he followed the advice of friends at Harvard and applied for a position at the newly established University of California. At the November, 1868, meeting of the Board of Regents, he was elected professor of physics and the first member of the University of California faculty.
LeConte arrived in Oakland in March, 1869 and, with a committee of the Regents, determined the academic organization of the University, set the requirements for admission, and established a curriculum which was followed in its essentials until 1892. In June, 1869, he was appointed acting President of the University and performed the two-fold duties of President and professor until Henry Durant was elected President in August, 1870.
Upon the resignation of President Gilman in March, 1875, LeConte again was acting President until June, 1876, when he was elected President. His five-year administration was marked with the advent of several important private gifts to the University. In December, 1875, James Lick made a trust fund of over $700,000 toward the building and endowment of an observatory. In November, 1877, Henry D. Bacon offered his private library and aft collection together with $25,000 to be matched with state funds for a library building. In January, 1879, a gymnasium planned and constructed by A. K. P. Harmon was presented to the Regents. The Hastings College of the Law, established in San Francisco by S. C. Hastings in March, 1878, was affiliated with the University in August, 1879. Also in 1879, a bequest of $50,000 for a library fund was received from the estate of Michael Reese.
The social and political unrest which had disturbed Gilman's administration continued into LeConte's, but was partially resolved in a revision of the State Constitution by a Constitutional Convention in 1879. When provisions concerning the University came under discussion, attempts were made to separate the agricultural studies from the rest of the University and to strengthen legislative control. An amendment to constitute the University as a public trust subject only to such legislative control as would be necessary to insure compliance with the terms of its endowments met with strong opposition, but was finally passed.
Internal dissension over the administration of the University reached a crisis in June, 1881. LeConte was respected as a scholar and teacher. His research, represented in over 100 papers, was significant, but he was not considered an effective administrator by some Regents. The teaching methods of several members of the faculty were also sharply criticized by a committee of the Regents and one teacher was dismissed. On June 7, LeConte tendered his resignation as President, asking to be returned to his faculty position. To this the Regents agreed, and his administration terminated on August 1.
On April 29, 1891, while still active as professor of physics, LeConte died at his home in Berkeley survived by his wife and older son, Louis Julian LeConte. A younger son, John Cecil, and a daughter, Mary Tallulah, died in young man- and womanhood.--MD
William Thomas Reid
[Photo] William T. Reid 1881-1885
WILLIAM THOMAS REID, school administrator and fourth President of the University (1881-85) was born near Jacksonville, Illinois on November 8, 1943. When he was eight years old, his father died and he was brought up under stern discipline on his grandfather's farm. At 17, he entered Illinois College, but at the outbreak of the Civil War, he left college to enlist in the 68th Illinois Volunteers. After the war, he decided to attend Harvard University and studied for the entrance examinations as he guided a plow on the farm. He passed the mathematics examination, but did not do so well in Latin and Greek. However, when Harvard officials realized he was largely self-educated, he was admitted. He earned the A.B. degree from Harvard in 1868. From 1868-71, he was principal of the Newport, Rhode Island, High School, then became assistant headmaster of the Boston Latin School and studied at Harvard for the M.A. degree, which he obtained in 1872. After two years as superintendent of the public schools of Brookline, Massachusetts, he came to California in 1875 at the invitation of Horatio Stebbins to be principal of the Boys' High School in San Francisco. While in this position, he was elected President of the University in June, 1881.
During his administration, Reid had to contend not only with disturbances within and without the University, but with the unpopularity of his election. He was not the unanimous choice of the Regents and was not received cordially by the press.
Political party power changed with the election of 1882, and elements of the new legislature were antagonistic to the University. There was also disunity among the Regents. William T. Welcker, whom the Regents deposed as professor of mathematics in 1881, came on the Board as state superintendent of public instruction. He worked to abolish the Regents' Advisory Committee which he felt excluded the remainder of the Board from management of the University's affairs. The legality of the organization of the Academic Senate was also questioned, and months of discussion ensued before the senate was safely re-established. The students were restless, for Reid was unsympathetic with disobedient pranks or indifferent scholarship.
In spite of these difficulties, Reid strengthened the position of the University by raising the admission requirements to equal those of eastern universities, and by establishing the accreditation system by which graduates of those high schools which met the requirements of the University were admitted without examination. This system not only improved relations between the University and the public schools, but raised the standards of high school education throughout the state. His support helped Deans Hilgard and Hesse overcome continuing outside pressure to make the Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanics into trade schools. His choice of Irving Stringham to fill the vacated professorship of mathematics and George H. Howison as the first occupant of the chair of moral philosophy and civil polity, established by a gift of $75,000
On March 3, 1885, Reid presented his resignation. In a letter to Regent D. O. Mills dated that same month, he gave his reasons: The Regents. . .have so hedged the President about with restrictions as to make it impossible for him to carry out a vigorous individual policy. . .; the President in name should be the President in fact, and not merely the executive officer of the Board of Regents."
Reid left the University August 1, 1885 and opened a private school for boys in San Mateo county. He successfully guided this school for 33 years. In the year of his retirement, 1918, he was given an honorary degree by the University at Charter Day exercises. He came to live in Berkeley and died there December 17, 1922. Reid married Miss Julia Reed of Jacksonville in 1870. She died in 1917, as did his daughter, Julia (then Mrs. Charles W. Willard). He was survived by a son, William T. Reid, Jr., of Boston.--MD
Edward Singleton Holden
[Photo] Edward S. Holden 1885-1888
EDWARD SINGLETON HOLDEN, astronomer and fifth President of the University (1885-88) was born of New England pilgrim ancestry in St Louis, Missouri, November 5, 1846. Educated at a private school in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he became interested in astronomy through visits to the Harvard College Observatory where a relative was an observer. From 1860-62, he attended the Academy of Washington University in St. Louis, then entered Washington University where he studied astronomy under William Chauvenet and obtained a B.S. degree in 1866. The same year, he was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point from which he graduated in 1870, third man in his class.
After three years in the U.S. Army, during which time he married Chauvenet's daughter, Mary, he resigned his commission to become assistant to Simon Newcomb at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. Newcomb was impressed with the energy and ability of his assistant, and when D. O. Mills, president of the James Lick trustees, came to Washington to consult with him about a proposed observatory on Mt. Hamilton, Newcomb suggested that Holden might well qualify as its director.
In 1879, Holden was appointed librarian of the Naval Observatory, but resigned that post after two years in favor of the directorship of the Washburn Observatory at the University of Wisconsin. While at Washburn, he made trips to Mt. Hamilton in 1881 and 1883 to advise on the installation of the scientific equipment.
On October 20, 1885, Holden was elected President of the University of California and director of the Lick Observatory with the understanding that the Presidency was an interim position which would terminate upon the completion of the observatory. He took office in January, 1886. The University was then in financial straits and needed a sound reliable basis of tax support. In 1887, the legislature granted a permanent tax levy of one cent on the dollar for University purposes.
Holden advocated the establishment of departments of biology and of physical education; a marine laboratory; short courses in agriculture; and special lectures on the administration of cities and railroads, on commerce and on journalism "which is becoming a profession." He recommended the acceptance of Adolph Sutro's offer of land in San Francisco for the AFFILIATED COLLEGES and the purchase of the Bancroft Library "which should remain undivided." He worked to improve the relations between the public schools and the University and established in the President's office a file of the names and qualifications of University graduates who were available for teaching positions.
When Lick Observatory was completed in January, 1888, Holden resigned the Presidency to devote his entire time to the directorship as previously agreed. He recruited able young astronomers, guided their research, and rapidly brought the observatory to a position of international prominence. In October, 1897, he resigned the directorship to devote himself to scientific writing. In 1901, he was appointed librarian at West Point, a position he filled with distinction and in which he was still active when he died on March 16, 1914.
Throughout his scientific career, Holden wrote and published extensively. His bibliography contains more than 360 entries. As a librarian, he contributed bibliographies and subject-indices of scientific subjects. He received many honors from foreign governments including Knight Commander of Ernestine Order of Saxony, 1894; Knight of the Royal Order of the Danneborg, 1895; and the Order of Bolivar, 1896. He received the LL.D. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1886 and from Columbia University in 1887. The University of the Pacific awarded him the Sc.D. degree in 1896, and Fordham College gave him a Litt.D. degree in 1910. He was elected a member of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1884 and the National Academy of Sciences in 1885. He was also a member of the Astronomical Society of France and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
[Photo] Horace Davis 1888-1890
HORACE DAVIS, sixth President of the University (1888-1890) was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, March 16, 1831. He was the son of John Davis, governor of Massachusetts. A brilliant student, he graduated from Harvard College in 1849 at the age of 18 and entered the Harvard Law School. His eyesight proved unequal to the strain of intensive study however, and he was forced to withdraw. In 1852, at the age of 21, he sailed around the horn to join his brother, Andrew, who was operating a coast-wise sailing ship out of San Francisco.
In San Francisco, he worked at a number of occupations. At one time, he was a lumber surveyor. At another time, he was purser with the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Hopefully, he became librarian of the Mercantile Library, but again the work proved too difficult for his eyes.
In 1860, the Davis brothers received a flour mill as payment of a bad debt. Under their management, the mill flourished, and in time, the Golden Gate Flouring Mills became one of the leading businesses of the city. Horace Davis, in particular, became known as an authority on wheat and the production of flour and served as the president of the Produce Exchange of San Francisco from 1866-76.
Elected to the House of Representatives in 1876, Davis served two terms. In January, 1878, he introduced the bill which restricted immigration from China. On his return to California, he continued to serve the Republican National Committee for eight years.
In January, 1888, Horace Davis was unanimously chosen President of the University of California to succeed Edward S. Holden. One of the requirements of the office was that its incumbent reside in the East Bay. Davis, in accepting the Presidency, asked for three months time in which to settle his San Francisco business affairs and move to Berkeley. Settlement did not come about readily, and on April 4, 1890, he tendered his resignation explaining circumstances beyond his control prevented his carrying out the condition of residence.
Davis maintained an interest in higher education by serving on the original board of trustees of Stanford University for many years and as president of the trustees of the California School of Mechanic Arts in San Francisco.
He was awarded the honorary degree of LL.D. by the University of the Pacific in 1889, by Harvard University in 1911, and by the University of California in 1912.
Davis was married twice. His first wife died in 1872. In 1875, he married Edith, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Starr King, pastor of the First Unitarian Church in San Francisco. He died in San Francisco, July 12, 1916.--MD
[Photo] Martin Kellogg 1890-1899
MARTIN KELLOGG, Congregational clergyman, professor of Latin, and seventh President of the University (acting president, 1890-93; president, 1893-99) was born in Vernon, Connecticut, March 13, 1828. He was educated at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, and at Yale University, where he graduated In 1850 as valedictorian of his class. He prepared for the ministry at the Union Theological Seminary in New York. Ordained in 1855, he was sent as a home missionary to California, where he became the pastor of the Congregational Church in Grass Valley.
In 1859, he was chosen one of the two faculty members for the College of California.
He married Louisa Wells Brockway in Ellington, Connecticut in September, 1863. Two children born to them died in infancy, and an adopted daughter, Annie, died in Berkeley in young womanhood.
On December 1, 1868, he was appointed professor of Latin and Greek for the newly established University of California, following John LeConte as the second member of the
During the six years of Kellogg's administration as President, decisive changes were made in the University's organization. Rigidly prescribed curricula were modified to allow more elective studies, Colleges of Natural Science and Social Science which granted degrees without requiring studies in Latin and Greek were organized, a College of Commerce was established, and a new Department of Pedagogy brought the University into closer relations with the public school system of the state. Summer sessions were undertaken, and the number and scope of extension lectures were increased. The single deanship, of the Academic Senate was abandoned, and deans with whom the President conferred were appointed to head each college. A Graduate Council was appointed to regulate the studies of increasing numbers of graduate students, and the Regents recognized faculty research by appropriating funds for the publication of their writings by the University Press.
His term as President was also a time for receiving splendid gifts. Land donated by Adolph Sutro in San Francisco made possible the unifying of the professional schools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy on one campus; Miss Cora J. Flood gave her family estate in Menlo Park and stock in the Bear Gulch Water Company toward an endowment for a foundation for the study of economics; Edward Searles gave the Mark Hopkins property in San Francisco for a University-affiliated institute of art; and finally, Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst provided the funds for a world-wide competition for an architectural plan for the Berkeley campus.
As he neared his 70th birthday, Kellogg tendered his resignation. It was accepted by the Regents on March 23, 1899, and Kellogg was appointed professor emeritus of Latin with the understanding, however, that he continue to act as President until the end of the academic year.
Following his retirement, he made a trip around the world with Mrs. Kellogg and then returned to Berkeley where he continued in active teaching almost until his death on August 26, 1903.
At a memorial service held for him, President Benjamin Ide Wheeler said, "For 43 years--that is, from the very beginning of the University in the form of the little college in Oakland--he was more intimately connected with the full life of the institution than any other man. I believe, taking all things into consideration, there is no man whose service can be matched against that of Dr. Kellogg."
Benjamin Ide Wheeler
[Photo] Benjamin I. Wheeler 1899-1919
BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER, classical philologist and eighth President of the University (1899-1919) was born in Randolph, Massachusetts, July 15, 1854. He attended Colby Academy in New London and graduated from Brown University with distinction in 1875. During his undergraduate days, he was an athlete as well as a scholar, making the varsity in crew and baseball. After graduation, he taught classical languages at the Providence High School for four years and obtained an M.A. degree from Brown University in 1878. Between 1879 and 1881, he was instructor in Greek at Brown University.
He married Amey Webb of Providence in 1881 and with his wife spent four years in Europe studying at the Universities of Leipzig, Jena, Berlin, and Heidelberg. From the latter, he received the Ph.D. degree summa cum laude in 1885. On his return to America, he was instructor in German at Harvard for a year, then in 1886, he went to Cornell University as professor of comparative philology and Greek.
Wheeler taught at Cornell for 13 years becoming well-known not only for his scholarship and ability as a teacher, but as a link between students and faculty, and as a bond between the University and the community because of his deep interest and participation in affairs relating to both.
When offered the Presidency of the University of California in June, 1899, Wheeler, knowing the difficulties which had beset the position in previous years, presented four conditions which he felt must be agreed upon before he could consider acceptance: 1) that the President should be in fact as in theory, the sole organ of communication between faculty and Regents; 2) that the President should have sole initiative in appointments and removals of professors and other teachers and in matters affecting salary; 3) that the Board, however divided in opinion during discussion, should in all things that the President is called upon to do regarding the faculty, support him as a unit; 4) that the President should be charged with the direction, subject to the Board, of all officers and employees of the University. The Regents agreed to these conditions and on July 18, 1899, Wheeler accepted the Presidency.
He arrived in Berkeley on October 1 to find the University, like the century, at a turning point. Its founding days were over, the well-publicized Hearst Architectural Competition had made it well-known throughout the world, and it was ready to move even further away from the classical university tradition. An excellent speaker, Wheeler sought continually to interpret the University to the people of the state. He proved skillful at obtaining funds for University purposes from private as well as legislative sources. He was about the campus and concerned with student interests whenever possible. He considered student self-government an education for later life and encouraged it.
In the 20 years of his administration, the student enrollment of the University and the membership of the faculty trebled. Eleven granite or concrete structures of the Hearst Plan (five of them, including a new library, financed by private gifts) were added to the Berkeley campus. Twenty new departments began instruction under distinguished scholars and teachers. Research funds were assigned for faculty use, and research stations were established through legislative grant at the University Farm at Davis and the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside. The Scripps Institution for Biological Research at La Jolla and the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research in San Francisco were established through private endowment. A Graduate Division was organized and Summer Sessions were conducted in Los Angeles as well as in Berkeley. The Extension Division was formally organized and greatly developed.
Wheeler retired from the Presidency on his 65th birthday, July 15, 1919, with the title of President Emeritus of the University and professor of comparative philology. For two years, he taught a graduate course in philology, but could not continue because of failing health. In 1926, he and Mrs. Wheeler made a trip to Europe. While in Vienna where their son, Benjamin Webb Wheeler, was studying, Wheeler died on May 2, 1927.
Most of Wheeler's published writings were accomplished before he came to California. The best known are Greek Noun-Accent (1885); Analogy and the Scope of its Application in Language (1887); Introduction to the Study of the History of Language (1891); Organization of Higher Education in the United States (1896); Dionysus and Immortality (1899); Alexander the Great (1900); and Unterricht und Demokratie in America (the Roosevelt lectures, 1910).
He received many honors. In 1898-99, he delivered the Ingersoll Lectures at Harvard University and in 1909-10, he was appointed Theodore Roosevelt Professor at the University of Berlin. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the universities of Princeton, 1896; Brown, 1900; Harvard, 1900; Yale, 1901; Johns Hopkins, 1902; Wisconsin, 1904; Illinois College, 1904; Dartmouth, 1905; Columbia, 1906; Kentucky, 1916; and California, 1922. Colgate University gave him the honorary degree of L.H.D. in 1915.--MD
David Prescott Barrows
[Photo] David P. Barrows 1919-1923
DAVID PRESCOTT BARROWS, political scientist and ninth President of the University (1919-23) was born in Chicago, Illinois, June 27, 1873. While he and his sister were small children their parents moved to a ranch in the Ojai valley, Ventura county, California. He obtained the A.B. degree from Pomona College, California in 1894, the M.A. degree from the University of California in 1895, and a Ph.D. degree in anthropology from the University of Chicago in 1897.
He taught history at San Diego State College for two years and then, in 1900, was appointed superintendent of schools in Manila by William H. Taft, Governor-General of the Philippines. Later, he became chief of the Bureau of the Non-Christian Tribes of the Philippine Islands and, in 1903, director of education for the Islands.
Barrows visited the University of California as a lecturer in anthropology in the spring of 1907. In January, 1910, he was called to the University as professor of education and in August, he was appointed dean of the Graduate School. In 1911, he succeeded Bernard Moses as professor of political science and in July, 1913, he was appointed dean of the faculties. He acted as President while President Wheeler was on leave during the fall semester of 1913.
During World War I, Barrows served with Herbert Hoover on the American Commission for Relief in Belgium, December, 1915-June, 1916. In 1917, he was commissioned major in the U.S. Army and was attached to the 91st Division stationed in the Philippine islands. He accompanied the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia as intelligence officer (and as lieutenant colonel), July, 1918-March, 1919. After the war, he continued in military service in the U.S. National Guard until 1937. As major general in command of the 40th Division of the Guard, he directed the protection of the Port of San Francisco during the three-month longshoremen's strike of 1934.
Barrows was elected President of the University in December, 1919 and took office at once. Caught in the aftermath of the war between doubling enrollments and rising costs, the University had again outgrown its basis of financial support. By means of a "deficit budget," the emergency was met until the meeting of the 1921 legislature when the basic biennial appropriation for University maintenance was increased from $4 million to $9 million. This permitted an increase in the faculty salary scale, one of Barrows' chief concerns. Another attempt to separate the College of Agriculture from the University was averted during his administration and the college was reorganized with freshman and sophomore University instruction offered at Davis as well as at Berkeley.
The years 1919 and 1920 marked a period of adjustment in the relations between the President and faculty of the University. The adjustment followed the so-called "faculty revolution" which took place in the interim between Wheeler's retirement and Barrows' election. Faculty and Regents' committees reached agreement early in 1920 and standing orders adopted by the Regents on June 24 gave the faculty increased powers of self-government including direct access to the Regents through authorized committees. To Barrows, trained in the concept that the President be party to all communication between faculty and Regents, this implied a lack of confidence in the office itself. Also, he did not wholeheartedly approve of the rapid development of the campus at Los Angeles, expressing concern that competition between the two campuses for funds and faculty members might result in the mediocrity of both. In May, 1922, he offered to resign the Presidency and be returned to his former teaching position, but at the request of the Regents, he remained in office another year.
He left the Presidency June 30, 1923. Having been accorded a sabbatical leave, he spent the next year in travel that included a 2,500 mile trek across the French Sudan in the interior of Africa. In 1924, he returned to the department of political science at Berkeley as chairman. During the 1930's, he made several trips to Central and South America under the auspices of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, acted as trustee of the California College in China and of Mills College, and was twice elected a director of the East Bay Utilities District. In World War II, he served as a consultant to the Secretary of War, and subsequently in the Office of Strategic Services.
He became professor emeritus in 1943 and for the next two years was a radio commentator for the International News Service. He also wrote a series of articles on world affairs for the California Monthly. He died suddenly at an outing on his "ranch" in Contra Costa county, September 5, 1954 at the age of 81.
Anna Spencer Nichols and Barrows were classmates at Pomona College and married July, 1895. Mrs. Barrows died April 12, 1936. There were four children: Anna (Mrs. Floyd W. Stewart), Ella (Mrs. Gerald Hagar), Thomas N., and Elizabeth (Mrs. Frank G. Adams). In December, 1937, Barrows married Mrs. Eva S. White, who survived him.
Barrows was awarded the honorary degree of LL.D. by Pomona College, 1914; the University of California, 1919; and Mills College, 1925. He received the honorary degree of Litt.D. from Columbia University in 1923, and of Doctor by the University of Bolivia, 1928. He received the Order of the Crown from Belgium, the Croix de Guerre from Czechoslovakia, the Order of the Sacred Treasure from Japan, and was a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France. In 1933-34, he was Roosevelt Professor at the University of Berlin.
He was the author of: Ethno-Botany of the Coahuilla Indians (1900); History of the Philippines (1903); A Decade of American Government in the Philippine Islands (1915); British Politics in Transition (1925); and Berbers and Blacks (1926); in addition to articles in professional journals and the Callfornia Monthly.--MD
William Wallace Campbell
[Photo] William W. Campbell 1923-1930
WILLIAM WALLACE CAMPBELL, astronomer and tenth President of the University (1923-30) was born of Scottish ancestry on a farm in Hancock county, Ohio, April 11, 1862. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1886 with a B.S. in engineering, but the reading of Newcomb's Popular Astronomy and work as a student assistant in the university observatory under John M. Schaeberle had turned him toward astronomy as a career. After graduation, he taught mathematics at the University of Colorado for two years. Here he met Elizabeth Ballard Thompson, whom he married in 1892. In 1888, he returned to the University of Michigan as instructor in astronomy to succeed Schaeberle, who had gone to the newly-opened Lick Observatory. In the summer of 1890, Campbell studied astrophysics with James E. Keeler at the Lick Observatory. When Keeler resigned the following year to become director of the Allegheny Observatory, Campbell was appointed to his position. Keeler returned to the Lick Observatory as director in 1898 and died suddenly August, 1900. Campbell was then appointed director upon the unanimous recommendation of 12 of the leading astronomers of the world. He took office January 1, 1901.
For the next 23 years, Campbell maintained the Lick Observatory in the front rank of the world's observatories. His achievements and publications in astronomical research were awarded wide recognition. He was awarded five gold medals; the honorary degree of D.Sc. was conferred upon him by the universities of Western Pennsylvania, 1900; Michigan, 1905; Western Australia, 1922; Cambridge, 1925; Columbia, 1928; and Chicago, 1931. The honorary degree of LL.D. was awarded him by the University of Michigan in 1902 and the University of California in 1932. He was made commander of the Order of Leopold II of Belgium, officer of the Legion of Honor, France, and commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy.
He was appointed Silliman Lecturer at Yale, 1909-10; William Ellery Hale Lecturer before the National Academy of Sciences, 1914; and Halley Lecturer at Oxford University, 1925. He was also foreign associate or
In December, 1922, the Regents offered Campbell the Presidency of the University as a successor to Barrows. Campbell was reluctant to leave the Lick Observatory, but agreed to accept the offer if certain conditions were met: 1) that he remain director of the Lick Observatory in charge of general policy, the selection of research problems, and staff; 2) the word "academic" be deleted from the Standing Order of the Regents adopted June 24, 1920 which read: "The President of the University shall be the executive head of the university in all of its academic departments. The President shall be charged with the direction of all academic officers and employees of the University"; 3) other standing orders adopted at the same time giving the faculty direct access to the Regents be amended or repealed so that the President would again be the sole channel of communication between the two bodies; 4) the comptroller should report business matters concerning the individual departments to the President, who would then report them to the Regents. The Regents agreed to these conditions and Campbell became President-elect January 4, 1923.
When he took office in July, 1923, the statewide growth of the University was causing rapid expansion in the functions of the President's office. One of his first acts was the replacement of the dean of the faculties by a dean of the University with enlarged duties in assisting the President. Two years later (1925), he recommended the appointment of two administrative vice-presidents, one to administer academic affairs, the other business and financial matters. An Academic Senate council was formed among the faculty at Los Angeles. Without relinquishing leadership or responsibility for final decisions, he consulted the faculty widely and appointed boards and committees to assist in administration.
In a period of quiet and prosperity, the University grew tremendously, aided by generous private gifts. The Southern Branch became the full-fledged four-year University of California at Los Angeles, and as its campus became inadequate, citizens of the Los Angeles area voted bonds for the purchase of a new campus at Westwood. A few months later, a state bond issue of $3 million was passed for buildings on this new campus and for the replacement of outworn buildings at Berkeley. Also at Berkeley, John D. Rockefeller gave $1.5 million for an International House, William R. Hearst replaced the burned Hearst Hall with a larger gymnasium in memory of his mother, funds from the Cowell Foundation provided for the erection of a student hospital, the Bancitaly Corporation donated $1.5 million to establish the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics and erect a building in which to house it, and Mrs. Philip E. Bowles gave $250,000 for the erection of a dormitory for men. The libraries benefited as Senator William A. Clark of Los Angeles gave his 10,000-volume library of rare editions of French and English literature together with the building housing them to the Los Angeles campus, and Mrs. May T. Morrison gave her husband's library and funds to equip and endow the Morrison Reading Room at the Berkeley library.
Campbell retired from the Presidency and the directorship of Lick Observatory upon reaching the age of 68 in 1930. In 1931, he was elected president of the National Academy of Sciences and steered it skillfully through four financially critical years. Then, as health and eyesight began to fail, he returned with Mrs. Campbell to live in San Francisco where he killed himself June 14, 1938. He was survived by his wife and three sons, Wallace, Douglas and Kenneth.--MD
Robert Gordon Sproul
[Photo] Robert G. Sproul 1930-1958
ROBERT GORDON SPROUL, 11th president of the University (1930-1958) was born in San Francisco, California, May 22, 1891, the first of two sons. His father was a native of Scotland and a graduate of Glasgow University; his mother came from New England. He was educated in the San Francisco public schools and at the University of California, Berkeley, where he received the degree of B.S. in civil engineering in 1913. As a student, he earned his letter in track and served as president of the University YMCA. He was a commencement speaker at graduation.
After a year as efficiency engineer for the Civil Service Commission of the city of Oakland, he returned to the University in 1914 as cashier in the comptroller's office, where he continued until January, 1918, when he became acting secretary of the Regents during the absence of V. H. Henderson. In April, 1918, he became assistant comptroller, assistant secretary of the Regents, and assistant land agent. In 1920, when Ralph Merritt resigned as comptroller, Sproul was appointed to take his place. At this time he also became secretary of the Regents and land agent. When the Regents established two administrative vice-presidencies in 1925, Sproul was appointed vice-president in charge of business and financial affairs. He continued to hold all four titles until he took office as President of the University in July, 1930.
He was chosen President-elect in June, 1929 after Campbell had announced his impending retirement the next year. In the interim, Sproul took a six-month leave of absence to visit other institutions, not only to study their educational and administrative methods, but to widen his acquaintance in the academic world from which future faculty members might come. He was already well-known in California through his public appearances and contacts as comptroller; he had been involved in the development of the Los Angeles campus from its inception; farmers knew him for his work on the State Commission on Agricultural Education; he had been treasurer of the California Alumni Association since 1915; and of the Save-the-Redwoods League since 1921.
Sproul's outstanding contribution during his 28-year administration was the multiple-campus expansion of the University to meet the demands for higher education in widely separated parts of the state, while maintaining one institution governed by one Board of Regents and one President. In 1931, 1945, and 1953, he forestalled ill-considered establishment of numerous local colleges by initiating impartial surveys of higher education, and provided data to guide orderly higher education expansion in California.
Building and campus improvements had to be curtailed in the first 15 years of his administration because of the world-wide financial depression of the 1930's and the exigencies of World War II, but Sproul never allowed the University to falter academically. Good teaching was his first concern, but in the depression years when University legislative appropriations were reduced 25 per cent, he sought unceasingly for private funds to maintain research. The faculty renown attained in this period advanced the national ranking of the University in its number of distinguished departments from tenth place in 1934 as judged by the American Council on Education to second place behind Harvard in 1942.
Another concern was the promotion of a feeling of unity and accord among the highly individual campuses of the expanding University. In 1936, he organized the California Club, which brought student leaders of all campuses together. In 1944, he inaugurated
The increasing complexity of the University's administration was given careful study during the last decade of his Presidency and, in 1951, Sproul announced an administrative reorganization which continued to place responsibility for University-wide administration on the President, but granted considerable autonomy for local affairs to each campus under the direction of a chancellor or provost, and provided a council of chief campus officers for inter-campus relations.
In June, 1958, Sproul retired having seen the University grow from an enrollment of 19,723 in 1930-31 to 46,194 in 1956-57; the plant value increase from $32,689,000 to $203,992,000; library resources enlarged from 1,035,181 volumes to 3,997,245 volumes; state appropriations grown from $7,256,000 to $72,879,000 and the total income increased from $11,313,000 to $209,010,000.
Within a year after his retirement, he was a member of the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments; director, Alameda County Chapter, American Association for the United Nations; chairman, California Advisory Committee on Civil Rights; member, National Council of the Atlantic Union Committee, Inc.; member, Advisory Commission to the Joint Interim Committee on Public Education, California; director, East Bay Regional Park District; member, U.S. Air Force, Air University Board of Visitors.
Sproul and Ida A. Wittschen were married in September, 1916. There are three children: Marion (Mrs. Vernon L. Goodin); Robert Gordon, Jr., and John Allen.
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Occidental College, 1926; University of Southern California, 1930; University of San Francisco, 1930; Pomona College, 1931; University of Oregon, 1932; University of Nebraska, 1935; Yale University, 1935; University of Maine, 1938; University of New Mexico, 1940; Harvard University, 1940; Mills College, 1943; Princeton University, 1947; Tulane University, 1949; St. Mary's College, 1949; University of California, Berkeley, 1958; University of British Columbia, 1958; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1958; and Brigham Young University, 1959. He received the honorary degree of L.H.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles, 1958; and the honorary degree of Litt.D. from Columbia University, 1938.
Among his foreign honors are: France's Officier de l'Ordre National de la Legion d'Honneur; Knight of the Order of the Iron Crown of Italy; and Royal Order of the North Star of Sweden (Commander Second Class).
He was given the Benjamin Ide Wheeler distinguished citizen award by the city of Berkeley, 1934; made an honorary fellow of Stanford University, 1941; and named "Alumnus of the Year" by the California Alumni Association in 1946.--MD
[Photo] Clark Kerr 1958-
CLARK KERR, industrial relations economist and 12th President of the University (1958-), was born in Stony Creek, Pennsylvania, May 17, 1911, and spent his boyhood on a farm. At Swarthmore College, he was captain of the debating team and president of the student body in his senior year. He received an A.B. degree from Swarthmore in 1932, an M.A. degree from Stanford in 1933, and a Ph.D. degree in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1939. He studied at the London School of Economics in 1936 and again in 1939.
He was an instructor of economics at Antioch College in 1936-37, and a teaching fellow and a Newton Booth fellow while studying for his doctorate at Berkeley. He was acting assistant professor of labor economics at Stanford, 1939-40, and assistant professor, then associate professor of economics at the University of Washington, 1940-45.
Kerr joined the Berkeley faculty in 1945 as associate professor of industrial relations in the School of Business Administration, and as organizer and director of the newly established Institute of Industrial Relations. In 1947, he was appointed full professor.
On July 1, 1952, Kerr became Berkeley's first chancellor and developed the administration of that campus during the next six years. (See BERKELEY CAMPUS Administrative Officers.) He was named President-elect of the University on October 18, 1957 to succeed the retiring Robert Gordon Sproul. He took office on July 1, 1958. As President, he assumed leadership in the development of the Master Plan for HIGHER EDUCATION in California, devised long-range academic and physical development plans for the University, implemented new administrative policies granting increased authority to chancellors of the University campuses, and developed new rules providing for less restricted use of University facilities by students and student organizations. During his Presidency, land has been acquired, buildings erected, and instruction begun on new campuses located at Irvine, Santa Cruz, and San Diego.
He has an extensive record as an arbitrator in labor-management disputes including service as impartial chairman, Water Front Employers Pacific Coast versus the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 1946-47; and national arbitrator, Armour and Company versus the United Packing House Workers, 1945-52. He has also been a member of the War Labor Board, during World War 11; National Wage Stabilization Board, 1950-51; President Eisenhower's Commission on National Goals, 1960; and the Commission on Humanities, 1964. He was on the advisory panel of the Society for Scientific Research of the National Science Foundation, 1953-57; a director of the Center for Advanced Behavioral Studies of the Ford Foundation, 1953-61; and is presently a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation.
He is a member of the American, the Royal, and the Western Economic Associations, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Arbitrators, and the American Association of University Professors.
He has received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Swarthmore College, 1952; Harvard University, 1958; Occidental College, 1958; Pomona College, 1959; Princeton University, 1959; Albright College, 1960; University of Bordeaux, 1962; Brandeis University, 1964; Haverford College, 1964; University of Hawaii, 1964; Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1964; University of Strathclyde, 1965; and the honorary degree of L.H.D. from George Washington University, 1964.
He was made "Executive of the Year" by the American College of Hospital Administrators, 1963; received the Human Relations award from the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1964; and, jointly with the Regents, received the Meiklejohn Award from the American Association of University Professors, 1964. In 1963, he delivered the Godkin Lectures at Harvard University.
He is the author of: Collective Bargaining on the Pacific Coast (1948); [with E. W. Bakke] Unions, Management and the Public (1948), rev. ed. 1960; United States Industrial Relations: the Next Twenty Years (1958); Industrialism and Industrial Man (1960); The Uses of the University [Godkin Lectures, Harvard University (1963) ]; Labor and Management in Industrial Society (1964); and numerous contributions to professional periodicals and national magazines.
He married Catherine Spaulding in December, 1934. They have three children: Clark E., Alexander, and Caroline.--MD
On January 20, 1967, after the preceding pages of the Centennial Record were printed, the Regents of the University of California terminated the Presidency of Clark Kerr by a vote of 14 to 8. Throughout the last two years of his administration, student unrest and disturbances on the Berkeley campus (see FREE SPEECH MOVEMENT) drew criticism of the University's management from many citizens and public officials in California. As chief executive of the University, Kerr was held responsible for the restoration of order. On the methods to be used in dealing with the situation at Berkeley and on other matters Kerr was often in disagreement with some of the Regents. In March, 1965, he submitted his resignation from the presidency, but was requested by the Regents to withdraw it a few days later. Thereafter, rumors of Kerr's impending resignation or dismissal reoccurred periodically. They were particularly persistent after November, 1966, when three ex officio members of the Board were replaced as a result of a change in party control of the state administration.
In announcing the action of the Regents on January 20, 1967, Theodore Meyer, chairman of the Board, said that the Regents had decided "that the state of uncertainty which had prevailed for many months concerning the President's status should be resolved without further delay."
The dismissal of Kerr from the Presidency evoked expressions of gratitude and confidence for his service and leadership and criticism of his dismissal from student bodies and divisions of the Academic Senate throughout the University.--VAS
Harry Richard Wellman
[Photo] Henry R. Wellman--Acting President, Januray 1967
HARRY RICHERD WELLMAN, Acting President of the University (January, 1967-), was born March 4, 1899, in Mountainview, Alberta, Canada. When he was three, his family moved to a farm near Umapine, Oregon, where he grew up. After service in the Navy during World War I, he returned to Oregon where he obtained the B.S. degree from Oregon Agricultural College in 1921. That same year he became a naturalized citizen.
After graduation he was County 4-H Club agent in Malheur County, Oregon, for a year, during which time he married Miss Ruth L. Gay. Their daughter, Nancy Jane, is now Mrs. Robert D. Parmelee.
In 1924 Wellman received the M.S. degree and in 1926 the Ph.D. degree in agricultural economics from the University of California, Berkeley. From 1925 to 1934 he was a specialist in agricultural economics in the Extension Service, College of Agriculture, and from 1929 was an associate in the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics.
Wellman was chief of the General Crops Section of the U. S. Agricultural Adjustment Administration in 1934-35. Returning to Berkeley, he became an associate professor of agricultural economics in the College of Agriculture and associate agricultural economist in the Agriculture Experiment Station and in the Gianinni Foundation, rising to professor in 1939. Three years later he was appointed director of the Gianinni Foundation and in 1943 was elected a director of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, a position he held for eleven years.
With the administrative reorganization of the University in 1952, Wellman was appointed vice president-agricultural sciences, holding this position until 1958 when he was appointed the vice president of the University. The Regents named him Acting President in January, 1967. With his appointment as Acting President, Harry R. Wellman succeeded Clark Kerr as a voting, ex officio member of the Board of Regents. The roster of Regents concluding on page 409 was printed before this change could be made.
Wellman's extensive scholarly research has centered on price analysis, marketing and agricultural policy, particularly with respect to California fruits and vegetables. He is the author of more than 150 monographs and articles, and in 1960 was awarded the honorary degree of LL.D. by Oregon State University. He is a member of the American Farm Economics Association (president, 1952-53) and the Western Farm Economics Association (president, 1948-49).--M.D.
1 With his appointment as Acting President, Harry R. Wellman succeeded Clark Kerr as a voting, ex officio member of the Board of Regents. The roster of Regents concluding on page 409 was printed before this change could be made.
Administrative Officers Titles are listed in the chronological order of their first use. Titles derived from earlier titles or specific functions are shown in proximity to original title or function.
|ROBERT A. FISHER||1869-1870|
|Position replaced by dean of the Academic Senate.|
|Discontinued in 1885. Title changed to dean of the College of Letters and of the Colleges of Science.|
|Discontinued in 1896.|
|IRVING STRINGHAM||July-Oct. 1909|
|ALEXIS F. LANGE With the additional title of dean of the Graduate Division, 1909-1910.||1909-1913|
|DAVID P. BARROWS||1913-1915|
|HENRY R. HATFIELD Acting while incumbent on leave.||Jan.-June 1916|
|DAVID P. BARROWS||1916-1917|
|HENRY R. HATFIELD Acting while incumbent on leave.||1917-1918|
|CHARLES M. GAYLEY||1918-1919|
|JOHN C. MERRIAM||Jan.-June 1920|
|HENRY R. HATFIELD||1920-1923|
|Discontinued in 1923. Title changed to dean of the University.|
|WALTER M. HART With the additional title of vice-president of the University after 1925.||1923-1930|
|MONROE E. DEUTSCH With additional title of vice-president of the University.||1930-1931|
|In July, 1931, the title of this office was changed to provost of the University.|
|MONROE E. DEUTSCH||1931-1947|
|EARLE R. HEDRICK||1937-1942|
|CLARENCE A. DYKSTRA||1945-1950|
|Office superceded by that of the chancellor on Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses, effective July, 1952.|
|ERNEST C. MOORE||1931-1936|
|WALTER M. HART With the additional title of dean of the University.||1925-1930|
|ROBERT GORDON SPROUL With the additional titles of comptroller, secretary of the Regents, and land agent.||1925-1930|
|MONROE E. DEUTSCH An addition to his title as provost of the University.||1930-1947|
|ERNEST C. MOORE An addition to his title as provost, University of California at Los Angeles.||1930-1936|
|EARLE R. HEDRICK An addition to their title of provost of the University.||1937-1942|
|CLAUDE B. HUTCHISON An addition to his title as dean of the College of Agriculture.||1945-1952|
|CLARENCE A. DYKSTRA An addition to their title of provost of the University.||1948-1950|
|HARRY R. WELLMAN||1958-|
|CHARLES J. HITCH||1966-|
|JAMES H. CORLEY||1950-1958|
|Title changed to vice-president--business and office placed under jurisdiction of the President, effective January, 1959.|
|JAMES H. CORLEY James Corley served as vice-president--business in addition to his new appointment as vice-president--governmental relations and projects until a new vice-president--business was named.||Jan.-Dec. 1959|
|ELMO R. MORGAN||1959-1965|
|In 1965, this office was reorganized. Its functions were divided between vice-president--business and finance and vice-president--physical planning and construction.|
|RAYMOND W. KETTLER||1960-1963|
|No further appointment was made until 1965 at which time new functions were added and the title was changed to vice-president--business and finance.|
|CHARLES J. HITCH||1965-1966|
|FREDERICK E. BALDERSTON||1966-|
|ELMO R. MORGAN||1965-|
|JAMES H. CORLEY||1959-1964|
|Office abrogated July, 1964. Its functions were divided among other University-wide offices.|
|EARL C. BOLTON||1966-|
|RICHARD J. STULL||1955-1959|
|JOHN D. PORTERFIELD, M.D.||1962-1965|
|CLINTON C. POWELL, M.D.||1965-|
|STANLEY E. MCCAFFREY||1956-1960|
|JOHN W. OSWALD Although this office bears the same title as the one held by Stanley McCaffrey, its responsibilities were quite different.||1961-1962|
|EUGENE C. LEE Position was unfilled until February, 1965. At that time its duties were revised.||1965-|
|THOMAS J. CUNNINGHAM||1959-1966|
|EARL C. BOLTON||1961-1964|
|THOMAS C. SORENSEN||1966-|
|JOHN W. OSWALD||1962-1963|
|This position was not filled again until 1964 at which time the duties were redefined.|
|EARL C. BOLTON||1964-|
|ANGUS E. TAYLOR||1965-|
|EUGENE W. HILGARD||1896-1906|
|EDWARD J. WICKSON||1906-1912|
|THOMAS FORSYTH HUNT||1912-1920|
|WALTER MULFORD Acting while incumbent on leave.||1920-1921|
|THOMAS FORSYTH HUNT||1921-1923|
|HERBERT J. WEBBER (acting)||July-Dec. 1923|
|ELMER D. MERRILL||1924-1930|
|CLAUDE B. HUTCHISON Dean Hutchison was also vice-president of the University, 1945-52.||1931-1952|
|A University-wide Division of Agricultural Sciences, administered by vice-president--agricultural sciences, was established in 1952.|
|HARRY R. WELLMAN||1952-1958|
|This office was redesignated University dean of agriculture in 1958.|
|DANIEL C. ALDRICH||1959-1963|
|MAURICE L. PETERSON||1963-|
|HENRY MORSE STEPHENS||1902-1909|
|DONALD E. SMITH Acting while incumbent on leave.||1909-1910|
|HENRY MORSE STEPHENS||1910-1912|
|IRA W. HOWERTH||1912-1918|
|LEON J. RICHARDSON||1918-1921|
|JOHN J. VAN NOSTRAND Acting while incumbent on leave.||1921-1922|
|LEON J. RICHARDSON||1922-1930|
|BOYD D. RAKESTRAW Acting while incumbent on leave.||1930-1931|
|LEON J. RICHARDSON||1931-1938|
|BOYD D. RAKESTRAW (acting)||1938-1942|
|BALDWIN M. WOODS||1942-1950|
|The office of vice-president--University Extension was established in 1950.|
|BALDWIN M. WOODS||1950-1956|
|The office of vice-president--University Extension was rescinded in 1957.|
|PAUL H. SHEATS||1957-1959|
|The title of this office was changed to dean of University Extension in 1959.|
|PAUL H. SHEATS||1959-|
|ALEXIS F. LANGE||1909-1910|
|DAVID P. BARROWS||1910-1913|
|ARMIN O. LEUSCHNER||1913-1915|
|The Graduate School became the Graduate Division in 1915.|
|ARMIN O. LEUSCHNER||1915-1918|
|WILLIAM CAREY JONES Acting while incumbent on leave.||1918-1919|
|ARMIN O. LEUSCHNER||1920-1923|
|CHARLES B. LIPMAN||1923-1939|
|The administration of the Graduate Division was divided into two sections in 1939.|
|CHARLES B. LIPMAN||1939-1944|
|JAMES P. MCBAINE (acting)||1944-1945|
|JOHN D. HICKS||1945-1947|
|MORRIS A. STEWART (acting)||1947-1948|
|WILLIAM R. DENNES||1948-1955|
|MORRIS A. STEWART||1955-1958|
|VERN O. KNUDSEN||1939-1942|
|BENNETT M. ALLEN Acting while incumbent on leave.||1942-1944|
|VERN O. KNUDSEN||1944-1952|
|GUSTAVE O. ARLT Acting while incumbent on leave.||July-Dec. 1952|
|VERN O. KNUDSEN||1953-1958|
|Divisions were designated Graduate Division, North. and Graduate Division, South, in 1958.|
|MORRIS A. STEWART||1958-1961|
|GUSTAVE O. ARLT||1958-1961|
|Individual campuses were given authority for graduate divisions and the University-wide division was eliminated in 1961.|
|WALTER H. BROWN (acting)||1944-1946|
|EDWARD S. ROGERS||1946-1951|
|CHARLES E. SMITH||1951-|
|DEAN E. MCHENRY||1960-1963|
|ROBERT D. TSCHIRGI||1964-1965|
|The title of this office was changed to University dean of planning in 1965.|
|ROBERT D. TSCHIRGI||1965-|
|FRANK L. KIDNER||1960-|
+ Titles are listed in the chronological order of their first use. Titles derived from earlier titles or specific functions are shown in proximity to original title or function.
* Acting while incumbent on leave.
1 This office, created in 1909, was concerned with the “personal well-being and conduct of the student body as a whole and provisions for their instruction.” Later, the dean of the academic faculties also assisted the President, and performed the duties of the President during his absence.
2 With the additional title of dean of the Graduate Division, 1909-1910.
3 With the additional title of vice-president of the University after 1925.
4 With additional title of vice-president of the University after 1925.
5 With the additional title of dean of the University.
6 With the additional titles of comptroller, secretary of the Regents, and land agent.
7 An addition to his title as provost of the University.
8 An addition to his title as provost, University of California at Los Angeles.
9 An addition to their title of provost of the University.
10 An addition to his title as dean of the College of Agriculture.
11 This office originally created in 1949 as “Executive Vice-President” was not filled until 1958, and then under its present title.
12 James Corley served as vice-president--business in addition to his new appointment as vice-president--governmental relations and projects until a new vice-president--business was named.
13 Although this office bears the same title as the one held by Stanley McCaffrey, its responsibilities were quite different.
14 Position was unfilled until February, 1965. At that time its duties were revised.
15 All deans of the College of Agriculture except Walter Mulford and Herbert Webber were, in addition, directors, Agricultural Experiment Station.
16 Dean Hutchison was also vice-president of the University, 1945-52.
17 The School of Public Health was a University-wide unit until 1961.
Since its establishment in 1868, the University has employed a variety of undergraduate admissions criteria. In the act establishing the University, the Regents were directed to set the “moral and intellectual qualifications for admission.” Because of extensive faculty participation in the admissions program, the right of decision on admissions policy was formally transferred to the Academic Senate in 1885, subject to final approval by the Regents. The practices followed for freshman admissions of resident students are summarized below:
- 1869-81 Oral examinations of prospective students by University faculty members.
- 1881-84 Written examination, with algebra and geometry required for agriculture and mechanic arts, and, in addition, classical language for letters.
- 1884-1918 On the basis of official “accrediting” of the high school by a visiting committee of the Academic Senate, the recommendation of the high school principal was accepted in lieu of an examination in any required subject. Examinations were required of the applicant in subjects not recommended. Admissions by examination was continued. During the 1917-18 academic year, all students recommended by the military forces for enrollment in Student Army Training Corps were admitted.
- 1919-31 Admission granted to the applicant on the recommendation of his high school principal, as distinguished from the recommendation that the courses taken by the applicant exempt him from all or part of his entrance examinations.
- 1931-33 A pattern of required high school subjects was established and admission granted on the achievement of eight units of grade A or B in the ten required units.
- 1933-1962 The subject pattern concept was continued with a B average required in grades earned in tenth, 11th, and 12th years of secondary school work. Variant methods were established to allow for the applicant who did not meet the pattern but had high scholarship in work completed. The secondary school principal was given the responsibility for determining the content of the course submitted in satisfaction of meeting the requirement.
- 1962- The subject pattern with B average required in grades earned in tenth, 11th, and 12th of secondary school work continued. In 1964, a C or better was required in all subject-pattern courses including the ninth year. All various methods of qualifying for admission, except the College Entrance Examination Board plan, were discontinued to conform to the master plan requirement that the University select its undergraduate resident students from the top one-eighth of California public secondary school graduates.
Admissions with Advanced Standing
Because of the state's extensive junior college (79 in 1965) and state college (19 in 1965) system, the University admits large numbers of transfer students each year. Academic Senate rules are not specific in regard to admission of transfer applicants, but the senate's Board of Admission and Relations with Schools directs that applicants must meet the same standard of preparation required of students who enter the University from secondary schools. Therefore, applicants who were not eligible for admission to the University at the time of high school graduation are required to establish eligibility at other institutions before admission is granted. These patterns or requirements are summarized as follows:
1933-52 Make up high school subject deficiencies, if any, and achieve one of the following scholarship standings on college courses
acceptable for transfer:
- 2.5 grade-point average Based on the system of one unit of A equals four grade points. on 15-29 units
- 2.3 grade-point average on 30-39 units
- 2.2 grade-point average on 40-59 units
- 2.0 grade-point average on 60 units or more
1952-57 Make up high school subject deficiencies, if any, and achieve one of the following scholarship standings on college courses
acceptable for transfer:
- 2.5 grade-point average on 15-29 units
- 2.3 grade-point average on 30 units or more
- 2.0 grade-point average on 60 units or more, provided all requirements for junior standing in the University have been completed.
1957-62 Make up high school subject deficiencies, if any, and achieve one of the following scholarship standings in college courses
acceptable for transfer:
- 2.4 grade-point average on 30 or more units, plus a satisfactory score on the College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Test, or
- 2.4 grade-point average on 60 or more units.
1962- Make up high school deficiencies, if any, and earn:
- 2.4 grade-point average or better on a minimum of 56 units of accepted college transfer work.
The University continues to honor its commitment under the Master Plan for Higher Education to accommodate all students who are in the upper 12.5 per cent of California high school graduates and who seek admission to the University; however, because of necessary enrollment limitations, not all qualified students are able to attend the campus of their first preference.--HOWARD B. SHONTZ
1 Based on the system of one unit of A equals four grade points.
Legislation that created the University of California in 1868 empowered the Regents to affiliate with the University “any incorporated College of Medicine or of Law, or other special course of instruction now existing, or which may hereafter be created, upon such terms as to the respective corporations may be deemed expedient.” The affiliated college could retain its own board of trustees and full control of its own property. Its students could receive University of California degrees as long as the President of the University was also president and an ex-officio member of its faculty. The University assumed no responsibility for the day-to-day financial management of affiliated colleges and they charged student fees to meet expenses and payrolls.
A School of Pharmacy (SAN FRANCISCO CAMPUS) begun by the California Pharmaceutical Society in 1872 became an affiliated college in 1873. HASTINGS COLLEGE OF THE LAW was created by the legislature in 1878 and became affiliated with the University in 1879. In 1893, the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art (now the SAN FRANCISCO ART INSTITUTE) became affiliated. The San Francisco Polyclinic was affiliated in 1892 to provide a postgraduate medical department for the University. This affiliation ended in 1906. A short-lived California Veterinary College affiliation began in 1894 but ended in 1901 because of a shortage of students and finances.
The University's medical and dental departments in San Francisco began as independently incorporated colleges and were also required to finance operations through student fees in the early years. Understandably, therefore, they were commonly but erroneously regarded as “affiliated” colleges.
In 1895, the legislature appropriated $250,000 for the construction of what turned out to be four buildings for the University's “professional and affiliated colleges” in San Francisco.
Ironically, the School of Pharmacy (which became fully integrated into the University in 1934) was the only “affiliated” college to occupy a building on the Sutro Heights site.
Hastings College of the Law and the San Francisco Art Institute continue to retain affiliated status, and, in May, 1965, the Regents signed an affiliation agreement with the CALIFORNIA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE in Los Angeles.--VAS
REFERENCES: California, Statutes (1867-1868), c. CCXLIV, sec. 8, 248; California, Statutes (1895), c. LXXIII, 69-70; Biennial Report of President of the University on Behalf of the Regents to His Excellency the Governor of the State, 1898-1900 (Berkeley, 1900), 84; Biennial Report of the Regents of UC for the Years 1873-1875, 99; ibid., 1877-1879, 69; Annual Report of the Secretary to the Board of Regents of UC for the Year Ending June 30, 1892, 38-39, 43-52; Annual Report of the Secretary ... June 30, 1894, 3; Annual Report of the Secretary ... June 30, 1896, 73; Annual Report of the Secretary ... June 30, 1899, 69.
African Studies Center (LA)
This language and area study center, established in 1959, seeks to increase knowledge and understanding of the land and peoples of Africa through development of undergraduate and graduate instruction as well as research on African affairs by faculty and students. Support comes from federal, private and University funds. Course offerings related to Africa range through anthropology, art, economics, education, geography, history, linguistics, music, political science, and sociology. Languages of the Near East and Africa as well as English, French and German are taught. The center arranges lectures and seminars for undergraduates and engages visiting faculty members from abroad. Foreign scholars visit the center for collaboration, study, and research.
While developing area specialists, the center also works to “raise the visibility” of problems and phenomena of the African area for scholars in other disciplines. Specialized training is provided for Americans and nationals of other countries who are preparing for careers in business or government service in Africa. These include more than 40 graduate students from Africa seeking advanced degrees at UCLA. Nearly 1,000 PEACE CORPS volunteers have been trained at the center for service in Nigeria, Ethiopia, Togo, Sierra Leone, and Ghana, through studies in the history, culture, politics, and the dominant language of their assigned country.--HN
REFERENCES: African Studies Center, African Studies at UCLA; ASC, Technical Studies Report 1963-64.
African Studies, Committee for (B)
African Studies, Committee for (B), was organized in 1960 under the sponsorship of the Institute of INTERNATIONAL STUDIES to encourage faculty member research in the African field and to train graduate students. There is no degree program in African studies as such, but students may designate Africa as a field of specialization in such disciplines as political science, anthropology, economics, and history. In 1964-65, 62 graduate students were specializing in African studies. Since 1960, the National Defense Education Act has provided funds for graduate fellowships.
The committee itself consists of 13 Africanists of broad interdisciplinary interests. They cooperate closely with the AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER at the Los Angeles campus in arranging short-term visiting programs of African specialists, and work with specialists in other areas in the social and natural sciences and professional schools. In 1964, the committee arranged a conference on “Ecology and Economic Development in Africa”; and in 1965, one on “Changing Institutions in Africa: Theory and Application.” Each semester, there is also a seminar of interest to faculty and graduate students. The development of library materials and documentation is part of the committee's responsibility. In addition, since 1960, the members have been authors or editors of publications that include 16 books.--HN
REFERENCES: David W. Brokensha, Letter to Centennial Editor, April 26, 1965; General Catalogue, 1965-1966 (Berkeley), 146; list of faculty publications, 1964-65.
Agricultural College Land Grant
See MORRILL LAND GRANT ACTS.
Agricultural History Center (D)
The proposal to establish a center to advance the knowledge of agricultural history was approved by the Regents at their April, 1964 meeting. The center was set up immediately to assume the responsibility of editing the Agricultural History Society's journal, Agricultural History. Application soon will be made for foundation support to finance an expansion of its research, teaching, and service activities.
An advisory committee appointed by the chancellor determines policy. A director coordinates and administers the functions of the center with the assistance of an affiliated staff of faculty members.--EF
REFERENCES: UC Davis, Proposal to Establish an Agricultural History Center (Leaflet, 1964); James H. Shideler, Letter to Centennial Editor, February 17, 1965.
Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College
Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College was created by the California legislature in 1866 to take advantage of the provisions of the MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT, which granted California 150,000 acres of land for the endowment of agricultural and mechanical arts colleges. The directors constituted to establish the college chose a location north of the Berkeley site of the COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA. In 1868, the legislature utilized the endowment first intended for the Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College and land donated by the College of California in the founding of the University of California and gave priority to the establishment of colleges of agriculture, mechanic arts, and mines within the new University.--MAS
REFERENCES: William W. Ferrier, Origin and Development of the University of California (Berkeley, 1930), 44, 62-77, 256-275; Papers of the California Historical Society (San Francisco, 1887), I, ii, 211-212; Regents' Manual (Berkeley, 1904), 15-17.
Agricultural Sciences, Division of
California's agricultural history predates the missions and the missionaries, but it got its first real start, on any sort of organized basis, in the 1850's and 1860's, when encouragement was given to farming interests by the state. The first Constitution of California (1849) included this provision: “The Legislature shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improvement.”
On May 13, 1854, the legislature chartered the State Agricultural Society, and authorized it to purchase no more than four sections of land for a model experimental farm or farms. Improvements were authorized which should be “calculated and designed for the meetings of the Society, and for an exhibition of the various breeds of horses, cattle, mules and other stock, and of agricultural, mechanical and domestic manufactures.” Annual appropriations of $5,000 were made, and formation of other agricultural societies was authorized.
As early as 1857, a school or college of agriculture was envisioned by State Agricultural Society leaders, and a year later,
Federal funds for a college of agriculture were made available under the MORRILL ACT of July 2, 1862. When the state legislature created the University of California in March, 1868, it stipulated that the College of Agriculture should be the first of the colleges established within the University framework. During the first few years, agriculture did not receive the attention it deserved, or for which the law provided. During the 1870's, however, under the outstanding leadership of Prof. Eugene Woldemar Hilgard, experimental grounds were established on the Berkeley campus, and both instruction in agricultural pursuits and applied scientific research were incorporated into the program. Both the program and the experimental grounds are still operating at Berkeley, and have been extended to University campuses at Davis and Riverside. California has zoomed to national agricultural eminence not only because of its natural climate, but also because of the warm climate of agricultural research and application made possible after the University's establishment.
The state's $3.5 billion in annual cash income for farmers is the keystone of the state's economy. The value of agricultural research over the years is reflected in the recent estimate that the “real economic returns to the state each year from the University's research findings surpass all of the monetary expenditures this state has provided for research in all the nearly 100 years since the University's founding.” Agriculture probably shows more of the effects of research than any other field.
The University's Division of Agricultural Sciences is widespread and far reaching. It includes the College of Agriculture, now concentrated on three of the campuses, the Schools of Forestry and Veterinary Medicine, the Agricultural Experiment Station, with statewide research facilities in ten California communities, and the Agricultural Extension Service which takes the results of the research into the fields, onto the farms, and into the homes of the people of the state.
The GIANNINI FOUNDATION of Agricultural Economics and the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, are allied with the experiment station and thus tied into the division. The Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station work together to make local research on thousands of farms possible. Agricultural Extension also administers the youth educational activities of the state's 4-H Clubs.
The University's Agricultural Experiment Station, the oldest college-created experiment station in continuous operation in the nation, was founded in 1874, years ahead of the Hatch Act, passed in 1887, to abet establishment of agricultural experiment stations all across the nation.
The first off-campus arm of the experiment station was established in 1907 in Riverside County as the Citrus Experiment Station. Since then, ten field stations have been established within the framework of the experiment station.
As noted earlier, the Giannini Foundation and the Kearney Foundation are part of the Division of Agricultural Sciences. The Giannini Foundation was established in 1928, thanks to a grant from the eminent California banker, A. P. Giannini. A bequest from M. Theodore Kearney, who left his entire estate to the University for agricultural instruction and experimentation, made the Kearney Foundation work possible.
Another integral part of the division is the School of Forestry (See: BERKELEY CAMPUS, Colleges and Schools), established as a school in 1947, although a part of the University program since 1914, when it was the Division of Forestry.
Probably the most strenuous birth of a program at the University was that of the School of Veterinary Medicine (See: DAVIS CAMPUS, Colleges and Schools). The idea for the school was conceived about 1875, but it was not until 1941, after a few misdirected starts, that the state legislature made an appropriation to the University for the establishment of a school. This seems somewhat strange, with livestock so long a vital part of western development. But historians remind us that in the early days of California, “horses were as abundant as dogs and chickens” in Monterey, and beef was cheaper than the salt needed to eat it. In 1850, one tome tells us, no veterinarians were listed in the San Francisco city directory. In 1862 there were only six. When it was suggested in 1875 that a chair of Veterinary Surgery be established at the University, the idea died aborning. A year later, however, a physician was appointed to teach veterinary science at Chaffee Agricultural College, and not at the University.
[Photo] A University farm advisor consults with a California farmer in a cooperative experiment with air-supported plastic greenhouses.
Not until 1895 did the demand for a school become insistent enough that veterinarians and medical and academic personnel of the University co-operated to organize a veterinary department at the Affiliated Colleges in San Francisco. But the school was closed in 1900 for a lack of students. The following year, an instructor in veterinary science and bacteriology was appointed at the University, but it was not until 1941 that the state legislature provided funds to get a School of Veterinary Medicine started.
As the University celebrates its centennial, Agricultural Extension, its off-campus educational arm, marks 54 years of official existence. Agricultural Extension was established nation-wide by the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914, but in California, the service was in operation as a part of the University two years earlier. It was an outgrowth of a series of Farmers Institutes inaugurated in 1892, and held throughout California, “wherever interest in agriculture was manifested.” A direct development of the institutes were the “demonstration trains,” which ran
Under federal law, Agricultural Extension originally was designed “to aid in diffusing ... useful and practical information relating to agriculture and home economics and to encourage its application.” The basic purposes still exist, as the service, in co-operation with county governments and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), offers out-of-school instruction and information in both home economics and agriculture, based on the latest findings in the research facilities of the University and the USDA. Agricultural Extension, which already operated in four counties of California before the Smith-Lever Act was signed into law, now is directly active in 56 of California's 58 counties through its staff of specialists and farm and home advisors utilizing personal contact, meetings, schools, and mass media to tell their story. It has well earned the description applied to it by former President Herbert Clark Hoover: “The greatest adult education effort in the world.”--MAURICE L. PETERSON
Agricultural Experiment Station Directors
|EUGENE W. HILGARD With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.||1888-1906|
|EDWARD J. WICKSON (acting) With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.||1906-1907|
|EDWARD J. WICKSON With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.||1907-1912|
|THOMAS FORSYTH HUNT With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.||Aug. 1912-1919|
|HERBERT J. WEBBER||1919-1920|
|CLARENCE M. HARING||1920-1923|
|CLARENCE M. HARING (acting)||1923-1924|
|ELMER D. MERRILL With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.||1924-Dec. 1930|
|CLAUDE B. HUTCHISON Also vice-president of the University and dean of the College of Agriculture, 1945-49.||Jan. 1931-1949|
|PAUL F. SHARP||1949-1962|
|MAURICE L. PETERSON||1962-|
1 With additional appointment of dean of the College of Agriculture.
2 Also vice-president of the University and dean of the College of Agriculture, 1945-49.
Agricultural Extension Service Directors
|B. H. CROCHERON State leader Agricultural Extension Service, 1913-1919.||1919-1948|
|CHESTER W. RUBEL (acting)||1948-1949|
|J. EARL COKE||1949-1953|
|WAYNE WEEKS (acting)||1953-1954|
|J. EARL COKE||1954-1955|
|WAYNE WEEKS (acting)||1955-1956|
|GEORGE B. ALCORN||1956-|
1 State leader Agricultural Extension Service, 1913-1919.
Agricultural Field Stations
Antelope Valley Field Station is located ten miles west of Lancaster, California, at an elevation of 2,400 feet in a typically desert climate. It was established in 1949 to meet research needs in California in dry-land and irrigated agriculture. The work on the 80-acre station is about equally divided in this respect. The dry-land research has included cultural and rotation studies, weed control, fertilizer studies, and variety testing in cereals. Field, vegetable, and horticultural crops have been involved in the irrigated land program. Both the dry-land and irrigation programs cooperate in research into soils and irrigation problems. The Antelope Valley Station is used primarily for research conducted by the University's Departments of Agronomy, Water Science and Engineering, Pomology, and Soils and Plant Nutrition.
Deciduous Fruit Field Station was founded as a horticultural field station in Mountain View in 1920. Later, direction of the work was transferred to the Department of Plant Pathology and the work program was shifted to a small site on Willow Street in San Jose. In 1926, the station was reestablished on the present site on Los Gatos Road. The Women's Relief Corps (WRC) Home of California occupied one third of the 18-acre parcel and the University's field station the rest of it. In 1952, the area not occupied by the WRC Home was deeded to the University. In 1962, the WRC Home was closed and the remaining land was deeded to the University. Since that time, San Jose and Santa Clara have grown up around the station. Some of the University's early work on pear blight was done here. At present, the station is primarily concerned with strawberry breeding and testing and studies into diseases of strawberries, deciduous fruit, and walnuts. Among the University departments most active at the station are agronomy, entomology, pomology, and plant pathology.
Hopland Field Station, one of the largest of the University research areas, comprises 5,307 acres in Mendocino county east of Hopland. It was established in 1951 at the request of several departments of the Division of Agricultural Sciences desiring a permanent location where longtime experiments on range improvement and livestock management could be conducted. About two thirds of the land is grass woodland and a third of it is brush. Experiments are carried out in all phases of range improvement. A flock of sheep is maintained for numerous animal husbandry experiments. Grazing animals also provide measured results in range improvement studies of other University departments. Hydrological experiments on watershed units; wildlife investigations, including studies of population dynamics, disease, and parasites; and range weed, brush, and tree control are important aspects of the work at Hopland. Among departments involved in research at this station are agronomy, animal husbandry, botany, economics, entomology, forestry, water science and engineering, plant pathology, soils and plant nutrition, veterinary medicine, and zoology.
Imperial Valley Field Station, the oldest field station in continuous operation in California, is situated at sea-level at Meloland between El Centro and Holtville. The first 20 acres of the 250-acre station were purchased in December, 1911. Principal research work envelops field crops, alfalfa breeding, livestock management, and vegetable crops. The station, in the heart of the rich Imperial Valley, is ideally situated for the research needed into desert-type agriculture. Some of the most interesting work has been environmental studies with beef cattle and other livestock and their tolerance by breed under the high desert temperatures. Environmental tests, involving livestock programs in relation to human habitation, have been conducted with success. Research into a wide variety of vegetable crops is continuing. Agronomy, animal husbandry, agricultural engineering, entomology, water science and engineering, soils and plant nutrition, and vegetable crops departments are active at the station.
Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, on of the newest of the University's field stations, encompasses an area of 5,700 acres in Yuba County near Brown's Valley, 17 miles northeast of Marysville. The land for this field station, the largest in the University complex was purchased in June, 1960. A variety of research is planned and is under way. Principal activity centers around range cattle programs, wildlife, brush conversion, reseeding, fertilization, grazing management, and watershed studies. The mapping of vegetation and soils of the area is completed. Research at Sierra Foothill is co-ordinated with similar projects under way at the University's Hopland Field Station. The Departments of Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, Botany, and Zoology, and the School of Forestry are among those using the station's facilities for research.
South Coast Field Station, another of the newer field stations, was established in 1956 after several years in the planning stage. Comprised of 200 acres, it is located about nine miles southeast of Santa Ana in Orange county on land that was a part of the famous Irvine Ranch. Research is being conducted on avocados, citrus, lima beans, ornamental horticulture, turfgrasses, strawberries, and vegetable crops. Supporting work is being carried on in entomology, irrigation and soils, and plant pathology. The station was established in Orange county to provide research facilities unavailable in nearby Riverside county because of climatic conditions. A dozen of the University's departments are using the facilities at the south coast station. Included are agronomy, entomology, floriculture and ornamental horticulture, horticulture, horticultural science, water science and engineering, plant pathology, pomology, soils and plant nutrition, vegetable crops, and viticulture and enology.
Tulelake Field Station is an 18-acre facility at Tulelake in Siskiyou county, which serves the Tulelake basin, spreading into both Siskiyou and Modoc counties. The station was established in 1947 to conduct research into the growing of barley and potatoes, the two principal crops of the region, and also to seek (in cooperation with the Tulelake Growers Association) other crops that could be grown at a profit to the farmers of the basin. Because Tulelake is an unusual growing area for California, it makes a particularly interesting field station site. At this 4,000-foot elevation, the winters are cold, there is a short growing season, and frost may be severe almost any month of the year. Because of the weather conditions, the station is especially suited for study of potato diseases and cold area storage problems. Vegetable trials at Tulelake have included asparagus, cabbage, and spinach. Weather studies have been extensive. The agronomy, entomology, water science and engineering, plant pathology, soils and plant nutrition, and vegetable crops departments have been active at Tulelake.
West Side Field Station, established in 1959, is located six miles south of Five Points on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The station is well situated for the study of varied problems besetting crops of the great Central Valley. Research has been conducted in alfalfa seed production, cotton, grain, sorghums, oil crops (including safflower and sunflower), grass seed production, viticulture and enology, irrigation, drainage, peanuts, salinity problems, and vegetable crops. Supporting work has been carried out in entomology, plant pathology, and soils and plant nutrition. Other research has enveloped cereal evaluation, mineral influence on water penetration, and a wide variety of plant disease and pest investigations. In the cotton programs, there has been extensive cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture staff members at the Shafter Cotton Field Station. Among the University departments active in the West Side research programs are agricultural engineering, agronomy, botany, entomology, water science and engineering, plant pathology, pomology, soils and plant nutrition, vegetable crops, and viticulture and enology. The Agricultural Research Service Groundwater Recharge Project also has participated in research studies at West Side.
Lindcove Field Station: With the moving of citrus production northward into the San Joaquin Valley, the establishment of the Lindcove Field Station became a virtual necessity. The station, put to use in 1959, is located on 93 acres near the town of Lindcove in Tulare county, 15 miles east of Visalia. Lindcove's primary purpose is the development of improved varieties and rootstocks and better cultural practices for the production of citrus in the San Joaquin Valley. Studies are being made of citrus strain and rootstock evaluation, testing of foreign citrus introduction, research on citrus fertilization, irrigation, and other cultural practices. A small citrus variety collection for breeding purposes is a part of the station. Further activity includes citrus breeding programs, citrus variety improvement and virus diseases, avocado breeding and variety evaluation, and studies of other subtropicals. The station is to serve as the key foundation plot in the citrus variety improvement program that will provide primary sources of true-to-name scion and rootstocks, free of known virus diseases. University departments using the facility include horticultural sciences, plant pathology, and vegetable crops. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Date and Citrus Station at Indio also participates in the program.
Kearney Horticultural Field Station is located two miles west of Reedley on 230 acres of land purchased for the University in 1961 and 1965. Ground was broken for the Kearney station in April, 1964, and formal dedication of the facility occurred in May, 1965. The horticultural research specialties of the station include deciduous fruits and nuts, grapes, and all products of the great Central Valley whose agriculture and economy will be the principal beneficiaries of activity there. A large number of plantings, including grapes, walnuts, olives, and fruits preceded the formal beginnings of the station, so results already are beginning to come into the brand-new unit. Among projects of the station are grapes, involving mechanical harvest; variety trials; plum breeding; sweet potatoes and other vegetable crops; irrigation and soils experiments; herbicide studies; possible production of tea in California; and olive, walnut, and wine grape studies. University departments using Kearney horticultural facilities are agricultural engineering, agronomy, botany, water science and engineering, plant pathology, pomology, vegetable crops, and viticulture and enology. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Crops Research Division at Fresno also does work at the Reedley station.--J. I. MYLER
Farm Advisor Offices
|County||Year Established||Director (1966)|
|Alameda||1914||HARWOOD L. HALL|
|Amador||1955||ROBERT E. PLAISTER|
|Calaveras||1960||DANIEL M. IRVING|
|Colusa||1925||THOMAS M. ALDRICH|
|Contra Costa||1917||PAUL W. LAMBORN|
|El Dorado||1917||D. BARRY LEESON|
|Fresno||1917||RAY C. CROUCH|
|Glenn||1915||ROY B. JETER|
|Humboldt||1913||JOHN V. LENZ|
|Imperial||1916||ADOLPH VAN MAREN|
|Inyo-Mono||1921||P. DEAN SMITH|
|Kern||1914||JOHN O. HOYT|
|Kings||1918||STEPHEN P. CARLSON|
|Lassen||1922||L. E. “BING” FRANCIS|
|Los Angeles||1918||KENNETH M. SMOYER|
|Madera||1914||WALTER E. EMRICK|
|Marin||1920||WINSTON L. ENGVALL|
|Mendocino||1918||WILLIAM H. BROOKS, III|
|Merced||1917||DON A. PETERSEN|
|Modoc||1929||CECIL D. PIERCE|
|Monterey||1918||J. W. HUFFMAN|
|Napa||1914||JOHN N. FISKE|
|Nevada||1917||HERBERT L. McCABE|
|Orange||1918||J. J. COONY|
|Placer||1915||JACK E. HERR|
|Plumas-Sierra||1947||CARL W. RIMBEY|
|Riverside||1917||M. FISK PHELPS|
|Sacramento||1917||THEODORE S. TORNGREN|
|San Benito||1921||EDWARD C. LYDON|
|San Bernardino||1917||GEORGE B. RENDELL|
|San Diego||1914||ELWOOD C. MOORE|
|San Joaquin||1914||JOHN P. UNDERHILL|
|San Luis Obispo||1922||P. CURTIS BERRYMAN|
|San Mateo||1944||RICHARD H. SCIARONI|
|Santa Barbara||1920||LIN V. MAXWELL|
|Santa Clara||1944||LEON V. TICHININ|
|Santa Cruz||1917||EDWARD C. KOCH|
|Siskiyou||1933||SEDGLEY D. NELSON|
|Solano||1915||ARTHUR K. SWENERTON|
|Sonoma||1918||ROBERT L. SISSON|
|Stanislaus||1915||ARMEN V. SARQUIS|
|Sutter||1918||BEN W. RAMSAUR|
|Tehama||1918||LELAND S. FREY|
|Trinity||1946||JOSEPH C. BORDEN|
|Tulare||1917||SHELDON N. JACKSON|
|Tuolumne||1947||HARRY S. HINKLEY|
|Ventura||1914||BERTRAND W. LEE|
|Yolo||1914||CARL A. SCHONER, JR.|
|Yuba||1918||WALTER M. ANDERSON|
Agricultural Toxicology and Residue Research Laboratory (D)
Agricultural Toxicology and Residue Research Laboratory (D), organized in 1962, is concerned with the application of basic sciences to health problems arising from the use of agricultural chemicals.
The staff consists of a toxicologist, an analytical chemist, a microbiologist, a biochemist whose research interest is in herbicides, and 25 technicians and supporting personnel. Research in progress includes studies of naturally occurring toxic substances in food and feed, and new methods for the analysis of pesticide residues and related compounds in plant and animal products, water, and soil.
Training at the laboratory is available on the graduate and postdoctoral levels, and a program has been established to train toxicologists as analysts of pesticides and food additives.
As part of the laboratory's activities, analytical methods are examined and developed and residue analyses are conducted on samples of plant and animal products to determine that they meet state and federal requirements. The laboratory is also developing a center to disseminate information about the chemical and biological properties of pesticides and food additives.
The laboratory building on the Davis campus was financed through funds from the state, a grant from the National Science Foundation, and a gift from Regent Norton Simon. Operating and research funds are provided by the University budget and by grants from industry and government.--CLG
REFERENCES: UC Davis, The Agricultural Toxicology and Residue Research Laboratory (Leaflet).
Air Pollution Research Center
Air Pollution Research Center was organized in 1957 as a part of the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside and in 1961 it was made a University-wide center under the chairmanship of John T. Middleton to stimulate and support faculty research and teaching related to air pollution. Guided by a seven-campus faculty advisory committee, the center brings together faculty, graduate students and postdoctoral visitors from the entire University. Participation ranges from full-time research appointments and split appointments between the center and academic departments, to use of the center's consultation services and facilities by any interested department or faculty member on any campus. In 1964, cooperative programs were organized with eight departments and two institutes on the Berkeley, Davis, Los Angeles and San Francisco campuses.
Investigations include identification and effects of pollutants; chemical and physical reaction of pollutants in the atmosphere; evaluation of community, industrial, and agricultural sources of pollution and meteorological factors involved; effects of air pollution and control measures; and development of the concept of use and management of the air resources. Staff members serve as advisors to private institutions and industries and to governments at all levels. The center circulates information on air pollution and conducts intracampus seminars and conferences on the subject. Approximately one-fourth of the center's financing comes from University funds, one-fourth from private grants, and one-half from public fund grants and contracts.--HN
REFERENCES: John T. Middleton, Letter to Centennial Editor, March 18, 1965.
When the University was created in 1868, the graduates of the COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA were declared legally alumni of the University. Therefore, the first alumni of the University of California were graduates of the College of California in Oakland in 1864. The first alumni to receive University instruction also graduated in Oakland in 1870. At an informal meeting of the College of California and University graduates held in Brayton Hall in Oakland on July 16, 1872, action was taken to form the University's first alumni association. A president was elected (C. A. Garter, class of 1866 of the College of California), as were a secretary-treasurer and an executive committee whose immediate job was to make arrangements for the first annual meeting the following year. The organization was called the University Alumni Association, but in 1874, this name was changed to Alumni Association of the University of California. In 1917, after reorganization, the name became the California Alumni Association.
John L. Beard of the class of 1868 of the College of California was the first alumnus to serve on the Board of Regents, being appointed in 1876. Legislative efforts to add official alumni representation on the Board of Regents in 1909 were not recognized by the Board, but a constitutional amendment was adopted in 1918 making the president of the association an ex officio Regent. Soon after, the Regents resolved that the alumni association could express its opinion toward matters of general policy through its representative on the Board.
Also in 1918, the alumni association established a job placement service for alumni who were veterans of World War I. First called the Military Bureau, it later became the Alumni Bureau of Occupations with a separate office established on the Los Angeles campus in 1927. The bureaus were the forerunners of the present placement centers on the two campuses, now under University administration. In November, 1921, the alumni association set up a board of University visitors, whose duty it was to visit the University periodically to study its activities and needs and report back to the council of the association.
In 1925, a “southern office” of the association was established at Los Angeles and in 1934, a completely autonomous UCLA Alumni Association was formed. In 1947, the Los Angeles and Berkeley associations formed the Alumni Association of the University of California to provide for the representation of the members of both organizations and at the same time provide a system whereby the president of each association serves as the voting Regent in alternate years.
The alumni associations on other campuses of the University have varied histories. The oldest began in 1882, when the College of Pharmacy association was formed on the San Francisco campus. A major reorganization took place in 1958, resulting in its present structure. The School of Dentistry association at San Francisco was begun in 1895; the School of Nursing association was established in 1915 with eight charter members; and the Alumni-Faculty Association of the School of Medicine was formed in 1952 after two earlier attempts failed.
From the early 1920's to 1963, the alumni association at Davis was a chapter of the parent California Alumni Association, a 40-year relationship that was a natural outgrowth of the close ties between the Berkeley and Davis campuses. The formation of an independent association at Davis followed University-wide decentralization and general campus development.
The original alumni association at Santa Barbara was chartered in 1918 when the school was known as Santa Barbara State Normal School of Manual Arts and Home Economics. In the late 1940's, after Santa Barbara had become a campus of the University, the organization petitioned the association at Berkeley and joined the California Alumni Association. They withdrew from the Berkeley group following the Korean War, when a major reorganization took place. A revision of the bylaws was accomplished in the fall of 1964 and incorporation proceedings have been completed (September, 1965).
Formal development of the Riverside Alumni Association began in the summer of 1955 following commencement for the first 20 students. By December of that year, the first officers were elected, regulations for membership established, and the first publication authorized.
The Honorary Alumni of UCSD was formed in September of 1964 by a group of San Diegans, with the primary purpose of raising funds for undergraduate scholarships and other student activities. Additional service projects are to be initiated as the organization expands.
A detailed description of each of these alumni associations follows and each includes definition of membership, explanation of the form of organization, mention of major projects and publications, and the listing of presidents, chief association executives, and professional alumni organizations.--EF
REFERENCES: Register of the University of California, 1884-85; William Warren Ferrier, Origin and Development of the University of California (Berkeley, 1930); Ferrier, “Beginnings,” California Monthly, June, 1932; California Monthly, April, 1933, October, 1963, December, 1963, March, 1964; Ward Beecher, Letter to Centennial Editor, November 3, 1965; Mrs. Frances M. Carter, Letter to Centennial Editor, October 26, 1965; Marilyn Ebert, Letter to Centennial Editor, November 11, 1965; Jim Greenfield, Letter to Centennial Editor, November 1, 1965; John L. Hardie, Letter to Centennial Editor, January 7, 1966; Douglas K. Kinsey, Letter to Centennial Editor, November 10, 1965; T. Werner Schwartz, Letter to Centennial Editor, November 30, 1965; John T. Thomas, Letter to Centennial Editor, June 10, 1965.
California Alumni Association
This association, at Berkeley, is a non-profit organization with an elected president and vice-president and a 50-member council. Each council member serves a two-year term, six members are officers, and 15 are ex officio members--official representatives of professional alumni organizations. There are nine committees, the chairmen of which are appointed for one year by the council president.
All former students of the University and its professional schools and colleges may join the association upon application and payment of the membership fee ($7.50 per year, $120 for life membership, with a reduced fee of $100 if paid within one year). Privileges include subscription to California Monthly, reservation preference and reduced rates at the alumni recreation facilities, loan privileges at the Berkeley campus library, advance notice of University and association programs, advance athletic ticket applications, and an opportunity to take low-rate tours of foreign countries. Of the 185,000 names of eligible alumni carried by the association in 1965, approximately 54,000 were members. These figures include a number of individuals who are graduates of professional schools within the University (and who are also members of other alumni organizations), but by virtue of their attendance at Berkeley they are eligible for membership in the California Alumni Association.
One of the major projects of the association is its scholarship program. In 1965, there were 62 local alumni scholarship committees in California and in the 31 years between 1934 and 1965, over 4,600 alumni scholarships were given to freshmen and junior college transfer students in the University.
The association maintains two summer camps, the Lair of the Bear, near Pinecrest, and the Tahoe Alumni Center at Lake Tahoe, a year-round recreational and conference center.
Each year the association takes part in the selection of recipients for seven separate awards for alumni and students.
Alumni clubs, each with its own officers, have been established in more than 100 communities. Many have active educational and social programs. Some clubs sponsor annual orientations meetings for students planning to enter the University for the first time. In addition, the association brings top University authorities and displays to California communities and conducts meetings with local business, civic, and professional groups in order to illustrate the University's role in the community and in relation to the people of California. Two color films have been produced as part of the community programs, one depicting student life at Berkeley and one showing the part played by University alumni in their communities.
Alumni activities on the Berkeley campus include Charter Day, where representatives of each graduating class join the academic procession; Charter Day Banquet, featuring presentation of the “Alumnus of the Year” Award; commencement luncheon in Faculty Glade; and class reunions during Big Game Week.
Fund raising is a vital function of the organization. The Alumni House on the Berkeley campus was built with the contributions of more than 18,000 alumni. Alumni also raised funds for Stephens Union (now Stephens Hall), California Memorial Stadium, and the Student Union. Annual Giving Programs began in 1963 to collect funds for alumni scholarships, special opportunity scholarship program, cultural resources, and campus improvement and research. Members who pledge $1,000 a year toward the annual giving pool are invited to become Robert Gordon Sproul Associates.
The California Monthly is the official publication of the association. It is published ten times per year, is distributed to all members of the association, and is also available by subscription. The present magazine evolved out of a number of earlier alumni publications. The University of California Magazine was the first. Begun in 1897, it became known as The Graduate in 1902. Subsequently, the publication appeared as The California Alumni Weekly, beginning in January of 1909, The California Alumni Fortnightly in January, 1916, the California Alumni Monthly in September, 1921, and the California Monthly in September of 1923. The magazine contains feature articles, University news, and news of fellow alumni. Notes From California is a newsletter sent periodically to alumni leaders.
In the 1930's, the association published two books about the University. In 1932, The Romance of the University of California, edited by Robert Sibley, was published and was devoted to past and present achievements and expectations of the future. The Golden Book of California came out in 1937 and was “a record of the first 75 years in the life of the University of California, containing an alphabetical and a geographical listing of the names, known addresses, occupations, and classes of every person who has ever enrolled and received credit on any of the several campuses of the University, together with a pictorial portrayal of the growth of the University ... ” In 1948, the association published Students at Berkeley, the results of an association-financed survey of extracurricular student needs.
|CHARLES A. GARTER||1872-73|
|GEORGE E. SHERMAN||1873-74|
|JUDGE N. D. ARNOT||1874-75|
|JOHN R. GLASCOCK||1875-76|
|JOHN L. BEARD||1876-77|
|GEORGE C. EDWARDS||1877-78|
|ROBERT L. MCKEE||1879-80|
|WILLIAM R. DAVIS||1880-81|
|J. M. WHITWORTH||1881-82|
|CHARLES A. WETMORE||1882-83|
|THOMAS F. BARRY||1883-84|
|JOHN R. GLASCOCK||1884-85|
|J. M. WHITWORTH||1885-86|
|GEORGE J. AINSWORTH||1886-87|
|CARROLL M. DAVIS||1887-88|
|EVERETT B. POMROY||1888-89|
|WILLIAM C. JONES||1889-91|
|JACOB B. REINSTEIN||1892-93|
|ALEXANDER F. MORRISON||1894-95|
|WILLIAM R. DAVIS||1896-98|
|A. A. D'ANCONA||1898-00|
|WILLIAM E. RITTER||1900-01|
|CHARLES S. GREENE||1901-02|
|ALEXANDER G. EELLS||1904-05|
|GEORGE R. LUKENS||1905-06|
|WALTER B. COPE||1906-07|
|JAMES K. MOFFITT||1909-12|
|J. ARTHUR ELSTON||1912-14|
|ALLEN L. CHICKERING||1914-15|
|WIGGINTON E. CREED||1917-19|
|CLINTON E. MILLER||1922-24|
|C. W. MERRILL||1924-26|
|EVERETT J. BROWN||1928-30|
|SAMUEL M. HASKINS||1930-32|
|WARREN OLNEY, JR.||1932-34|
|RALPH T. FISHER||1936-38|
|HARRY L. MASSER||1938-40|
|CHARLES STETSON WHEELER, JR.||1940-42|
|PAUL K. YOST||1942-44|
|JEAN C. WITTER||1944-46|
|STANLEY N. BARNES||1946-48|
|WILLIAM M. HALE||1948-50|
|MAYNARD J. TOLL||1950-52|
|JOHN P. SYMES||1952-54|
|O. CORT MAJORS||1956-58|
|JAMES W. ARCHER||1960-62|
|JOHN R. MAGE||1964-66|
|STANLEY E. MCCAFFREY||1949-58|
|RICHARD E. ERICKSON||1958-|
|NAME||MEMBERSHIP Approximate figures||DATE FOUNDED|
|Alumni Association of the School of Social Welfare of the University of California||1965|
|Boalt Hall Alumni Association||3,100||1924|
|California Alumni Foresters||1,400||1922|
|California Business Administration Alumni Association||2,500||1953|
|University of California Engineering Alumni Society||500||1956|
|University of California Library Schools Alumni Association||1,475 Includes UCLA alumni||1926|
|University of California Optometry Alumni Association||422||1926|
|University of California School of Criminology Alumni Assoc.||200||1961|
|University of California School of Education Alumni Society||275||1964|
|University of California School of Public Health Alumni Association||392||1948|
1 Approximate figures
2 Includes UCLA alumni
The California Aggie Alumni Association
The California Aggie Alumni Association is made up of all former students who have completed at least one semester (quarter) of academic work at Davis. No dues are charged for membership. The association is governed by a board of directors consisting of five officers, 32 elected directors-at-large, and five ex officio members. In addition, 16 area organizations coordinate the alumni program at a local level. Total membership and total number of alumni in 1965 were the same, about 19,500.
Association projects have included the campus Memorial Union and sponsorship of the Alumni Scholarship Program. In the spring of 1965, the first annual giving program was initiated. UCD Dimension is the official publication of the association. It is published quarterly and mailed to all past Davis students.
|W. DUDLEY HERON||1918-19|
|LOUIS B. ROWLAND||1921-22|
|R. W. MITCHELL||1928-30|
|DEWEY L. HARPER||1930-31|
|FRED WILLIAM BROWN, JR.||1933-34|
|HERBERT A. SPILMAN||1939-41|
|GILBERT W. SCOTT||1941-42|
|GUS OLSON, JR.||1946-48|
|HERBERT E. BARKER||1948-50|
|GEORGE E. MURPHY||1952-54|
|RALPH H. MOSS||1954-56|
|JERRY W. FIELDER||1956-58|
|WILLIAM B. HEWITT||1958-59|
|JOHN P. UNDERHILL||1959-60|
|ROBERT J. EMERSON||1960-62|
|JOHN P. STANLEY||1962-63|
|ROBERT W. MUNYON||1963-64|
|HERBERT E. BARKER||1964-|
|JOHN L. HARDIE||1963-|
Hastings College of the Law Alumni Association
The Alumni Association of Hastings College of the Law is a non-profit corporation whose object is the promotion of the best interests of the college and the encouragement of participation by its members in activities coincident with those interests. Any graduate or former student of the college is eligible for membership. The board of governors, composed of 22 members, one of whom must be a resident of Nevada, is the managing body. It elects from its own membership a president, six vice-presidents, a secretary, and a treasurer. The association has 3,155 members. It publishes the Hastings Alumni Bulletin each quarter and distributes it to all alumni. The membership also brings employment information to the attention of the association placement office.
|1956-57||Nathan B. McVay '17|
|1957-58||Hon. Gerald J. O'Gara '26|
|Hon. Oliver J. Carter '33|
|1959-60||Max H. Margolis '32|
|1960-61||Ingemar E. Hoberg '28|
|1961-62||Max K. Jamison '45|
|1962-63||Marlin W. Haley '34|
|1963-64||Edward N. Jackson '26|
|1964-65||Grayson Price '35|
|1965-66||Hon. Robert W. Preston '35|
The UCLA Alumni Association
This is an independent corporation with a board of directors comprised of a president, president-elect, vice-president, and treasurer. In addition, there are 16 elective directors selected from the regular membership and a varying number of ex officio directors. Provision is made so that the number of elective directors automatically increases to ensure that the aggregate number of elective directors and officer-directors shall at all times exceed the number of ex officio directors.
The association consists of individuals who have attended the University at Los Angeles for not less than one full semester and have been awarded a degree or have left in good standing; or are or have been members of the faculty, administrative officers, or full-time employees of the University at Los Angeles; or are graduates of the Los Angeles Normal School; or are parents (or parent) of a student regularly attending the University at Los Angeles; or have completed 12 or more units, or the equivalent of study in UNIVERSITY EXTENSION; or who have been designated as honorary or contributing members. Of an estimated total of 150,000 alumni from the Los Angeles campus, 15,260 were members of the association in 1965.
The alumni at Los Angeles played a part in establishing the hills of Westwood as the site of the relocated campus in 1929 and shortly thereafter, initiated action which resulted in the establishment of the first graduate degrees at Los Angeles. Another major achievement of the alumni body was the drafting and eventual adoption of legislative measures calling for the establishment of a College of Engineering at Los Angeles in 1943; and later, the establishment of a School of Law and a School of Medicine.
More than 600 alumni are involved in their communities each year in identifying and selecting deserving young people to receive scholarship assistance. The UCLA Progress Fund, a non-profit foundation, was formed as the vehicle for alumni giving on an annual or special basis and provides the funds for scholarship assistance, awards to distinguished teachers on the faculty, special research projects of significance, and for other areas in which private assistance supplements the provisions of the state.
Several campus structures at Los Angeles are the result of donations by alumni or by friends of the University who have received encouragement from alumni sources, among them: Kerckhoff Hall, Mira Hershey Hall, the Clark Library, the UCLA Japanese Gardens, and the newly completed Memorial Activities Center (funded 40 per cent by alumni and friends). The Alumni Center, located in the center of the Los Angeles campus, is the product of a cooperative effort by the alumni group to provide complete facilities for continuing programs of alumni and student groups, and to establish a home base for alumni returning to the campus.
The first UCLA alumni magazine was issued in the fall of 1926 as an alumni news sheet under the name, The Southern Alumnus.
The first issue of a slick paper magazine with the same title appeared in October, 1929. In the fall of 1939, the magazine was enlarged and the name changed to The UCLA Magazine; it was again changed in 1950 to the present title, The UCLA Alumni Magazine.
The alumni association at Los Angeles published a book in 1937 called California of the
|ELDER R. MORGAN||1926-27|
|ATTILIO G. PARISI||1927-29|
|JEROLD E. WEIL||1929-31|
|THOMAS E. MANWARRING||1931-33|
|FREDERICK F. HOUSER||1933-35|
|DAVID F. FOLZ||1935-37|
|FRED M. JORDAN||1937-38|
|M. PHILIP DAVIS||1938-41|
|FRANK S. BALTHIS||1941-45|
|FRANK M. MCKELLAR||1945-47|
|PAUL R. HUTCHINSON||1947-49|
|JOHN E. CANADAY||1949-51|
|WARREN H. CROWELL||1951-53|
|THOMAS J. CUNNINGHAM||1953-55|
|CYRIL C. NIGG||1955-57|
|JOHN V. VAUGHN||1957-59|
|WILLIAM E. FORBES||1959-61|
|ROBERT E. ALSHULER||1961-63|
|W. THOMAS DAVIS||1963-65|
|H. R. HALDEMAN||1965-|
|JOHN E. CANADAY||1929-39|
|JOHN B. JACKSON||1939-55|
|HARRY J. LONGWAY||1955-64|
|DOUGLAS K. KINSEY||1964-|
|NAME||MEMBERSHIP Approximate figures||DATE FOUNDED|
|Industrial Relations Alumni||80||1950|
|Journalism Alumni Association||351||1961|
|Medical Alumni Association||700||1955|
|School of Social Welfare Alumni Association||134||1964|
|UCLA Doctor of Education Alumni Association||450||1961|
|UCLA Engineering Executive Program Alumni Association||264||1962|
|UCLA Executive Program Association, Incorporated||600||1956|
|UCLA Law Alumni||1,496||1952|
|UCLA School of Nursing Alumni||272||1955|
|Women's Physical Education Alumni Association||1,200||1932|
1 Approximate figures
Riverside Alumni Association
The University of California, Riverside Alumni Association is governed by an elected board of directors with six executive directors and 14 general directors. Membership qualifications are broadly based to include all individuals who attended the Riverside campus and who have successfully completed two consecutive semesters. Alumni who contribute annual dues of $5 may vote and hold office in the association. Of a total of 4,500 eligible for membership, approximately 250 were active members of the association in 1965.
The first annual homecoming was held in the fall of 1957. A dues solicitation program was instituted in 1960, a scholarship drive began in 1961, and recognition of status as a legally constituted educational, non-profit corporation was acquired in 1965.
The official publication of the Riverside association is the UCR Alumni Newsletter. The first issue appeared on July 23, 1956, and was distributed by mail to some 70 members of the first two classes to graduate from Riverside. Forty-five issues have since been distributed without charge to all association members. The publication carries news about the association, the campus, and the members.
|CHARLES E. YOUNG||1955-58|
|GEORGE E. PETRIE||1958-60|
|WILLIAM N. BARNETT||1960-62|
|GEORGE B. BEATTIE||1962-64|
|W. C. BARTON||1964-66|
|HOWARD S. COOK||1955-58|
|GEORGE E. PETRIE||1958-62|
|JAMES M. GREENFIELD||1962-|
Honorary Alumni of UCSD
The Honorary Alumni of UCSD was formed by a group of San Diego citizens to further the growth and development of the San Diego campus. Approximate membership in 1965 was 194. In addition to informing the public of campus progress, the organization supplied the class of 1968 with some 20 freshmen scholarships and the class of 1969 with an additional 30. Officers include a president, treasurer, and secretary.
San Francisco School of Dentistry Alumni
Regular membership in the Alumni Association, University of California School of Dentistry is open to all graduates of the school. There are other categories of membership--associate, faculty, emeritus, honorary, and special--for which specific requirements must be satisfied. Of the 3,000 graduates eligible for membership in 1965, approximately 1,950 belonged to the association. The elected officers include a president, president-elect, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and editor. Officers serve from one annual meeting to the next. The executive council, which functions as the governing body of the association, consists of the elected officers, the immediate past-president, the chairmen of all standing committees, and the parliamentarian.
The association sponsors a two-day scientific meeting, held each January, and an Alumni-Senior Student Banquet, held each May to introduce the association to graduating students (a free membership in the association is given to them at that time). The association maintains a Dean's Advisory Committee as a liaison between the students and the school, helping to foster harmony by providing advice and help to both groups. Substantial gifts have been given to the Guy S. Millberry Students Union, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University of the Pacific, as well as to the School of Dentistry itself, by dentistry alumni.
Newsletter is a quarterly magazine sent to members of the association in order to keep them apprised of news of the association, the school, and fellow alumni.
|HARRY P. CARLTON||1895-96|
|LEANDER VAN ORDEN||1896-97|
|HARRY GRIFFIN RICHARDS||1897-98|
|ALLEN H. SUGGETT||1898-99|
|JOSEPH D. HOOGEN||1899-00|
|CHARLES A. LITTON||1900-01|
|FRED G. BAIRD||1901-03|
|JAMES G. SHARP||1903-04|
|GUY S. MILLBERRY||1904-05|
|CHARLES H. BOWMAN||1905-07|
|HERBERT T. MOORE||1907-08|
|ROBERT E. KEYS||1909-10|
|GEORGE T. MCDANIEL||1910-11|
|FRANKLIN E. ROHNER||1912-13|
|HARRY C. PETERS||1913-14|
|FRED J. SIEFERD||1914-15|
|EDWARD J. HOWARD||1915-20|
|J. CAMP DEAN||1920-22|
|STANLEY L. DODD||1922-24|
|C. DUDLEY GWINN||1924-26|
|ROY B. GRIFFIN||1926-27|
|E. J. HOWARD||1927-29|
|FRED J. SIEFERD||1929-32|
|HOWARD B. KIRTLAND||1932-34|
|WILLIAM F. WALSH||1934-35|
|JOHN E. KENNEDY||1935-36|
|EDMUND D. KEEFFE||1936-37|
|GILBERT H. SWEET||1937-38|
|FRANK M. GRIFFIN||1938-39|
|LEON W. MARSHALL||1939-40|
|LLOYD E. LINEHAN||1940-41|
|C. EDWARD RUTLEDGE||1941-42|
|CHESTER W. JOHNSON||1942-43|
|ERNEST F. SODERSTROM||1943-44|
|ERNEST L. JOHNSON||1944-45|
|LOWELL N. PETERSON||1945-46|
|D. ROY GRANT||1946-47|
|GORDON M. FITZGERALD||1947-48|
|WALTER C. HARRISON||1948-49|
|RAYMOND W. GREENE||1949-50|
|JOSEPH A. SCIUTTO||1950-51|
|RAYMOND M. CURTNER||1951-52|
|DALZELL J. POTTER||1952-53|
|MONROE S. FRIEDMAN||1953-54|
|DON PARLE WHITE||1954-55|
|JOHN W. CREECH||1955-56|
|W. GORDON HAZLETT||1956-57|
|E. WILLIAM FERBER||1957-58|
|KENT F. KOHLER||1958-59|
|THOMAS W. S. WU||1959-60|
|MERVIN G. CUNNINGHAM||1960-61|
|DONALD B. HORNER||1961-62|
|EDWIN J. HYMAN||1962-63|
|KENNETH L. LEIMBACH||1963-64|
|THEODORE C. LEE||1964-65|
|BERNARD H. STARK||1965-66|
|LEE R. WINTERS||1966-67|
San Francisco School of Medicine Alumni
All graduates of the School of Medicine may become regular members of the Alumni-Faculty Association, University of California
As one of its projects, the association provides $2,000 annually for freshmen scholarships in the School of Medicine at San Francisco.
The Alumni-Faculty Association Bulletin is published quarterly by the association. It contains articles on the research activities in the School of Medicine, announcements of campus affairs and class reunions, and news items on alumni and faculty members.
|DONALD R. SMITH||1952-53|
|HARRY PETERS, JR.||1954-55|
|EDWARD B. SHAW||1955-56|
|FELIX ROSSI, JR.||1957-58|
|HILLIARD J. KATZ||1961-62|
|FRANCIS A. SOOY||1963-64|
|EARLE M. MARSH||1964-65|
San Francisco School of Nursing Alumnae
Membership in the School of Nursing Chapter, California Alumni Association, is limited to graduates of the school in good standing in the California Alumni Association. Honorary membership may be conferred on persons who have rendered distinguished service toward the objectives of the association. The work of the organization is carried out by the executive council consisting of a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, board of directors (nine), and various activity committees. The council meets monthly except during the summer.
The association sponsors the Dr. Betty Davis Fund, a grant-in-aid that provides financial assistance to worthy and needy student nurses in the School of Nursing; the executive council supports the history project, a collection of historical data related to the development of the School of Nursing which is being put onto tape; and for the past five year, the alumni group has sponsored an annual workshop in combination with the traditional homecoming tea.
On Call is a newsletter sent out twice a year to members. It contains news items, editorials, report of special projects, changes in the curriculum of the school, and other items of special interest to the alumni.
|MISS IONA DUBOIS||1915-22|
|MRS. GERTRUDE FOLENDORF||1922-24|
|MISS JANE SMITH||1924-27|
|MISS THERESA BLIM||1927-30|
|MISS GLYN PRICE||1930-32|
|MISS WINIFRED HAM||1932-33|
|MRS. GRACE ROWE||1933-34|
|MISS DOROTHY MOLLER||1934-35|
|MISS ETHYL HAMMOND||1935-36|
|MRS. SOPHIE TRINCHARD||1936-38|
|MISS MARGARET PETERSON||1938-39|
|MISS ELIZA AVELLAR||1941-43|
|MRS. MARGARET MCMURRAY||1943-45|
|MRS. MARY PUTERBAUGH||1945-47|
|MRS. MARY SCROGGS||1947-49|
|MISS BETTY HILL||1949-50|
|MISS GERTRUDE KONNERTH||1950-52|
|MISS ELIZABETH MCDONALD||1952-55|
|MISS IRENE POPE||1955-56|
|MISS BARBARA BRUGGE||1956-58|
|MRS. SUE BALLARD||1958-64|
|MRS HELEN CHESTERMAN||1964-66|
|NAME||MEMBERSHIP Approximate figures||DATE FOUNDED|
|Sigma Theta Tau||140||1964|
1 Approximate figure
San Francisco School of Pharmacy Alumni
The University of California Pharmacy Alumni Association is governed by 12 elected members who constitute the board of governors and who, in turn, elect the officers. Membership is open to graduates of the pharmacy curricula of the School of Pharmacy; active membership is held by more than one-third of all living alumni, who number about 2,500. The association is affiliated with the California Alumni Association and is represented on the Alumni Council.
The association supports students' participation in pharmaceutical organizations by sending student representatives to regional and national meetings; it arranges seminars on diverse subjects in various counties of the state; and it has, since its founding, held an annual reunion in the spring at which out-standing alumni are honored. The association contributed significantly to the making of the film “Turning Point,” a production conceived and carried out by the students to illustrate progressive pharmacy education as exemplified at the University. With the help of the association, the film is being distributed in this country and was shown abroad.
Newsletter is published four times a year and deals with events in the University and in the professional community, with comments on the development and evaluation of drugs. Reprints of articles on drugs, which appear in other publications, are sent to members as part of the association's contribution to continuing education.
|HAYDN M. SIMMONS||1906-09|
|A. S. MUSANTE||1909-11|
|KENNETH B. BOWERMAN||1911-13|
|W. BRUCE PHILIP||1913-15|
|J. N. PATTERSON||1915-17|
|PAULINE NAST DUNDAS||1917-18|
|FRANCIS J. BELZ||1918-19|
|LESTER A. ROTH||1925-27|
|GEORGE H. FRATES||1927-28|
|CLARMOND A. PERRY||1928-30|
|AL K. KOMSTOEFT||1930-32|
|GEORGE F. MURPHY||1932-33|
|DOROTHY P. BARRY||1935-36|
|JULIAN M. WELLS||1936|
|MABEL B. DOLCINI||1941-47|
|GIRARD G. JOHNSON||1947-49|
|HAROLD S. ROSE||1952-59|
|MARC F. LAVENTURIER||1959-60|
|DANIEL P. DONOVAN||1960-61|
|CARROLL G. WATERMAN||1961-62|
|WRAY E. BENNETT||1962-63|
|WILLIAM R. BACON||1963-65|
|MURRAY H. WARSHAUER||1965-|
1 Information not available from 1882-1905, and from 1937-40.
Santa Barbara Alumni Association
The University of California, Santa Barbara Alumni Association is made up of persons who have attended the University, or any predecessor thereof, and successfully completed at least two consecutive semesters. Life membership in the association may be purchased by a full payment of $90, or may be paid in seven annual payments within a ten-year period on an installment plan basis. In 1965, there were approximately 1,000 paid members out of some 30,000 eligible persons. Paid members elect a total of 18 directors to serve on the board of directors, the policy-making and governing body of the association. Directors serve a three-year term and elect officers consisting of a president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer.
Major activities fall into the categories of service to the alumni, the students, and the University. The board of directors established an Executive Committee to determine overall association and financial policies; an Awards Committee to develop and administer award programs; a Student Relations Committee to handle scholarships and student aid, recruitment and orientation of new students, and on-campus student directed programs; and an Alumni Activities Committee to develop and administer community and regional alumni programs, public affairs, membership programs, and on-campus alumni directed programs.
The publication of the association in the days of its formation at Santa Barbara State College consisted of a newsletter which gradually evolved into an eight-page newspaper called Hoy Dia. This served to inform the
|JOSEPH P. CONSTANTINO, JR.||1960-61|
|PRISCILLA C. SIMMS||1961-64|
|JOHN A. LEWIS||1964-|
|MRS. ESTER J. PORTER||1944-54|
|E. L. CHALBERG||1954-60|
|ROBERT L. KELLEY||1960-62|
|LARRY C. DE SPAIN||1962-64|
|JOHN T. THOMAS||1964-|
Animal Behavior Center (B)
Animal Behavior Center (B) was established in 1959, when the Regents approved an assignment of land on Grizzly Peak Blvd. next to the Space Sciences Laboratory. Construction was completed and operations begun in summer, 1963. Research facilities comprising nine separate units include concrete pits, tanks, aviaries, outdoor runs, a barn, a field, and a general utility building.
Research projects underway in 1965 were: studies in the biology of reproduction, including induction of reproduction in species which do not usually breed in captivity and environmental factors controlling reproduction; studies in animal communication and social organization, including the gestures and vocalizations involved in the establishment and maintenance of a stable social hierarchy in a colony of macaques, the relationship between monkey sounds and human language, and vocal communication in several species of birds as related to social behavior; and animal breeding for experimental use.
The field station also is used as an adjunct to the under-graduate and graduate teaching programs in the Departments of Anthropology, Zoology, and Psychology in the study of primate social behavior, natural history of the vertebrates, and comparative psychology, as well as in specialized graduate research.
The station is financed by charges to the research funds of its individual users.--MAS
REFERENCES: Letter from Frank A. Beach to Centennial Editor, March 29, 1965.
Animal Care Facility (LA)
Animal Care Facility (LA) was established in 1954 as the centralized service organization which furnishes suitable experimental animals and provides daily care in accordance with the nature of the investigation and the desires of the research workers. The facility is under the professional direction of a veterinarian whose specialty is laboratory animal medicine. The activities of the staff encompass a wide variety of functions, which for purposes of simplicity may be described in five major areas: administrative, clinical, teaching, consultative, and research.
Some of the administrative functions include the procurement of animals, feed, cages, equipment, and supplies; the maintenance of animal inventories for immediate use; breeding colony production; maintenance and repairs of facilities and equipment; providing ancillary services; maintenance of adequate standards of sanitation, hygiene, and vermin control; and the hiring, training, and supervision of personnel.
Clinical activities involve professional services in almost all branches of clinical medicine for a large number of animal species, including isolation and quarantine programs, programs which equilibrate the animals to laboratory conditions, diagnosis, treatment, surgery, hospitalization, immunization, postmortem examinations, and other related veterinary services.
Teaching is performed at several levels: a course for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who wish to obtain broader knowledge and skills in the use of experimental animals, invitational lectures and demonstrations for undergraduate courses for several departments on campus, on-the-job training programs for animal caretakers and technicians, and assistance to the individual investigator who has problems of experimental design, the choice of biological model, anesthetic and surgical techniques, environmental, nutritional, and disease variables of all kinds that affect their experiments.
Consultative activities consist of supplying a wide variety of information on the use of animals for research to staff members. The design and construction of animal facilities, experimental design problems, grant proposal budgets, and bibliographic sources are some examples.
Research activities are of an applied nature usually arising from the needs of investigators. These include new anesthetic and surgical techniques, evaluation of new drugs, disease control methods, and development of exotic animals as new biological models.--SIGMUND RICH
Animal Care, Office of (SF)
On July 1, 1958, the care of animals used for teaching and research on the San Francisco campus was consolidated in the Office of Animal Care, a centralized facility. The staff, consisting of a veterinarian, a vivarium supervisor, two secretaries, and 35 animal caretakers, provide all the services necessary to acquire and to provide for an average daily population of approximately 28,000 animals. The office operates under the guidance of the Committee on Animal Care and in close cooperation with the departments utilizing animals in research and teaching programs. With the exception of administrative salaries, all costs of operation, maintenance, and equipment are recovered by recharges to the departments concerned. Dr. C. W. Riggs, veterinarian, was in charge of the facility from its inception to 1965.
Animal housing areas consist of 37,000 square feet of space plus spacious outdoor runs for dogs and pens for sheep and goats. Upon completion of the Health Sciences Instruction and Research Buildings in 1966, an additional 15,000 square feet will become available for animal housing and care. Upon completion of this new area, an expansion of the staff to two veterinarians, a vivarium supervisor, three secretaries and 45 caretakers will take place.--C. W. RIGGS, D.V.M.
See DAVIS CAMPUS, Departments of Instruction, Entomology.
Arboretum, University (D)
Arboretum, University (D), occupies an areas of 60 acres and provides materials for teaching in the plant sciences departments and for research in plant propagation, introduction, and evaluation. The area also includes paths and picnic tables for student recreation. Arboretum plantings were begun in 1936, when student and staff volunteers worked to beautify both sides of Putah Creek. A formal faculty Arboretum Committee was appointed in 1941, and a consistent planning program was initiated with the hiring of a botanist in 1956. By 1960, the plant census had reached 5,400, and a redwood grove and native
REFERENCES: Roman Gankin, Letter to Centennial Editor, June 16, 1965.
Archaeological Research Facility (B)
As the operations center for archaeological research within the Department of Anthropology at Berkeley, this facility extends the function of the UC Archaeological Survey which it supplanted in 1960.
Established in 1948 as the University's coordinating agency for archaeological activity in California and Nevada, the Archaeological Survey made possible a systematic approach to investigations begun as early as 1899 when site surveys and modest excavations were undertaken in California with funds provided by Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst.
Within the new Archaeological Research Facility, work continues on California archaeology with excavations and up-dating of records of archaeological sites with the help of new topographic maps. The facility also maintains supervision of the files of the former Archaeological Survey and continues to publish Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey.
The facility's activities have been extended to embrace archaeological activities without restriction to geographic area. With modest support provided by the facility, advanced students and staff members now pursue research not only in California and Nevada but also in such places as Syria, Mexico, Peru and India. In these distant activities, investigators work in cooperation with such institutions as the National Department of Antiquities of Syria, the governments of Mexico and Guatemala, and the University of Poona. The facility's funds include grants from the National Science Foundation, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, the Institute of Social Sciences, and the UCLA Near Eastern Ford Fund.--VAS
REFERENCES: Robert F. Heizer, Statement to Centennial Editor, November 10, 1964; Robert F. Heizer, “The California Archaeological Survey,” reprinted from American Antiquity, XIV, iii (January, 1949), 222-223; “UC Archaeological Research Facility: Program for the Year 1964-65” (unpubl.); “UC Archaeological Research Facility: Annual Report for 1962-63” (unpubl.).
Archaeological Survey (LA)
The survey was established in 1958 as a research unit of the UCLA Department of Anthropology. Its purpose is to gather and preserve data and materials relating to early inhabitants of California that include aboriginal Indians of 10,000 years ago and the populations of Spanish missions. Original University budget appropriations for the survey have been matched seven-fold by funds from state and federal agencies. Under survey auspices, graduate anthropology students conduct research from the Channel Islands of southern California to the California-Nevada border. Projects include excavations of island shell mounds, cave excavations in Los Angeles county, and regional surveys and excavations in Mono and San Diego counties. Indian sites thus recorded and prepared for survey files numbered 600 in 1958 and 6,000 by 1964. In collaboration with the State Highway Department and other state and federal agencies, the survey also practices salvage archaeology, removing and preserving valuable scientific data which would otherwise be destroyed by housing and freeway construction. The survey has served as Los Angeles campus headquarters for expeditions into Mexico and Egypt, furnishing supplies, equipment, and personnel for field work. Publications include the Archaeological Survey Annual Report, a 500-page volume devoted to reports of archaeological research by California students and professionals, and a quarterly newsletter informing students and professionals of current archaeological activities.--VAS
REFERENCES: Department of Anthropology, Archaeological Survey: Annual Report 1963-64 (Los Angeles, 1964); Douglas A. Romoli, Letter to Centennial Editor, February 24, 1965.
Artificial Insemination Laboratory (D)
Artificial Insemination Laboratory (D) began in 1944 in cooperation with the Sacramento Dairy Breeders' Association. Barns and a laboratory were established on the Davis campus, while the stud bulls were owned by the association.
Semen was collected and processed in fluid form by members of the animal husbandry department and the first shipment was sent to the artificial inseminator technician on April 1, 1945. In 1947, the name of the association was changed to California Dairy Breeders, Inc.
Research in England from 1949 to 1952 provided techniques which would allow the long-term storage of frozen semen. At present, semen from bulls owned by the University and other associations is frozen. From 1952 to 1960, the University conducted ten-day schools on the campus to train technicians in artificial insemination procedures.
In 1955, the California Dairy Breeders constructed their own buildings adjacent to the Davis campus. Until they obtained freezing equipment, the campus laboratory continued to supply frozen semen. The University continues to freeze semen for use in the University herd.--CLG
REFERENCES: S. W. Mead, Letter to Centennial Editor, March 26, 1965.
Athletics, Intercollegiate, developed from the same origins as did organized intramural athletics--informal competition initiated by the students themselves. At Berkeley, interclass competition, especially in baseball, preceded athletic contests with teams outside the University; at Los Angeles, both the interclass and intercollegiate programs grew simultaneously.
For a university whose teams would win 16 national titles and whose athletes would win 54 Olympic medals, the beginnings of intercollegiate competition were inauspicious. In April of 1873, the class of 1875 played the first football game against outside competition--Oakland High School--for the championship of Alameda county. Each team fielded 20 men and to onlookers the game seemed more like a free-for-all fight than an athletic contest. It ended suddenly and without decision when a University player chased the ball out into the street and ran into the top rail of a wooden fence, seriously injuring himself. During the early years, the University's baseball teams played against pick-up teams of young Oakland and San Francisco businessmen. The first team to represent the University in basketball was composed of women students who played their first game on November 18, 1892, losing to Miss Head's School, 6 to 5. At Los Angeles, the first football teams (known as the Cubs) went through two complete seasons before winning a game. Commenting on that, the 1923 yearbook said, “the latent strength of the Cubs caused astonishment,” and “although only a single game was won (against Redlands on October 14, 1922), the Cubs established their reputation as an eleven to be feared.”
Facilities for these early contests were rather modest. At Berkeley, the first University football team, organized in 1882, played its games on West Field on the campus. The field sloped sharply toward the west, therefore the team facing San Francisco Bay had a distinct advantage. The training ground for the track team in 1878 was the race track at Emeryville and the first annual track field day was held in 1879 on the Oakland cricket grounds. The old Harmon Gymnasium, an octagonal wooden building constructed in 1879, was the site of the first basketball games played by the women. In 1902, Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst provided the University with a new outdoor basketball court with tan bark floor and seating for 600. As it was customary for women athletes of the time to compete only before spectators of their own sex, a 12-foot high fence of boards without knotholes was built around the area. The men then took over Harmon Gymnasium and formed their first basketball team. The first crew, organized as “The University of California Boat Club” in 1875, operated out of a “shed-like structure” on Lake Merritt in Oakland, but not very effectively it seems, for the 1877 Blue and Gold mentioned that the boat club existed in name only. The activity was revived when the students formed another boating association in 1893 and built a club house on San Antonio Creek on the Oakland Estuary where they developed competitive rowing.
As enrollments increased and student interest in sports was generated, the fortunes of the University's athletic teams improved. After losing their first football game to the Phoenix Club of San Francisco in 1882, the Berkeley squad tied the club team the next time they met. Subsequent teams went on to win most of the games played in the next five years, losing only three.
Track was the first sport to bring national recognition. A hurdler named Walter Henry developed a new form for running the 120-yard high hurdles and on May 30, 1892, broke the world's record for the event. His time of 15¾ seconds was disallowed by the eastern officials of the American Athletic Union (AAU) as being beyond human possibility. Three years later, a small team representing the University (minus Walter Henry who had graduated with the class of 1893) went east and won two-thirds of their meets against such schools as Princeton, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, prompting one AAU official to admit that Henry's hurdling record should have been allowed after all.
In its second year of competition in the Southern California Intercollegiate Conference, the basketball team at Los Angeles won the conference championship (1920) and repeated the performance the following year. The tennis team won the conference title in 1921 and the 1924 baseball pennant went to the Grizzlies (the mascot that replaced the Cubs that year).
Almost from the beginning of intercollegiate competition, football was established as the most popular spectator sport among students, alumni, and the general public. The first big game between Stanford and Berkeley in 1892 drew a record crowd of 15,000 to the field at Haight and Stanyan Streets in San Francisco. In the excitement neither side remembered to provide a football and the game was held up while someone was sent downtown in a carriage to buy one.
It was expensive as well as inconvenient to hold football games in San Francisco and in 1904, California Field was constructed on the Berkeley campus. The 14th big game was played there, a contest in which the teams employed the brutal type of play prevalent in the country at that time. There were a number of injuries, a fact that helped President Wheeler and President David Starr Jordan of Stanford University decide to abandon American football for rugby. In 1915, after the rules of American football had been changed to make the game less dangerous to play, Wheeler agreed to switch back again. The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC) was formed in December of that year and an intense competition between the teams representing the various western institutions was set into motion.
“In these latter years the intercollegiate athletes have come to be no more than ... a group of highly trained specialists,” President Wheeler wrote Governor Stephens during World War I. He felt that with the deterioration of athletic programs during the war, it would be a good time to observe how essential to the University these sports might be. The results must have been inconclusive, for as early as 1919 (the year Wheeler resigned from the Presidency), the University (Berkeley) won the conference championship in track and field. In the early 1920's Andy Smith's Wonder Teams won four PCC titles in a row (1920-23), Walter Christie's track teams won two more conference championship meets (1920, 1923) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) title (1922). And by mid-decade, basketball teams coached by Nibs Price began winning PCC titles (1925, 1926, 1927, and 1929). At the 1928 Olympics, the Berkeley crew won the rowing competition at Amsterdam, the first of three Olympic titles won by crews from Berkeley.
After the poor showing made by the football teams at Los Angeles in the Southern California Intercollegiate Conference in the early 1920's, an envoy was sent east to try to find an outstanding man to coach the Grizzly teams. In 1925, William H. Spaulding of Minnesota joined the staff as head football coach and director of physical education for men and in his first season as coach, his team won a decisive victory over previously unbeaten Pomona. The following season, Los Angeles was invited to join the PCC. Before leaving the old conference, they became co-champions in football in the 1927 season.
In 1925, the Davis campus, which had first participated in intercollegiate competition in 1913, became a member of the Far Western Athletic Conference (FWAC). As the number of sports played in the conference was limited, Davis also joined four independent conferences in order to compete in soccer, boxing, riflery, and water polo.
During the 1930's, the competition in the PCC became even more intensive, with certain schools struggling to produce teams capable of maintaining national prominence. To accomplish this, player recruitment programs were developed and implemented. In that decade, Los Angeles won its first PCC title in tennis (1932), a portent of its future dominance in that sport (by 1965 Los Angeles tennis teams had won eight national championships, more than any other school in the country). In the 1940's and more particularly in the 1950's, Los Angeles grew into a national football power, winning five conference titles and placing 14 men on All-American teams.
When Santa Barbara came into the University system in 1944, its teams were already actively engaged in ten intercollegiate sports in the California Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA). Santa Barbara had been a charter member in this conference since its formation in 1939 and remained in the CCAA until 1963, withdrawing to become a member of the West Coast Athletic Conference for basketball and the California Intercollegiate Baseball Association (CIBA) for baseball. On December 1, 1954, Riverside played in its first intercollegiate contest, a basketball game against Pepperdine, and has since added ten additional sports to its intercollegiate program, competing as an independent though affiliated with the NCAA and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.
Historically, the athletic programs on the University's campuses have been administered differently except in the case of Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara where, until 1960, athletics essentially came under the jurisdiction of the Associated Students.
Just as soon as the Associated Students (ASUC) at Berkeley was organized in 1887, it took over control of athletics. In 1897, the Athletic Association was organized as a separate body to administer in this area, but in 1900, the association was absorbed by the ASUC and intercollegiate athletics remained under its jurisdiction for the next 60 years. In 1919, intercollegiate athletics at Los Angeles operated under an Athletic Commission which was reorganized in 1920 and renamed the Men's Athletic Board.
One of the governing bodies of the PCC was the Council of Presidents, composed of presidents of the schools belonging to the conference, and it was through this body that President Sproul, as well as other members, attempted to introduce measures to curb excesses in player recruitment programs which had begun flourishing in the west in the 1930's. These attempts met without success. The emphasis placed upon certain sports in the years that followed and the commercialization connected with football in particular, led members of the northern section of the Academic Senate to express their concern to President Sproul in October of 1956--“So long as victory is regarded as so important as to be worth buying, the bidding will remain competitive and stop at no limit set.” The following month, the southern section of the senate initiated a memorandum asking the Regents to amend previous legislation and transfer responsibility for intercollegiate athletics at Los Angeles from the administration and ASUCLA to the administration and the faculty.
President Sproul approached the PCC with five basic principles aimed at modifying aid to athletes and requiring the same academic achievement of athletes as required of other students in the universities. When these principles were ultimately rejected, the Regents, at their December 13, 1957, meeting, decided to withdraw the University from the conference.
The teams at Berkeley and Los Angeles fulfilled their membership obligations in the PCC, which took them to June 30, 1959. Before this date, negotiations toward the formation of a new athletic conference were begun. Two basic operating philosophies were agreed upon by the universities engaged in these negotiations (Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses of the University, University of Southern California, and the University of Washington, with Stanford University participating only as an observer): There would be institutional control of the athletic programs rather than central conference control, and all activities and operations of each institution's programs would have to be acceptable to each of the other members.
The new conference was to be known as the Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU) and would become effective on July 1, 1959. In anticipation of this, President Kerr appointed a 13-member University-wide advisory council to create an organizational framework so that the University could conform to the principle of institutional control agreed upon by the conference members.
The year after Riverside first began intercollegiate competition, a Board of Athletic Control was established by the provost to govern the athletic program. In 1965, the chancellor placed intercollegiate athletics under the direction of the vice-chancellor of student affairs and the board of control now reports to him. At Santa Barbara, an Intercollegiate Athletic Commission was created in 1959 and assumed the management and the fiscal responsibilities of the athletic program at Santa Barbara, on July 1, 1960. At that time, the Associated Students relinquished its traditional administration of the operation in favor of the commission, a joint student-faculty organization. Policies regarding control of athletics at Davis are channeled by the campus administration and the employment of coaches is governed by the physical education department.
In February of 1960, President Kerr announced that the administration of athletics at Berkeley and Los Angeles would pass from the ASUC and ASUCLA to the University, effective July 1, 1960. At the same time, he announced the formation of Departments of Intercollegiate Athletics on the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses to assume this new responsibility. Executive head of the department on each campus is the intercollegiate athletic director. He also serves on the Intercollegiate Advisory Board, a 12-member group appointed by the chancellor that includes the campus business manager and representatives from the students, faculty and alumni.--EF
Campus on which each sport is recognized and date of first participation
|Sport||Berkeley||Davis||Irvine||Los Angeles||Riverside||San Diego||Santa Barbara Competed as Santa Barbara State Teachers College until 1935, and as Santa Barbara State College until 1958.|
|Baseball . . . . .||1892||1912||...||1921||1957||...||1922|
|Basketball . . . . .||1912||1911||1965||1919||1954||1965||1921|
|Boxing . . . . .||1922||1920 Discontinued.||...||...||...||...||...|
|Crew . . . . .||1893||...||1965||1933||...||...||...|
|Cricket . . . . .||...||...||...||1934||...||...||...|
|Cross Country . . . . .||1918||1949||...||...||1963||1965||1936|
|Fencing . . . . .||...||...||...||1928||...||...||1938 Discontinued.|
|Football Rugby substituted for American football at Berkeley 1906-14 . . . . .||1882||1910||...||1919||1955||...||1921|
|Golf . . . . .||1923||1940||1965||1927||1955||...||1938|
|Gymnastics . . . . .||1922||...||...||1924||...||...||1965|
|Riflery . . . . .||...||1938||...||1929||...||...||...|
|Rugby Rugby substituted for American football at Berkeley 1906-14 . . . . .||1933||...||...||1934||1960||...||...|
|Sailing . . . . .||...||...||1965||...||...||1965||...|
|Skiing . . . . .||...||1937 Discontinued.||...||...||...||...||...|
|Soccer . . . . .||1912||1940||...||1934||1957||...||...|
|Swimming . . . . .||1915||1939||1965||1922||1958||...||1941|
|Tennis . . . . .||1892||1932||1965||1921||1955||1966||1937|
|Track & Field . . . . .||1893||1912||...||1920||1959||...||1923|
|Volleyball . . . . .||...||...||...||1964||...||...||1965|
|Water Polo . . . . .||1918||1946||1965||1928||1965||...||1957|
|Wrestling . . . . .||1922||1920||...||1923||...||1966||1941|
1 Rugby substituted for American football at Berkeley 1906-14.
2 Competed as Santa Barbara State Teachers College until 1935, and as Santa Barbara State College until 1958.
REFERENCES: Vic Kelley, “Brief Historical Account of UCLA's Athletic Development” (Unpubl., 1965); James M. Greenfield letter to Robert S. Johnson, June 16, 1965; Jim Doan, “Intercollegiate Athletics at UC, Davis” (Unpubl., 1965); E. N. Carter, “Athletic Department, UCSB” (Unpubl., June 9, 1965); California Monthly, February, 1927, 318, November, 1940, 22, February, 1959, 8-9, November 1958, 3, March 1960; University Bulletin, October 22, 1956, 57-58, December 10, 1956, 87, December 13, 1957, December 15, 1958, 89, February 15, 1960, 127; UCLA Alumni Association, California of the Southland (Los Angeles, 1937); W. W. Ferrier, Origin and Development of the University of California (Berkeley, 1930), 622-630; George A. Pettit, Twenty-eight Years in the Life of a University President (Berkeley, 1966), 7, 139, 153, 155-56.
Directors Of Athletics
|O. F. Snedigar||1906-1908|
|Ralph P. Merritt||1910-1912|
|Milton T. Farmer||1912-1914|
|J. A. Stroud, Jr.||1914-1917|
|F. G. Booth||1917-1918|
|R. B. Watson||1918-1919|
|Luther A. Nichols||1919-1926|
|W. W. “Bill” Monahan||1926-1935|
|Robert E. Harmon||1915-1919|
|W. L. Seawright||1919-1920|
|W. D. Elfrink||1921-1922|
|William L. Driver||1923-1928|
|I. F. Toomey||1929-1961|
|Vern B. Hickey||1961-|
|Wayne H. Crawford||1963-|
|(Assisted by Bob Berkey)|
|J. D. Morgan||1963-|
|Jack E. Hewitt||1954-1961|
|Jack E. Hewitt||1962-1963|
|Franklin A. Lindeburg||1963-|
|O. J. Gilliland||1922-1926|
|Terry Dearborn (acting)||1948|
|M. S. “Doc” Kelliher||1958-1961|
|Jack C. Curtice||1965-|
National Collegiate Athletic Association
Intercollegiate Regatta Association Championships
Pacific Coast Conference
Athletic Association of Western Universities
California Intercollegiate Baseball Association
Pacific Coast Conference Southern Division
California Intercollegiate Baseball Association
Pacific Coast Intercollegiate
Pacific Coast Intercollegiate
Southern California Intercollegiate
California Collegiate Boxing Conference
Southern California Soccer Association
California Collegiate Athletic Association
Far Western Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
University of California Fields and Stadia
|Sport and Name of Facility||Date of Construction||Seating Capacity||Comments|
|Baseball--Clint Evans Diamond (Edwards Fields) . . . . .||1932||3,000|
|Basketball--Harmon Gymnasium (Main arena) . . . . .||1932||7,200||Other rooms house facilities for boxing, gymnastics, and wrestling.|
|Crew--Ky Ebright Boat House . . . . .||1929||...||Located at Oakland Estuary; capacity for 20 shells.|
|Football--California Field . . . . .||1904||...||Used for intercollegiate football until 1923.|
|Football--Memorial Stadium . . . . .||1923||76,780||Also used for rugby and soccer.|
|Rifle Range . . . . .||...||...||Located in Hearst Gymnasium for Women.|
|Soccer--Haas Field . . . . .||1961||...|
|Swimming--Harmon Pools . . . . .||1932||300||One 25-yard pool, one 33 1/3-yard pool.|
|Tennis--Channing Courts . . . . .||1961||1,200|
|Track and Field--Edwards Stadium (Edwards Fields)||1932||22,000|
|Baseball--Aggie Field . . . . .||1939||300|
|Basketball--Men's Gymnasium . . . . .||1938||1,500||Also used for wrestling.|
|Football--Toomey Field . . . . .||1955||5,800||Also used for Track and Field.|
|Soccer--Intramural Field . . . . .||...||...|
|Swimming . . . . .||1938||200||33 1/3-yard pool.|
|Tennis . . . . .||1959||...|
|Basketball--Campus Hall . . . . .||1965||2,400||Other rooms house facilities for gymnastics and wrestling.|
|Crew--Crew House . . . . .||1965||...||Located at Shellmaker Island; capacity for eight shells.|
|Swimming--UCI Pool . . . . .||1965||3,000||L-shaped pool 25-yards long and 25 meters across L.|
|Tennis--UCI Courts . . . . .||1965||1,000|
|Basketball--Pauley Pavilion . . . . .||1965||13,000|
|Crew--UCLA Crew Boathouse . . . . .||1965||...||Adjacent to the Marina Del Rey.|
|Swimming--Bruin Swim Stadium . . . . .||1965||...|
|Tennis--UCLA Tennis Stadium . . . . .||1961||1,500|
|Track and Field--Trotter Track . . . . .||1930||500|
|Baseball . . . . .||1958||400|
|Basketball . . . . .||1954||1,250|
|Football . . . . .||1958||2,500|
|Swimming . . . . .||1954||300|
|Baseball . . . . .||1954||500|
|Basketball--Gymnasium . . . . .||1959||3,600|
|Football--La Playa Stadium . . . . .||1939||10,000||Operated jointly by the city of Santa Barbara and the Santa Barbara campus.|
|Swimming . . . . .||1941||...|
|Track and Field . . . . .||1954||600|
Berkeley Individual Performance Records
|50 yard freestyle||21.9||1964||Grady Romine|
|100 yard freestyle||48.5||1964||Grady Romine|
|200 yard freestyle||1:49.8||1965||Terry McNally|
|220 yard freestyle||2:10.3||1960||Jim Small|
|440 yard freestyle||4:33.8||1959||Jim Small|
|500 yard freestyle||5:24.6||1964||Jim Baird, Jeff Baker|
|880 yard freestyle||9:56.6||1960||Jim Small|
|1500 meters||18:43.7||1959||Jim Small|
|1650 meters||19:10.5||1963||Jim Baird|
|One mile||20:55.0||1954||Dave Radcliff|
|50 yard backstroke||27.4||1957||Terry Tognazzini|
|100 yard backstroke||59.3||1952||Jim Ross|
|150 yard backstroke||1:35.4||1952||Jim Ross|
|200 yard backstroke||2:12.1||1963||Burt Voorhees|
|220 yard backstroke||2:30.2||1956||Bill Floyd|
|440 yard backstroke||5:22.9||1952||Jim Ross|
|50 yard butterfly||24.8||1964||Ed Duncan|
|100 yard butterfly||54.8||1964||Ed Duncan|
|200 yard butterfly||2:05.0||1964||Ed Duncan|
|50 yard breaststroke||28.2||1964||John Gage|
|100 yard breaststroke||1:01.9||1964||John Gage|
|200 yard breaststroke||2:22.4||1963||John Gage|
|440 yard breaststroke||5:54.5||1962||Armin Arndt|
|150 yard individual medley||1:31.5||1958||Terry Tognazzini|
|200 yard individual medley||2:07.2||1964||Phil Knight|
|400 yard individual medley||4:33.2||1964||Ed Duncan|
|150 yard medley relay||1:16.4||1957||Terry Tognazzini, Charles Holloway, Bruce Keppel|
|300 yard medley relay||2:51.7||1956||Bill Floyd, Bruce Keppel, Ron Volmer|
|400 yard medley relay||3:48.2||1963||Burt Voorhees, John Gage, Phil Goode, Spencer Kagan|
|200 yard freestyle relay||1:34.7||1960||Dave Alvarez, Bill Harlan, Ogoshe, John Teel|
|400 yard freestyle relay||3:19.0||1964||Grady Romine, Spencer Kagan, Phil Knight, Ed Duncan|
|100 yard dash||09.3||1956||Leamon King|
|100 meter dash||10.1||1956||Leamon King|
|220 yard dash||20.4||1942||Harold Davis|
|220 yard dash (turn)||21.0||1965||Forrest Beaty|
|440 yard dash||46.3||1964||Dave Archibald|
|400 meter dash||46.0||1941||Grover Klemmer|
|880 yard run||1:47.2||1957||Don Bowden|
|800 meter run||1:46.8||1960||Jerry Siebert|
|One mile run||3:58.7||1957||Don Bowden|
|1500 meter run||3:46.6||1956||Don Bowden|
|Two mile run||8:59.8||1957||Bob House|
|Three mile run||14:11.0||1961||Alan Gaylord|
|10,000 meter run||31:46.3||1956||Bob House|
|120 yard high hurdles||14.2||1935||Tom Moore|
|220 yard low hurdles||23.0||1959||Willie White|
|330 yard intermediates||38.8||1963||Rich Harding|
|400 yard intermediates||53.8||1936||Greg Stout|
|Shot Put||59’8¾”||1962||Dave Maggard|
|High Jump||7’½”||1962||Gene Johnson|
|Broad Jump||25’3”||1937||Arnold Nutting|
|Pole Vault||14’6 3/8”||1941||Guinn Smith|
|Triple Jump||49’11¾”||1963||Todd Gaskill|
|440 yard relay||40.3||1965||Steve Adams, Dave Archibald, Bob Brinkworth, Forrest Beaty|
|880 yard relay||1:26.0||1942||Dave Rhoads, Bill Finck, Murray Shipnuck, Hal Davis|
|One mile relay||3:07.4||1964||Al Courchesne, Dave Fishback, Forrest Beaty, Dave Archibald|
|Two mile relay||7:20.9||1958||Maynard Orme, Jerry Siebert, Jack Yerman, Don Bowden|
|Sprint medley relay||3:18.8||1958||Jack Yerman, Monte Upshaw, Willie White, Don Bowden|
|Distance medley relay||9:42.3||1957||Art Stewart, Maynard Orme, Bob House, Don Bowden|
Davis Individual Performance Records
|50 yard freestyle||23.1||1965||Charles Hamilton|
|100 yard freestyle||51.8||1965||Les Konkin|
|200 yard freestyle||1:57.3||1965||Les Konkin|
|500 yard freestyle||5:25.0||1965||Les Konkin|
|1650 yard freestyle||19:39.5||1963||Frank Frisch|
|100 yard backstroke||59.9||1963||Ken Wallace|
|200 yard backstroke||2:18.7||1963||Ken Wallace|
|100 yard butterfly||58.3||1963||Roger Enns|
|200 yard butterfly||2:30.1||1964||Roger Silva|
|100 yard breaststroke||1:06.3||1963||Tim Indart|
|200 yard breaststroke||2:29.9||1963||Tim Indart|
|200 yard individual medley||2:19.5||1964||Dave Zealer|
|400 yard individual medley||5:12.5||1965||Frank Hassett|
|400 yard medley relay||4:04.6||1963||Ken Wallace, Tim Indart, Roger Enns, Reid Dorn|
|400 yard freestyle relay||3:27.2||1965||Al Ross, Charles Hamilton, Bryan Connor, Les Konkin|
|One meter diving||324.75 pts.||1965||Rich Caufield|
|Three meter diving||195.80 pts.||1964||Rich Caufield|
|100 yard dash||09.6||1955||Jack Threlkeld|
|220 yard dash||21.1||1955||Jack Threlkeld|
|220 yard dash (turn)||21.5||1965||Marshall Watwood|
|440 yard dash||49.1||1964||Ken Stevenson|
|880 yard dash||1:53.0||1964||Tom Rogers|
|One mile run||4:14.3||1960||Pete Darnall|
|Two mile run||9:40.2||1965||Broc Zoller|
|Three mile run||15:45.0||1965||Gordon Baechtel|
|120 yard high hurdles||14.4||1938||Fred Frick|
|220 yard low hurdles||23.5||1958||Duane Allen|
|330 yard intermediates||38.6||1965||Steve Holloway|
|Shot Put||57’5¾”||1965||Henry Pfrehm|
|High Jump||6’7½”||1965||Sam Kipp|
|Broad Jump||23’7”||1941||Bob Forbes|
|Pole Vault||13’6¼”||1964||Jon Scribner|
|Triple Jump||45’9½”||1964||Ken Stevenson|
|440 yard relay||42.1||1965||Marshall Watwood, Craig Williams, Rudy Dressendorfer, Mike Iverson|
|One mile relay||3:19.1||1964||Nils Venge, Richard Creeggan, Tom Rogers, Ken Stevenson|
Los Angeles Individual Performance Records
|50 yard freestyle||22.9||1965||Stan Cole|
|100 yard freestyle||48.8||1965||Stan Cole, Terry Flanagan|
|200 yard freestyle||1:48.7||1965||Terry Flanagan|
|440 yard freestyle||4:56.0||1965||Terry Flanagan|
|1500 meters||17:21.5||1965||Dave Ashleigh|
|100 yard backstroke||55.5||1965||Jim Monahan|
|200 yard backstroke||2:06.0||1965||Jim Monahan|
|100 yard breaststroke||1:00.2||1965||Russ Webb|
|200 yard breaststroke||2:13.4||1965||Russ Webb|
|100 yard butterfly||52.9||1965||Stan Cole|
|200 yard butterfly||2:03.3||1964||Dan Drown|
|200 yard individual medley||2:02.9||1965||Stan Cole|
|400 yard individual medley||4:35.8||1965||Dave Ashleigh|
|400 yard freestyle relay||3:15.5||1965||Stan Cole, Win Condict, Bob Teele, Terry Flanagan|
|400 yard medley relay||3:36.1||1965||Jim Monahan, Russ Webb, Stan Cole, Terry Flanagan|
|100 yard dash||9:4||1960||Chris Knott|
|220 yard dash||20.8||1934||Jimmy LuValle|
|440 yard dash||47.2||1957||Russ Ellis|
|400 meter dash||46.8||1956||Russ Ellis|
|880 yard run||1:48.9||1961||Andy Dunkell|
|800 meter run||1:50.3||1956||Bob Seaman|
|One mile run||3:56.4||1965||Bob Day|
|1500 meter run||3:48.0||1956||Bob Seaman|
|Two mile run||8:35.4||1965||Bob Day|
|3000 meter steeplechase||9:05.7||1965||Earl Clibborn|
|Three mile run||13:55.2||1965||Geoff Pyne|
|5000 meter run||13:55.5||1965||Geoff Pyne|
|10,000 meter run||30:19.6||1964||Dick Weeks|
|120 yard high hurdles||13.8||1949||Craig Dixon|
|220 yard low hurdles||22.5||1949||Craig Dixon|
|330 yard intermediates||37.0||1965||Roger Johnson|
|440 yard intermediates||50.9||1965||Roger Johnson|
|Shot Put||59’”||1961||Clark Branson|
|High Jump||6’8 3/8”||1948||George Stanich|
|Broad Jump||26’3”||1952||George Brown|
|Pole Vault||16’4¾”||1963||C. K. Yang|
|Triple Jump||50’11¼”||1962||Kermit Alexander|
|440 yard relay||40.8||1951||Bob Work, Rod Richard, Hugh Wilson, George Brown|
|880 yard relay||1:24.8||1952||Dave Rosellini, Jack Sage, George Brown, Rod Richard|
|One mile relay||3:11.4||1965||Paul Hoyt, Dennis Breckow, Arnd Kruger, Bob Frey|
|Two mile relay||7:26.4||1965||Dennis Breckow, Kurt Klein, Arnd Kruger, Bob Day|
|Sprint medley relay||3:21.0||1956||Russ Ellis, Stan King, Rafer Johnson, Bob Seaman|
|Distance medley relay||9:33.9||1965||Bob Frey, Dennis Breckow, Arnd Kruger, Bob Day|
|Decathlon||9121 pts.||1963||C. K. Yang|
Riverside Individual Performance Records
|50 yard freestyle||23.8||1961||Dave Gibson|
|100 yard freestyle||53.8||1963||Hugh Coffin|
|200 yard freestyle||2:06.1||1963||Pete Stokely|
|500 yard freestyle||5:57.9||1964||Bill Curran|
|200 yard backstroke||2:29.8||1959||Bob Wills|
|200 yard butterfly||2:16.6||1963||Pete Stokely|
|200 yard breaststroke||2:40.6||1962||Gary Kline|
|133 yard individual medley||1:28.2||1964||Bill Curran|
|400 yard freestyle relay||3:39.5||1963||Phil Possen, Loren Thompson, Pete Stull, Hugh Coffin|
|400 yard medley relay||4:14.8||1963||Mike McLean, Gary Kline, Pete Stokely, Pete Stull|
|Diving||201 pts.||1961||Marvin Gove|
|100 yard dash||9.9||1963||Chris Rinne|
|220 yard dash||22.2||1963||Chris Rinne|
|440 yard dash||51.1||1963||Bob McKeever|
|880 yard run||2:03.0||1964||Bob McKeever|
|One mile run||4:37.0||1965||Dick Bernier|
|Two mile run||10:36.0||1965||Dick Bernier|
|120 yard high hurdles||15.5||1964||Roger Glenn|
|330 yard intermediates||42.4||1964||Roger Glenn|
|Shot Put||45’8”||1961||Ed Weber|
|High Jump||6’3½”||1964||Gary Lothamer|
|Broad Jump||22’0”||1961||Bob Brewer|
|Pole Vault||12’6”||1963||Dale Sevier|
|Triple Jump||43’10”||1964||Gary Lothamer|
|440 yard relay||42.4||1962||Bill Stotelmyre, Ron Safer, Chris Rinne, Bob Rinne|
|880 yard relay||1:29.2||1962||Bill Stotelmyre, Ron Safer, Chris Rinne, Bob Rinne|
|One mile relay||3:26.0||1963||Chris Rinne, Bob Rinne, Rich McCarthy, Bob McKeever|
|Two mile relay||8:36.5||1964||Chris Rinne, Rich McCarthy, Elvers Troupe, Bob McKeever|
|Distance medley||11:30.8||1964||Chris Rinne, Elvers Troupe, Bob McKeever, Doug McCreary|
Santa Barbara Individual Performance Records
|50 yard freestyle||21.6||1965||Don Roth|
|100 yard freestyle||47.7||1965||Don Roth|
|200 yard freestyle||1:46.5||1965||Don Roth|
|500 yard freestyle||5:10.0||1964||Frans Nelson|
|100 yard backstroke||59.6||1964||Frans Nelson|
|200 yard backstroke||2:17.5||1965||Roger Edwards|
|100 yard butterfly||57.5||1961||John Crow|
|200 yard butterfly||2:24.0||1964||Joe Scott|
|100 yard breaststroke||1:06.1||1965||Ralph Barbour|
|200 yard breaststroke||2:24.2||1965||Mike Honig|
|200 yard individual medley||2:11.8||1965||Mike Honig|
|400 yard freestyle relay||3:16.4||1964||Chuck Leiberman, Terry O'Conner, John Mortenson, Don Roth|
|400 yard medley relay||3:51.5||1964||Frans Nelson, Ralph Barbour, Chris Ostrum, Don Roth|
|100 yard dash||9.6||1960||Henk Visser|
|220 yard dash||20.9||1960||Henk Visser|
|440 yard dash||47.9||1963||Jack Burdullis|
|880 yard run||1:53.9||1965||Jim Horton|
|One mile run||4:10.3||1957||Bill Collins|
|Two mile run||9:15.2||1956||Gordon McClenathan|
|120 yard high hurdles||14.3||1951||Alberto Triulzi|
|330 yard intermediates||38.2||1964||Jack Burdullis|
|Shot Put||51’4½”||1963||Larry Rocker|
|High Jump||6’7”||1957||Joe Riddick|
|Broad Jump||26’2½”||1960||Henk Visser|
|Pole Vault||13’8½”||1964||Steve Clover|
|Triple Jump||47’11½”||1963||Gary Hawthorne|
|Mile Relay||3:17.6||1964||William O'Neil, James Clark, John Escoveda, Jack Burdullis|
|E. R. Wight||1921-1923|
|E. M. Garnett||1893-1896|
|W. B. Goodwin||1901-1903|
|E. M. Garnett||1904-1908|
|T. A. Davidson||1911|
|Carroll “Ky” Ebright||1924-1959|
|O. S. Howard||1886-1891|
|W. W. Heffelfinger||1893|
|Charles P. Knott||1897|
|J. W. Knibbs||1905|
|C. Y. Williamson||1912-1913|
|F. W. Cozens||1917-1919|
|H. S. Baird||1912-1913|
|R. A. Harmon||1916-1917|
|L. L. Hooper||1918|
|H. S. Baird||1913-1915|
|R. A. Harmon||1916|
|E. B. Bisbee||1917|
|J. D. Marquardt||1918|
|W. D. Elfrink||1922|
|I. F. Toomey||1929-1936|
|R. A. Harmon||1915-1916|
|C. E. Van Gent||1920|
|W. D. Elfrink||1921|
|I. F. Toomy||1928-1936|
|Aly Raghib Attla||1940|
|J. E. Eckert||1934-1935|
|S. H. Breckett||1916|
|Don Appleton-Norm Nielson||1955|
|Bud Gale--Gardner McFarland||1936|
|Dan S. Rogers||1965-|
|Duvall Y. Hecht||1965-|
|Robert M. Allan, Jr.||1965-|
|Albert M. Irwin||1965-|
|Albert M. Irwin||1965-|
|Fred W. Cozens||1921-1924|
|Pierce “Caddy” Works||1925-1926|
|A. J. Sturzenegger||1927-1931|
|A. J. Sturzenegger||1933|
|A. J. Sturzenegger||1943-1945|
|Fred W. Cozens||1919-1921|
|Pierce “Caddy” Works||1921-1939|
|John R. Wooden||1948-|
|C. Aubrey Smith||1934|
|C. Aubrey Smith||1938-1940|
|Capt. John H. Duff||1928-1930|
|Fred W. Cozens||1919|
|Bert La Brucherie||1945-1948|
|Henry R. Sanders||1949-1957|
|William F. Barnes||1959-1964|
|Capt. Jim Matthews||1931|
|Sgt. Earl Thomas||1930-1931|
|Capt. Jim Matthews||1932|
|Sgt. Earl Thomas-Capt. F. J. Pearson||1933|
|Capt. F. J. Pearson||1934-1935|
|Sgt. Earl Thomas-Capt. F. P. Pearson||1936|
|Sgt. Earl Thomas||1937-1941|
|Capt. Rudy Mjorud||1948|
|Sgt. John Ponkow||1950-1952|
|Sgt. William E. Berry||1953-1956|
|Sgt. Harwin Dawson||1957-1958|
|Sgt. Frank Jones||1959-1960|
|Sgt. Al Turnell||1961-|
|William C. Ackerman||1921-1950|
|J. D. Morgan||1951-|
|Elvin “Ducky” Drake||1947-1964|
|Franklin A. Lindeburg||1954-|
|Franklin A. Lindenburg||1955-|
|O. J. Gilliland||1923-1926|
|O. J. Gilliland||1923-1926|
|Miss Alice Bradley||1921-1922|
|O. J. Gilliland||1922-1926|
|J. C. Lewis||1921|
|O. J. Gilliland||1922-1925|
Campus on which each sport is played and date of first participation
|Activity||Berkeley||Davis||Irvine||Los Angeles||Riverside||San Diego||San Francisco||Santa Barbara||Santa Cruz|
|Archery . . . . .||...||...||1965-66||1939||1955||1965||...||1965||...|
|Badminton . . . . .||1935||1946||1965-66||1939||1955||...||1959||1951||...|
|Baseball . . . . .||...||1917 Activity has been discontinued.||...||1923||...||...||...||...||...|
|Basketball . . . . .||1918||1916||1965-66||1923||1954||1964||1958||1948||1965|
|Basketball Free Throw . . . . .||...||...||...||1939||1955 Activity has been discontinued.||...||...||...||...|
|Boxing . . . . .||1920||1916 Activity has been discontinued.||...||1923 Activity has been discontinued.||...||...||...||...||...|
|Bowling . . . . .||1925||1963||...||1939||1955||...||1959||1951||1965|
|Cross Country . . . . .||...||1916||...||1959||1965||1965||...||...||1966|
|Fencing . . . . .||...||...||...||1939||1964||...||...||...||...|
|Flag Football . . . . .||...||...||1965-66||1949||1965||1964||...||...||...|
|Football . . . . .||...||...||...||...||...||...||...||1948||...|
|Golf . . . . .||1925||1945||1965-66||1939||1955||1965||1959||1948||...|
|Gymnastics . . . . .||1918||...||...||1923 Activity has been discontinued.||...||...||...||1965||...|
|Handball . . . . .||1935||1965||1965-66||1923||1966||1965||1959||...||...|
|Horseshoes . . . . .||1933||1937 Activity has been discontinued.||...||1925 Activity has been discontinued.||...||1965||...||1965||...|
|Pocket Billiards . . . . .||...||...||...||...||...||...||1959||...||...|
|Rifle Shooting . . . . .||...||...||...||1939 Activity has been discontinued.||...||...||...||...||...|
|Sailing . . . . .||...||...||1965-66||...||...||1965||...||...||...|
|Skiing . . . . .||1955||...||...||1960||...||...||1959||...||...|
|Slow Pitch Softball . . . . .||1962||...||...||1957||...||1965||1960||...||...|
|Snooker . . . . .||...||...||...||...||1956 Activity has been discontinued.||...||1959||...||...|
|Soccer . . . . .||1933||...||...||1926||...||1965||...||1965||...|
|Softball . . . . .||1930||1940||1965-66||1939||1954||1965||1960||1948||1965|
|Squash . . . . .||1933||...||1965-66||...||...||...||1958||...||...|
|Swimming . . . . .||1918||1940||1965-66||1924||1955||...||1959||1948||1966|
|Table Tennis . . . . .||1920||1946||1965-66||1939||1954||1965||1959||...||1965|
|Tennis . . . . .||1918||1937||1965-66||1923||1955||1964||1959||1948||1965|
|Touch Football . . . . .||1927||1916||1965-66||1926 Activity has been discontinued.||1954 Activity has been discontinued.||...||...||...||1965|
|Track and Field . . . . .||1918||1916||...||1923||1955||...||...||1952||1966|
|Tug-o-war . . . . .||...||...||...||...||...||...||...||1965||...|
|Two-man Basketball . . . . .||...||...||...||...||1961||...||...||...||...|
|Two-man Volleyball . . . . .||1954||...||...||1948||1961||1965||1959||1963||...|
|Volleyball . . . . .||1929||1946||1965-66||1933||1954||1964||1959||1948||1965|
|Volleyball Doubles . . . . .||...||...||1965-66||1939||...||...||...||...|