University of California: In Memoriam, April 1961


Percy Munson Barr, Forestry: Berkeley

Associate Forester in the Experiment Station

Percy Munson Barr was born to Canadian parents in Watertown, Connecticut in 1897. Here lay the roots of a career of service to two nations.

He attended high school in British Columbia where he displayed early leanings toward law. His education was interrupted in 1915 while he served in the Canadian Infantry during World War I. He saw action in France and Belgium until early 1918 when he transferred to the Royal Air Force. In the Royal Air Force, he became a pilot and a lieutenant. He returned to civilian life in 1919 and worked during the summer with the British Columbia Forest Service where he discovered the interest that directed the course of his career.

He graduated in forestry from the University of British Columbia in 1924. As an undergraduate, his efforts to enhance the position and strength of his alma mater gave early evidence of his devotion to an effectiveness in public service. He continued his education at Yale University where he received an M.A. degree in forestry in 1925 and a Ph.D. degree in 1929. In his careful preparation for a research career, his thoroughness and foresightedness placed him among the leaders of his profession.

From 1925 until 1932 he was engaged in research on the ecology of the spruce forests in British Columbia. His publications, during this period, concerning natural regeneration and the role of soil moisture in spruce silviculture, continue

to be widely consulted today. In 1932 he was placed in charge of the Research Division of the British Columbia Forest Service.

At this time he accepted a lectureship at the University of California, Berkeley, marking a turning point in his career and research interests. His talents as a teacher were quickly recognized. He was offered and accepted an appointment as Assistant Professor of Forestry in the fall of 1932. He became a full professor in 1947.

During his academic career, he broadened his interest in forest biology to include the economical and business aspects of forestry. Perhaps his greatest contribution to business forestry was his teaching. His published outlines of forest mensuration and forest management are the distilled essence of these central topics in forestry. A demanding instructor, he communicated his passion for organization and his insistence on precision and accuracy to even the more reluctant students.

Early in his association with the University, Dr. Barr assumed responsibility for the management and development of Blodgett Forest, the principal field experiment station of the School of Forestry. The time and interest which he devoted to this project for twenty years have provided the School with an increasingly valuable facility for research and teaching. The long-term experimental work which he initiated there will serve as a continuing monument to both Percy Barr, the man, and his concern for professional practice thoroughly grounded in research.

To Dr. Barr, World War II was more an opportunity for service than an interruption in his career. Foreseeing the inevitable involvement of the United States, he went on active duty as a captain in the United States Army Air Force in August, 1941. He was assigned to intelligence duty and served in Washington, North Africa, and Italy. By 1944 he was a colonel and Assistant Chief-of-Staff of the Intelligence Division

of the Fifteenth Air Force. He was awarded the Legion of Merit and the Bronze Star by the United States, the Croix de Guerre with Palm by France, and the Order of the British Empire. The University of British Columbia in 1945 also took note of his distinguished career and awarded him a Sc.D. degree, honoris causa.

Upon his return to the University of California, his organizational abilities and the wide respect which he commanded among the faculty were recognized in a series of special assignments, beginning in 1947 with his appointment as Special Assistant to the President. These duties culminated in 1950 with his service as Chairman of the Committee on Courses and Instruction, Chairman of the Committee on Schedule, member of the Committee on Privilege and Tenure, Chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Campus Development, and chairman or member of three additional committees within the College of Agriculture. He served simultaneously as Chairman of the Berkeley Chapter and Vice-chairman of the Pacific Area Regional Advisory Council of the American Red Cross.

The slowly developing symptoms of Parkinson's disease forced his gradual retirement from this remarkable array of university and community services. Undaunted and unyielding, Dr. Barr concentrated his efforts on his teaching and his studies of the business aspects of forestry. In 1953 he inaugurated the first course in industrial forestry to be given in the United States.

With his wide knowledge of forestry operations in the United States and Canada combined with his ability to perceive the important, he came to occupy a special role in the School of Forestry. The twinkle in his eye, the quick bite of his humor, and his deep interest in the development of his profession never deserted him. During these days, this cheerful accommodation to the irksome problems of declining physical ability must have challenged and inspired the spirit

of his students as effectively as his seminars challenged their intellects.

Following one of his usual full days of work at his office, he died quietly in his sleep early in the morning of August 27, 1960.

After an earlier marriage and two children, Dr. Barr married Helen Adams, daughter of Professor Emeritus Frank Adams, in 1941. This marriage gave him four more fine children and the constant help of a devoted wife. He is survived by both families.

As students in his earlier classes and as his faculty colleagues in more recent years, we are grateful to Dr. Barr for many things. To us, as to all of his students, he contributed much in understanding of our field of work, in approaches to organizing tasks, and in encouragement of our development to the limits of our abilities. Above all, however, we will always remember and respect him for his unyielding will and courage in the face of mounting physical adversity. In a special but very real sense, Dr. Percy Barr's closing years were his greatest triumph.

H. J. Vaux R. N. Colwell J. A. Zivnuska


Walter Charles Blasdale, Chemistry: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

Walter Charles Blasdale was born on January 10, 1871, in Jericho, Queens County, New York, the son of Charles Blasdale, M.D., and Julia Smith Blasdale. His scientific education was obtained at the University of California. He matriculated in 1888 and received a B.S. degree in chemistry in 1892, an M.S. degree in 1896, and a Ph.D. degree in 1900. His was the first doctorate in chemistry awarded by the University of California. He started teaching in the College of Chemistry during his graduate studies. He was Assistant in Chemistry from 1892 until 1895, Instructor from 1895 until 1903, Assistant Professor from 1903 until 1911, Associate Professor from 1911 until 1919, and Professor from 1919 until 1941. He became Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, in 1941 at the age of seventy.

The bibliography of his published writings contains contributions to botany as well as chemistry. His first paper, “Studies in the Life History of a Puccinia found on the leaves of Oenothera ovata,” was prepared while he was still an undergraduate. It was published in the Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station (California) for 1891-92. Another paper, “On Certain Leaf Hair Structures” appeared in Erythea in December, 1893.

Professor Blasdale's first chemical publication, “On the Physical and Chemical Properties of Some California Oils,” was printed in the Journal of the American Chemical Society in December, 1895. The bulletins of the Department of Geology,

in which Louderback described the new mineral Benitoite and associated minerals (Vol. V, No. 9, 1896; Vol. V, No. 23, 1909), included chemical analyses of these minerals by Professor Blasdale. In July, 1899 he published a bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Some Chinese Vegetable Food Materials, Their Nutritive and Economic Value. For many years he taught quantitative analysis, and his experience in teaching this subject resulted in the publication, in 1914, of Principles of Quantitative Analysis. The fourth edition of this book was published in 1936 under the title Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis.

During a year's leave from the University in 1904-05, Professor Blasdale developed his knowledge of physical chemistry by studying with the famous Van't Hoff in Berlin. The Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften contains three joint papers by Van't Hoff and Blasdale. Subsequently, he published research papers on “Equilibria in Solutions Containing Mixtures of Salts.” This work culminated in publication of a book, Equilibria in Saturated Salt Solutions in 1927, as one of the Chemical Monograph Series of the American Chemical Society. A contribution to the International Critical Tables in 1928, was “Freezing-point Solubility; Data for Three (or more) Component Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Inorganic Compounds.” His researches in this field were of value for the utilization of salt deposits found in dried lakes in California and elsewhere. For many years he taught a course in the Phase Rule.

Professor Blasdale's researches in chemistry were paralleled by his contributions to botany. Many of his publications appeared in the Journal of the California Horticultural Society, the National Horticultural Magazine, and the Quarterly of the American Primrose Society. The botany of the primrose especially received his attention; he studied it through plantings in his garden and greenhouse. His work on the primrose culminated in a major work, The Cultivated Species of Primula,

University of California Press, 1948. He also published a work, Cyclamen Persicum; Its Natural and Cultivated Forms, Stanford University Press, 1952.

Professor Blasdale's broad interests also included the history of science. He taught a course in the history of chemistry and for many years was an active member of the History of Science Dinner Club of the University of California.

Professor Blasdale was a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Horticultural Society, the California Horticultural Society, and the Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain. He was a member of the Faculty Club, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi. He was active in the First Congregational Church of Berkeley and in the Boy Scouts. In view of his interest in young people, it was fitting that he should serve on the Academic Senate Committee on Undergraduate Scholarships. He was chairman of that committee from 1930 until 1934. He was active in the California Horticultural Society until about a month before his death; he often attended its meetings in San Francisco.

Professor Blasdale was married on June 28, 1905, to Elizabeth Rogers. He died on May 23, 1960, after a seventy-two-year association with the University of California, perhaps the longest on record. He is survived by two children, Herbert Halsey Blasdale of Berkeley and Helen R. Blasdale of Davis, and three grandchildren, Justin, Janice, and Allan Blasdale.

W. F. Giauque J. H. Hildebrand V. F. Lenzen


Ernest Bloch, Music: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

With the death of Ernest Bloch in Portland, Oregon, on July 15, 1959, one of the most distinguished careers in the musical history of the United States ended.

He was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on July 24, 1880. He studied with some of the most eminent teachers of the time: Dalcroze and Rey in Geneva, Ysaÿe and Rasse in Brussels, Knorr in Frankfort, and Thuille in Munich. After completing his formal studies, he began a professional life in Geneva that developed in three areas. First and foremost, he was a composer in the main stream of musical development, writing for voice, solo instruments, chamber ensembles, orchestra, chorus, and opera. Second, he was a gifted and dynamic conductor. Finally, he was a pedagogue of extraordinary imagination and influence.

It was as a conductor that he first came to this country in 1916. His reputation as a composer and teacher, already significant in Europe, spread rapidly, and after becoming a naturalized citizen in 1924, he remained a compelling figure in American music.

Although he received various honors and prizes, Professor Bloch took a certain pride in the fact that he was not a graduate of any institution of higher learning; yet he spent a large part of his professional life in affiliation with schools. As early as 1904 he lectured at the Geneva Conservatory and was Professor there from 1911 until 1915. In 1917 he taught at the Mannes School in New York. From 1920 until 1925 he

was Director of the Institute of Musical Art in Cleveland, and from 1925 until 1930 Director of the San Francisco Conservatory. For the next ten years, mainly spent in Switzerland, he was devoted to composition. In 1940 he became Professor of Music at the University of California, Berkeley, and until his retirement in 1952 spent one semester each year teaching and lecturing on the campus.

As a teacher, Professor Bloch had a profound influence on a whole generation of American composers and on a large group of musicians and teachers who have themselves become influential in the musical world. His whole philosophy of teaching music developed from one central thesis: that the great composers of the past offered the finest and the most enduring instruction for musicians of the twentieth century. Impatient with textbooks in musical theory, he led his students directly to the sixteenth-century masters, Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso for counterpoint; to the Chorales of Bach for harmony; to the Well-Tempered Clavichord for fugue; and to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven for form.

In these matters, Professor Bloch was his own good disciple. He made extensive studies of the Eroica Symphony, tracing Beethoven's ideas from their seedling state, through their change and growth in his sketch books and to their fruition in the completed symphony. He explored in the most minute detail the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavichord, not only accounting for all that happens in them, but also working out contrapuntal possibilities that Bach had not used, to discover why Bach had rejected them. And in his late forties, for the refinement of his own craft, Professor Bloch wrote several thousand exercises in modal counterpoint based on the study of Lasso.

It remains for the judgment of history to assign to Ernest Bloch his permanent place among composers; yet already certain facts emerge that history will find relevant. One of these was that he accepted the musical vocabulary of his own

youth, finding it substantially adequate for his needs. His early opera, Macbeth, shows his admiration for his immediate predecessors and at the same time a highly original and personal rhetoric that was to remain uniquely his throughout his long career. His early works reflected the taste of the time for large, expansive forms; as he grew older, his musical speech became more incisive and the forms more compact. Throughout his life, he avoided novelty for the sake of newness; he disdained the revolutionary for its shock value; and he willingly used the familiar when the familiar suited his purposes. He was chiefly concerned with communication by musical means, with substance expressed with forceful directness, consummate craft, and unfailing taste. In spirit, he continued into the twentieth century the attitudes and aspirations of the composers we call “Romantic” without himself being conservative or old-fashioned.

Much critical writing has laid stress on a Jewish cast in Professor Bloch's composition, almost to the point of suggesting that he was a musical nationalist. Certainly he drew heavily on the Jewish heritage for subject matter: Schelomo, the symphony Israel, the Psalms for Voice and Orchestra, and the liturgical Sacred Service, for example. He made only the most incidental use of traditional Jewish musical material, disclaiming sectarian and archaeological interest. The particular harmonic and melodic elements at issue are the result of “Bloch meditating on a Jewish subject,” to use the phrase that he himself preferred.

Perhaps what is at the heart of the question is his genius for evocative color in music. If some of his works evoke the atmosphere of the Old Testament, they operate elsewhere with equally telling and totally different effect: the Gauguinesque South Seas in the slow movement of the first Quintet, and the Chinese of the Episodes are examples. Beside Israel stand Helvetia and America; beside Scenes from Jewish Life stands Nirvana. Moreover, in the Sacred Service, where one

might look especially for the Jewish style, the most pervasive single element is a transformed, personalized modal counterpoint that derives directly from his studies of Lasso.

It was Professor Bloch's good fortune to live to see many of his works become classics in the concert repertory. Schelomo, the first Quintet, the String Quartets, and the first Concerto Grosso, all have established places. Since 1938, when it was revived in Naples, the opera Macbeth, a favorite “child,” has been performed widely (American première by the University Opera Workshop, Berkeley, 1960). The Sacred Service has pursued an independent career outside the Synagogue; it has been taken up by college and university musical organizations and by metropolitan orchestras and choruses. Also, it was wholly appropriate that the second Quintet for piano and strings, commissioned and composed for the occasion, was the first work performed in the Festival that inaugurated Hertz Hall on the Berkeley campus in 1958.

In his compositions, Professor Bloch's experience as a conductor is always in evidence. His scores are unusually meticulous in their indication of nuance and of variation in tempo.

The creative and formal qualities of Professor Bloch's mind were also apparent in his conversation. A warm and considerate host, a delightful guest, he was a witty and absorbing raconteur. Started on a subject, he would digress, seemingly farther and farther from the original theme as associations led him, only to draw all together in a masterly and often dramatic summary that instantly demonstrated the relation of all the digressions and excursions to the original theme. In this respect, the same formal sense that controlled musical material in his compositions governed the development of his ideas in other fields.

Professor Bloch is survived by his wife, Marguerite Schneider Bloch, to whom he was married in 1904, and by their three children, Ivan, Suzanne, and Lucienne.

The facts of his public life are in the public record. A more

detailed chronology than is possible here, dates of first performances and list of his works, may be found in any musical dictionary.

The legacy of Ernest Bloch is in two parts, the intangible and the tangible. The intangible part is the impact on his friends, associates, and students: the model of an exemplary musician, unswervingly dedicated to the canons of his art. The tangible part is the body of his works written over a period of sixty years: music that speaks with vigor, eloquence, and beauty.

A. I. Elkus W. D. Denny E. B. Lawton, Jr.


Philip Frederick Bonhag III, Entomology and Parasitology: Berkeley

Associate Professor of Entomology
Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station

Philp Frederick Bonhag was born in New York City on March 5, 1923, the son of Philip Frederick and Frieda Bonhag. Following a public school education in New York City, he graduated from Long Island University with a B.S. degree in biology. He continued his studies as a graduate scholar in botany at Pennsylvania State University and was granted an M.S. degree in entomology. His predoctoral work at Cornell University was aided by his tenure of the Schuyler Fellowship in Animal Biology and the William Strong Dennison Fellowship. His formal education was completed by the granting of a Ph.D. degree by Cornell University in 1948.

Professor Bonhag began his career at Kansas State University where he taught general entomology and insect morphology. He continued his work at Iowa State University where, in 1951, he was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Zoology and Entomology. His outstanding work in research and teaching won him an invitation to join the Department of Entomology and Parasitology at the University of California, which he accepted in 1955. Here he quickly established a group in the field of insect morphology to which came outside scholars and which was the pride of the Department. A skilled technician and an orginal thinker, Professor Bonhag was a leader in the exposition of the “new morphology,” a study of the fine and ultra structure of tissues and cells. His

knowledge of physics and chemistry enabled him to adopt quickly the best of the newer techniques in optics and histochemistry. Both his admirable formal lectures and inspiring informal discussions with students soon attracted postdoctoral fellows from other biological disciplines, making his laboratory a center of interest and research.

In so short a productive life the measure of success is quality and promise and these his publications exhibit to a high degree. His clear and thorough exposition illuminated by his accurate drawings, each a work of art, makes his publications a pleasure to read. Those who watched the hours of careful work, each step tested and repeated, each detail fitted into place until an unequivocal whole could be described in words and picture, knew they were seeing the work of a man of great ability. Those who were privileged to work under his direction will never forget the lessons learned by precept and kindly criticism.

A victim of childhood rheumatic fever, Professor Bonhag conserved his strength for those things he valued most: his family, his many friends, his teaching and research, and his love for art and music. Never sure of the morrow, he lived each day to its fullest and yet planned his future carefully in the hope that he could add a little more to man's knowledge and appreciation. In the midst of a full and peaceful life, he died quietly in the evening at his home in Lafayette, California. His wife, Rose, and three children survive him.

R. Craig W. M. Hoskins E. A. Steinhaus


Frederic Carroll Bost, Orthopaedic Surgery: San Francisco

Clinical Professor

Frederic Carroll Bost was born in Nevada City, California, on December 2, 1900. He died on February 2, 1959. In his short span of years, Dr. Bost (who was Toby to his many friends) lived with great distinction. To have become an outstandingly skillful surgeon, a dedicated teacher, and a man distinguished for his understanding of his fellow men, in the period of fifty-nine years, is a great achievement.

Dr. Bost was graduated from the University of California School of Medicine in 1926 and became an intern at the University of California Hospital in 1927. The following year the Department of Surgery of that hospital appointed him Resident in General Surgery. Dr. Bost spent the next three years at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Children's Hospital in Boston where he gained further experience and a wider knowledge in his chosen field. It was at these hospitals that his great interest in the specialty of orthopaedic surgery developed.

In 1931, when the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery was being established at the University of California School of Medicine with Dr. LeRoy Abbott as its Chief, Dr. Bost returned to California to join Dr. Abbott in this undertaking. Guided by these two able men, the Division prospered and eventually reached its present status of Department. Dr. Bost remained an untiring worker for its advancement and an asset to its staff until his death.


In 1944 Dr. Bost was appointed Chief Surgeon at the Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children in San Francisco, where he had served, under the guidance of Dr. Walter Baldwin, as student extern twenty-five years earlier. It was Dr. Bost who furthered the modernization of the physical plant of the Children's Hospital of San Francisco.

When the May T. Morrison Center for Rehabilitation was established in 1946, Dr. Bost became a member of the Board. He served in this capacity until his death.

Teaching was a great part of Dr. Bost's career, and he became a member of many societies whose chief function was the dissemination of the knowledge of orthopaedics. He served as President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chairman of the Section of Orthopaedics in the American Medical Association, and worked tirelessly as a member of many committees for the betterment of orthopaedics. He was a distingished member of the American Orthopaedic Association, The Western Orthopaedic Association, the International Orthopaedic Association, Pacific Coast Surgical Association, the Wilson Interurban Club (he was co-founder), American College of Surgeons, San Francisco Medical Society, the California Medical Association, and the American Medical Association. He was a proud member of the Bohemian Club and the Cercle de l'Union.

Dr. Bost found friends everywhere: among his colleagues, his students, and his patients. He is sadly missed.

V. T. Inman


William Hutchins Boynton, Veterinary Science: Davis

Professor Emeritus

William Hutchins Boynton passed away in Berkeley, California, November 10, 1959. He was born in Grass Valley, California, on April 18, 1881, the son of John Calvin Boynton and Rose Maria Feistevin Boynton. He married Clara Ethel Cowling in June 1919 in Guelph, Ontario. He is survived by his wife, his daughter Lauaan, his brother Charles, and two grandchildren.

Dr. Boynton graduated from Merced High School in 1902 and attended the University of California for three years. In 1908 he received a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the New York State Veterinary College of Cornell University and served as instructor in comparative pathology and diagnosis at that institution from 1908 until 1909.

During the period from 1910 until 1924, Dr. Boynton was the pathologist in the Bureau of Agriculture of the Philippine Islands; from 1915 until 1919 he served as Dean of the College of Veterinary Science of the University of the Philippines; and from 1919 until 1924 he occupied the position of Chief of the Veterinary Research Laboratory of the United States Bureau of Agriculture. In 1918 Dr. Boynton began studying rinderpest, and his studies led to the development of a successful rinderpest vaccine prepared from inactivated virus.

Dr. Boynton came to the University of California as Professor of Veterinary Science in the College of Agriculture in 1924 and retired as Professor, Emeritus in 1949.


At the University of California he immediately became interested in hog cholera. His success with rinderpest led him to undertake the development of a vaccine capable of immunizing pigs against hog cholera without the necessity of having to use virulent hog cholera virus. This work resulted in the development of the revolutionary hog cholera vaccine (Boynton's Tissue Vaccine) which was prepared by the inactivation of the virus in selected tissues harvested from hog cholera infected pigs. This vaccine immunized pigs successfully, avoided the disadvantages resulting from the use of virulent hog cholera virus, and has been continuously available in the United States since 1940.

Dr. Boynton made the first diagnosis of anaplasmosis in the United States and did much to characterize the disease. His research also contributed materially to an understanding of its transmission, particularly concerning the importance of wild deer as a natural host reservoir and of ticks as vectors in its transmission.

His work with hog cholera since 1945 has been devoted to the cultivation of hog cholera virus in tissue culture. He was the first to propagate the virus by this method in quantities which permitted the production of a hog cholera vaccine. He was also able to modify hog cholera virus by means of serial passage in tissue culture. This modified virus and his method for its propagation in tissue culture have been used in the preparation of a commercially available, live hog cholera virus vaccine since 1953. Following his retirement in 1949, he continued his research on hog cholera in the Cancer Research Genetics Laboratory. He spent time in his laboratory working with his cultures on the day of his death.

Dr. Boynton's research work was characterized by simplicity of approach and in most instances without use of specialized equipment. The practical methods used in the propagation of the hog cholera virus enabled him to develop an efficient vaccine against this disease. This was accomplished

without the use of antibiotics or other more recently introduced techniques in virus work. Dr. Boynton obtained these excellent results mainly by painstaking, skillful, and rigid adherence to aseptic techniques and the use of simple sterilization procedures.

In addition to his scientific achievements, he had many hobbies, and his participation in them exhibited his tenacious striving for perfection. He was an accomplished photographer, an expert pistol marksman, an avid and expert fisherman, and in his undergraduate days at the University of California he was a rugged and determined football fullback.

J. Traum K. B. De Ome D. E. Jasper


Walter Harrington Dore, Soils; Plant Nutrition: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus
Chemist Emeritus in the Experiment Station

Walter Harrington Dore was born in San Francisco on March 24, 1882. His father was Harry E. Dore, a merchant-printer, and his mother was Anita Estelle Harrington Dore. They were both of early New England ancestry and resided in San Francisco for many years. During Professor Dore's boyhood, the family moved to Fresno where he graduated from Fresno High School in 1901. He entered the University of California in 1902 and graduated in 1907 with a B.S. degree. During this period, he worked one year (1905-06) as a chemist for the Standard Oil Company of California. After graduation, he worked as a chemist for successive years at the San Francisco Chemical Company, the Mountain Copper Company of Martinez, and the Lenora Chemical Company of Oakland.

In 1912 Professor Dore was appointed Assistant Chemist in the Experiment Station of the University. He was promoted to Instructor in Agricultural Chemistry in 1920, Assistant Professor in 1921, Associate Chemist in the Experiment Station in 1925, Chemist in the Experiment Station in 1930, and Professor of Plant Nutrition and Chemist in the Experiment Station in 1948. He retired in June, 1949.

At the suggestion of Professor John S. Burd, Professor Dore became interested in the chemistry of wood early in his work in the Experiment Station. He analyzed woods of various kinds by the conventional methods of the day. This led to an

abiding interest in cellulose, the principal constituent of wood. About this time Dr. Robert C. Miller of the Zoology Department and Professor Dore collaborated in the investigation of the wood-boring insect, teredo navalis. Through a series of interesting studies, they determined that this insect seriously injures woods exposed to salt water by boring holes in them and derives nutriment from the borings by digesting the cellulose and other wood components.

At that time the structure of cellulose was but little understood. Working in collaboration with Professor Olenus L. Sponsler of the Department of Botany on the Los Angeles campus, Professor Dore conceived the idea that the method of X-ray diffraction might throw light on this problem. Accordingly, he secured an X-ray apparatus and promptly began what proved to be a very fruitful series of investigations.

These studies of cellulose resulted in the fundamental discovery that it has a chain-like molecular structure. The introduction of the new concept for the constitution of this important compound attracted international attention. From this work, using the X-ray diffraction apparatus, Professor Dore turned to the study of various other carbohydrates, the structures of which were little understood. At the time, and for a considerable number of years thereafter, his was the only X-ray diffraction equipment in the University. He became highly proficient in the interpretation of X-ray patterns, not only of carbohydrates, but also of other compounds; and his assistance was sought by members of several departments in the University.

Professor Dore became expert in devising models of the crystal structure of a number of carbohydrates. His publications show many graphic illustrations of the structure of several carbohydrate molecules. His knowledge of the chemistry of carbohydrates led to a series of lectures given annually for many years. His lectures were stimulating and imparted enthusiasm for the subject to his students. A number

of graduate students received their doctorates under his guidance. Possessing an analytical and critical mind, he demanded of his students, as he demanded of himself, uncompromising precision of thought in the interpretation of experimental results.

Growing out of his experience with carbohydrates, Professor Dore suggested to Professor Walter P. Kelley that X-ray diffraction might throw light on the specific structure of soil colloids, the real nature of which was completely unknown at the time. He X-rayed many samples of soil colloids and found them in all cases to be definitely crystalline, which was entirely contrary to the prevailing view of the day. He was soon able to show that certain clay minerals were prominent constituents of soils and that the important property known as cation exchange was largely due to the clay mineral components. This soon led to an intelligible understanding of the subject.

Professor Dore collaborated with other members of the Department of Plant Nutrition with whom he was associated for many years. In association with Professor William Z. Hassid, a former student of his, he determined the structure of enzymatically synthesized sucrose and of other synthetic carbohydrates. He also investigated a number of different plant constituents. This latter work contributed substantially to an understanding of the important role they play in the growth and general behavior of growing plants. In addition to the various organic constituents, Professor Dore also found time to investigate certain inorganic constituents of plants. Collaborating with Dr. Earl S. Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution of Washington, D.C., he determined that the element boron is essential to the normal functioning and growth of the tomato plant.

The foregoing is sufficient to show that Professor Dore was endowed with a cooperative spirit. His unfailing good humor and generous disposition endeared him to all his associates

and friends, for he was never too busy to lend a helping hand.

Throughout his adult life, Professor Dore was interested in music. He had considerable musical talent and for many years was a member of the Orpheus Society, a men's choral group, and was a regular attendant at musical concerts in the Bay Area.

Professor Dore is survived by his widow, Marjorie Jean Whitcomb Dore, whom he married on October 25, 1945. They had no children. A few years after his retirement the Dore home was transferred to Redlands, California. Following an extended illness he entered the Permanente Hospital at Fontana, California, where he died on February 10, 1960.

W. P. Kelley W. Z. Hassid J. C. Martin


Anthony Henry Dropp, Naval Science: Los Angeles

Professor of Naval Science and Tactics

Anthony Henry Dropp was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on January 29, 1910. Like many other young men from the Midwest, he was so challenged by the opportunity for travel, adventure, and education offered by the United States Navy that he entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Thus, in 1928, commenced an association with the United States Navy that continued for thirty-one years, culminating with his appointment as Professor of Naval Science at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1957, and ending with his untimely death on June 25, 1959. His death came as a complete surprise and a terrible shock to his family, associates, and students.

Captain Dropp's long and illustrious career with the Navy was a rich and rewarding experience for him personally as well as for those who were associated with him during its varied course. Living in a period when world-shaking events occured, he grew in stature and ability, expanding his personal horizon as the Navy expanded to meet its growing responsibilities. Early in his career, he recognized the importance of undersea warfare, and in 1936, achieved the distinction of being designated a Submariner. In the years that preceded World War II, he served in many assignments that prepared him for the important tasks that he was to perform brilliantly. During World War II, Captain Dropp commanded the submarines “Bass,” “Saury,” and “Macabi” and participated

in eleven war patrols. For his skill, leadership, and courage, he was awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest award for distinguished combat service.

After the war, he obtained his first academic appointment as Associate Professor of Naval Science at Marquette University; he also served, at the same time, on the Naval Staff of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in England. In 1952 he completed a year of intensive study at the United States Naval War College.

Before his assignment to the University of California, he commanded the surface ships, U.S.S. “Howard Gilmore” and U.S.S. “Pocono,” and during the Suez crisis of 1956, he participated in the planning and successful evacuation of United States citizens from Egypt.

Although his life was spent in helping to make military history, he possessed a human understanding and an intellectual capacity that would be appreciated by the most searching mind. It was these qualities that contributed so much to his success. He had a deep, sincere interest in those with whom he came into contact and an unusual ability to penetrate logically to the heart of any problem. This combination established his position as an inspiring leader, a reliable adviser, and a staunch friend.

Captain Dropp is survived by his wife Margaret, a son Robert, now a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, and a daughter, Mrs. Virginia G. Camstra.

The University has lost a loyal and enthusiastic faculty member, the Navy a brilliant and outstanding officer, and his associates a warm and inspiring friend.

W. M. Melnitz K. Mc Lennan J. M. Meyer


Emanuel Eric Ericson, Industrial Education: Santa Barbara

Professor of Industrial Arts, Emeritus

Emanuel Eric Ericson was born on August 18, 1888, in Oregrund, Sweden. His father was Eric Alfred Ericson, a cabinetmaker and farmer; and his mother was Anna Christina Ericson. His early childhood was spent in Sweden where he completed a sixth grade education. When he was eighteen years old, the pioneering spirit led him to migrate to America and settle in Willmar, Minnesota.

His American education began by learning the English language through reading primers in his attic room at night. He was employed as a farm hand for one year and then turned to woodworking in a sash-and-door and furniture factory in Willmar. He continued his education at Willmar Seminary a few months each winter.

Professor Ericson became a college professor just six years after arriving in America. He was appointed Director of Manual Arts at the State Normal School in Ada, Oklahoma, in 1913. It was during his stay in Oklahoma that he married Maurine Truitt. He became an American citizen and continued his education, receiving a B.S. degree from Stout Institute in 1919 and an M.A. degree from the University of Southern California in 1932. His formal education was enriched by studies at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, the University of Chicago, and the University of California.

From 1919 until 1921 he was Supervisor of Art and Industrial Arts at the Okmulgee, Oklahoma, schools. By this time, he had mastered the language of his adopted country so well

that he was able to make many contributions to professional literature.

In 1921 he became Assistant Book Editor and Editor of the Manual Training Magazine (now the Industrial Education Magazine) published by the Manual Arts Press of Peoria, Illinois. While he held this position he was elected a member in the Manual Arts Conference (later changed to the Mississippi Valley Conference).

In August, 1925 President Clarence L. Phelps invited Professor Ericson to come to California as Head of the Department of Industrial Education at Santa Barbara State College. Shortly after his arrival, he inaugurated the Division of Extension and became its first and only director at the State College. When, in 1944, Santa Barbara State College became part of the University of California, Professor Ericson continued in office as Assistant Director of the Central Coastal Region of the University of California Extension, a position which he held until his retirement.

During Professor Ericson's administration as Head of the Department of Industrial Arts, it gained a national reputation in both size and quality. This was a direct result of his leadership, teaching ability, vision, and untiring efforts.

He was, on many occasions, invited to be guest professor on other campuses. Some of these were the University of West Virginia, Bradley University, Iowa State College, Colorado State University, Colorado State College of Education, Utah State University, Stout Institute, Texas A & M College, and Missouri State Teachers College. He was also invited to speak before many state and national education societies.

He was the founder of Pi Sigma Chi which was later united with Epsilon Pi Tau, a national honor society of Industrial Arts and Vocational Education scholars. He became a laureate of Epsilon Pi Tau of which there are but thirty living men remaining. He was a member of the Phi Sigma Pi, Iota Lambda Sigma, and Phi Delta Kappa. His friends honored him in 1940

by presenting him a life membership in the American Vocational Association. He was one of the founders and the first Chairman of the Standards of Attainment Committee of that organization. The research and publications of this committee have had a profound influence upon Industrial Arts.

As a layman and citizen of the Santa Barbara community, he was most active in civic and church affairs. He was a charter member and past president of the Downtown Santa Barbara Lions Club.

The “Ship,” a social organization of firms in the field of Vocational Education, conferred upon him December 5, 1952, their most distinguished award, “The Ship Citation.” This was the eleventh presentation ever awarded. Symbolic of this high award is an engraved wrist watch and a plaque.

He was known throughout the nation for his book Teaching the Industrial Arts. This publication has been adopted as a text by 139 colleges. The entire text of the book was transcribed on vinylite discs for the blind and translated into many languages. Professor Ericson authored or co-authored fourteen books and published over two hundred articles in magazines, professional journals, and year books. He has also translated books from other languages into English.

Professor Ericson died October 28, 1959. All of his associates and students were grieved by his death. He will always be remembered as a prudent man who possessed rare ability, good judgment, and an analytical mind. He was a good friend, an eminent professor, and a national leader of Industrial Arts Education.

C. L. Phelps K. A. Seefeld W. H. Ellison


Hermann Otto Laurenz Fischer, Biochemistry: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

Hermann Otto Laurenz Fischer was born in Wurzburg, Bavaria, on December 16, 1888. He was the son of Emil Fischer, the eminent organic chemist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In his youth he received a classical education in the local gymnasium where Greek, Latin, and history were an integral part of the curriculum. After graduation, his father who was “conscious of the international aspect of science, and deeply impressed with the philosophy of the English speaking people” sent him to Cambridge University. He pursued his later studies in Berlin and Jena, where he received his doctorate in 1912.

With the onset of World War I, Dr. Fischer and his two brothers were drafted into the German Army. Dr. Fischer was soon transferred as a staff officer to the chemical warfare unit. He survived the war; his brothers did not.

A few years after the termination of the war, Dr. Fischer was appointed as Assistant Professor at the University of Berlin where he remained until 1932. This was the beginning of a life-long career. In 1922 he married Ruth Seckels; they had three children, a daughter, Agnes, and two sons, Laurenz and Gerhard. With the advent of Hitler in the political arena of Germany, Dr. Fischer became greatly disturbed about the conditions in the country. Seeking to escape the tragic events that were to occur in the later thirties and which were already taking shape at the beginning of that decade, he moved his

family to Switzerland where for five years he was a Professor of Chemistry at the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Basle.

To quote Dr. Fischer's own words in the prefatory chapter of the 1960 volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry, “It was too clear that war was coming and I did not want my sons to serve in the army where ideals did not conform with those of the family.” In 1937 he and his family emigrated to Canada where he became Research Professor of Organic Chemistry in the Banting Institute of the University of Toronto. In September of 1948 he came to the University of California as a member of the newly established Biochemistry Department.

An active life devoted to research on the chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates and fats brought international recognition and many honors and awards to Dr. Fischer. For distinguished research in carbohydrate chemistry, he was given the 1949 Sugar Research Foundation award and the 1958 Claude S. Hudson award. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1954, and the following year he was awarded the Adolph von Baeyer Medal, one of the highest scientific honors in Germany. In 1959 the Justus Liebig University bestowed on him an Sc.D. degree, honoris causa. He was recognized on his seventieth birthday by the publication of a Festschrift edition of the Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, to which many of the world's most prominent biochemists contributed. Dr Fischer died fifteen months later on March 9, 1960.

The outstanding research accomplishments of Dr. Fischer include the preparation by chemical means of a number of phosphorylated sugars which have been shown to be intermediates in the metabolism of carbohydrates. One of these, glyceraldehyde phosphate, a key compound in the reactions involving the chemistry of respiration and fermentation, is

known as the “Fischer ester.” He also pioneered studies on the synthesis of phospholipids and on the determination of structure and configuration of the inositols. Following his retirement in 1957 as Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, of which he had been chairman from 1952 until 1956, Dr. Fischer maintained an active interest in research and attended scientific meetings regularly. At the time of his death, he was engaged in developing an important new method for preparing amino sugars. He was primarily an organic chemist with a leaning toward biochemistry. As he himself modestly stated, “So all my life I have essentially remained an organic chemist with a strong predilection for synthesizing compounds useful for biochemical purposes.”

It is a tribute to the intelligence, imagination, and assiduousness of Dr. Fischer that despite the delayed start of his academic career, the emotional shock of a war in which he lost two brothers, the disturbed political conditions, the frequent moves with the attendant adjustments, and the handicap of inevitably being expected to live up to the reputation of his illustrious Nobel Laureate father, he turned out a series of significant and highly original works.

Dr. Fischer presented the University of California with a unique and valuable library of approximately 4,000 volumes; a collection which was started by his father and kept intact by Dr. Fischer during his three moves from country to country. This library is now housed in the Biochemistry and Virus Laboratory on the Berkeley campus.

Dr. Fischer was a cultured person with wide-ranging interests. In addition to his main interest in science, he was a student of history, had a deep appreciation of art and music, and devoted much of his leisure time to reading. He had a highly sensitive nature with compassion for human suffering. At the University of Toronto, during World War II, he spent considerable effort and countless hours negotiating with Canadian

officials to free civilian internees to continue their education. Here in California, he was always ready to give a helping hand to refugee scientists, many of whom were complete strangers to him.

Dr. Fischer possessed a fine sense of humor and was an excellent raconteur. He was well known for his stories and for his mimicry in telling them. His close friends called him “Hermanol,” a nickname which is an adaptation of his name and initials to chemical-type nomenclature. It was given to him by his good friend, the late carbohydrate chemist, Professor Claude S. Hudson.

He had an exceptional zest for life and a great capacity for friendship. During his years of teaching and research, he was a constant source of inspiration to his students and colleagues. His broad range of interests and varied experiences helped him to maintain an ever-fresh outlook toward science and life with the result that he was loved and admired by all who knew him.

C. E. Ballou W. Z. Hassid W. M. Stanley


Stanley Barron Freeborn, Entomology: Berkeley and Davis

Chancellor at Davis, Emeritus
Professor Emeritus

Stanley Barron Freeborn was born in Hudson, Massachusetts, on December 11, 1891, and died at Davis, California, on July 17, 1960. From the Massachusetts Agricultural College, he received a B.S. degree in 1914, a Ph.D. degree in 1924, and an, honoris causa, in 1949. His entire scientific and administrative career, save for two wartime leaves, was spent with the University of California; he began as Instructor in Entomology in 1914 and rose to Professor and Entomologist in 1932. He was local Chairman of the Division of Entomology at Davis from 1924 until 1935, then he became Assistant to the Dean of the College of Agriculture at Berkeley and two years later Assistant Dean and Assistant Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station. In 1952 he was appointed as the first Provost of the growing Davis campus and in 1958 became Chancellor there. Upon his retirement in 1959, the University recognized his outstanding services by conferring upon him an LL.D. degree, honoris causa.

Upon arrival in California, Dr. Freeborn began studying mosquitoes and malaria under the late Dr. William B. Herms and attained world recognition as an authority on malariology. During both world wars he was engaged by the United States Public Health Service to work on this subject in relation to military establishments in this country, and after 1945, he often served as a special consultant to that Service. Shortly before his death, he had a leading role in directing the program

of research grants in public health. As a member of the Agricultural Experiment Station staff at Berkeley and Davis, besides the studies mentioned, he dealt with other vectors of human diseases and the parasites of poultry and sheep.

He was a keen, persuasive, and inspiring teacher remembered by many devoted students for his courses in elementary entomology, insect morphology, and arthropod vectors of disease. From 1935 until his retirement, in addition to administrative duties, he continued to lecture to classes in one or another of these subjects. His earlier years included much field investigation, principally in California.

Service as student advisor was one of his fortes. By pleasant and seemingly casual conversation, he could extract rather fully a student's inner thoughts, then piece together a program well suited to the individual's talents and desires. By this means he helped hundreds, including some who were encouraged to strive and give a better performance than they would have if counciling had come from one with less skill in understanding.

Notable among Dr. Freeborn's interest in student affairs was his service in connection with intercollegiate athletics. In earlier years, he was an official at many football games and track meets. Then, he became faculty representative for the Berkeley Campus to the Pacific Coast Conference, serving a term as president. He served on the executive board of the Western College Association.

Dr. Freeborn was an assiduous reader in biology and other fields and had an uncommon ability to extract the essentials of a book or technical paper and restate the subject as well or better than the author had done. Such material then became illuminating parts of his lectures and conversations.

As a faculty member and administrator, Dr. Freeborn served on innumerable committees where his broad and penetrating knowledge of university affairs and objectives aided substantially in solving many problems arising out of the

rapid growth of the statewide institution. He was always conscientious and attentive to the many routine and special assignments with which he was charged.

In the spring of 1958, he served with a group of American educators to survey the teaching program of the University of Teheran in Iran. After retirement, he acted as part-time academic assistant to President Kerr in dealing with relations between the University and other state-supported institutions of higher learning.

A classmate in his undergraduate days who followed Dr. Freeborn's career closely has written: “Even in those early days the characteristics of unfailing kindness, even gentleness, served to make him one of the most popular students on the campus. It was these attributes, together with an innate humility, which served him in such good stead throughout his long and useful career. All this is not to say that he was without firm convictions and steadfast purpose. Both of these characteristics he also had to an exceptional degree, but his determination was clothed in a genial spirit that endeared him to all.”

E. C. Voorhies T. I. Storer R. L. Usinger


Clifford Payo Froehlich, Education: Berkeley


Clifford Payo Froehlich's death on December 29, 1959, brought tragically to an end a brief but very impressive career; he was only forty-five years old. He joined the faculty of the Department of Education of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1952 as an Associate Professor and was promoted to Professor in 1957. Professor Froehlich was a person with wide interests and equally broad training. His insatiable curiosity led him to investigate, in addition to his own field of specialization, a variety of topics ranging from flower arranging to diesel mechanics.

He was born in Crosby, Minnesota, in 1914. He attended the Minnesota public schools and obtained a B.A. degree from Macalester College in 1935. After a year at the Chicago Presbyterian Seminary College, he obtained an M.A. degree from the University of Minnesota in 1939 and an Ed.D. degree from George Washington University in 1948. In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the field of guidance, Macalester College awarded him in 1957 and LL.D. degree, honoris causa.

Professor Froehlich's distinguished career in guidance began with personnel work in private industry and the Minnesota State Employment Service. He next served as Director of the Community Guidance Center in Fargo, North Dakota, and in 1940 he became State Supervisor of the North Dakota Occupational Information and Guidance Service. He held the latter position until 1942 when he entered the United States

Air Force as a Psychologist. In 1946 he was discharged and joined the United States Office of Education as Specialist for Training Guidance Personnel. He held this position until he joined the Berkeley faculty.

Professor Froehlich's contribution to professional organizations and his consulting activities most clearly illustrate his eminence in counseling psychology and guidance. He was elected Secretary of Division 17, Counseling Psychology, of the American Psychological Association. He served as President of the National Vocational Guidance Association during 1954-55 and as President of the American Personnel and Guidance Association during 1956-57. His name was likely to be one of the first recalled whenever a governmental advisory committee dealing with problems of manpower utilization and youth guidance was to be established; he served on many such committees. He also played a major role in establishing the policy of the United States Office of Education in its administration of the National Defense Education Act of 1958.

Professor Froehlich's writings reflected both his creativeness and ability to apply new data to old problems. His concept of “Multiple Counseling” and his research studies on the use of self-knowledge as a criterion of counseling effectiveness have greatly enriched counseling literature. His book Guidance Services in Schools and the book Guidance Testing, on which he collaborated, have both become established, standard texts in counselor training programs. His numerous contributions to professional journals have become basic references for graduate students and professional guidance counselors.

As one of the outstanding personalities in guidance and personnel work, Professor Froehlich has played a major role in determining the characteristics of school guidance programs. Extremely able, dedicated, and ambitious, he had a profound influence upon those who knew him personally and

those who knew him only through his writings. Many of his ideas are just beginning to be translated into school practice; they will continue to influence the kinds of services provided to youth for many years to come.

L. H. Steward W. F. Shepard Miss K. A. Towle


George Ernest Gibson, Chemistry: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

George Ernest Gibson was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, November 9, 1884, the son of John Gibson and Karolina Johanna Strecker Gibson. He came from an educated ancestry with alternating names of John and George. His great-grandfather, John Gibson, was lawyer for Sir Walter Scott; his financially independent grandfather, George Gibson, experimented with kites and hot air balloons; his father, John Gibson, was Professor of Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh.

Dr. Gibson died on August 26, 1959, and is survived by Edith Kriebel Gibson, whom he married in 1913, and three children, John W., Charles M., and Katrina Gibson Alloo. He became a citizen of the United States of America in 1921. He attended the gymnasium in Darmstadt, Germany, from 1896 until 1897, but received most of his secondary school education at Heriot Wall College in Edinburgh and by private tuition. He received a B.Sc. degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1906, remained for two years of post-graduate work as a Vans Dunlop Scholar, and then attended the University of Breslau where he received a Ph.D. degree under Professor Otto R. Lummer in 1911. The following two years were spent in teaching and research: 1911-12 at the University of Breslau and 1912-13 at the University of Edinburgh. Following this, he became an Instructor of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley at the time the Chemistry Department was being reorganized by Dr. Gilbert N. Lewis.

Dr. Gibson became Assistant Professor in 1918, Associate Professor in 1921, and Professor in 1927.

Dr. Gibson's first three research publications (he produced ten before coming to Berkeley) were in the field of organic chemistry, but he soon transferred his major interest to physical chemistry and quantum theory. His work on thallium vapor, published in 1911, was the first conclusive proof that spectral lines are produced by thermal emission.

Dr. Lewis, whose major interests were thermodynamics and physical chemistry, placed Dr. Gibson in charge of two new honors courses, Thermodynamics and Advanced Physical Chemistry. Dr. Gibson published in 1917 an English translation of A Textbook of Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics, by Otto Sackur, and this served as a reference text for this subject until 1923, when Lewis and Randall's text on chemical thermodynamics appeared.

Dr. Gibson's early research in Berkeley followed two main patterns, spectroscopy and low temperature calorimetry. His first applications of spectroscopy were devoted to a study of solutions formed by dissolving alkali and alkaline earth metals in liquid ammonia and methylammine. He also studied the extraordinarily large electrical conductivities of these solutions. In 1917 he published, in collaboration with Dr. Lewis, a survey of the entropies of the elements from existing but rather inadequate low temperature calorimetric data. He enlisted three of his graduate students, Wendel M. Latimer, George S. Parks, and William F. Giauque, in low temperature researches designed to test the validity of this method of evaluating absolute entropies of elements and compounds. The low temperature calorimetric experiments on ethyl and propyl alcohols and their mixtures (Parks and Latimer) and related work on glycerine glass and crystals (Giauque) showed that the third law of thermodynamics could not be applied to non-crystalline states. These three students of Dr. Gibson served as nuclei (Parks at Stanford and Latimer and Giauque

at Berkeley) for a rapid spread of low temperature research through their own students. This development put the United States in a leading position in experimental work related to the third law of thermodynamics.

Dr. Gibson's interest in the relationship between radiation and chemistry continued throughout his life. With W. Albert Noyes, Jr., he studied the discharge tube luminescence of pure and mixed gases, the suppression of spectra by admixed gases, and the relationship of band striations in discharge tubes. Publications in 1927 show his early interest in the ionizing effects of alpha particles upon various gases.

He had an early appreciation of the relationship between quantum statistics, spectra, and chemistry. The year 1927-28 was spent with Professor Walter H. Heitler at Goettingen as a Guggenheim Fellow. This led to a publication on the then new quantum statistics. One of the results of this collaboration was a proof that nuclear spin effects do not shift chemical equilibria appreciably at ordinary or higher temperatures. He devised numerous experiments on the band spectra of chlorine, iodine, and iodine monochloride related particularly to predissociation and isotope effects.

In 1937 three papers on the interaction of fast neutrons were published with his students, Glenn T. Seaborg and David C. Grahame. This had the important effect of introducing Seaborg to this subject.

As he approached retirement in 1954, Dr. Gibson's publications were concerned with photochemical decomposition and absolute quantum efficiencies of luminescence. After retirement, he was recalled to active duty for the academic year 1954-55.

During World War I, he was employed as a chemist at the Giant Powder Works at Giant, California, in 1917-18, and during World War II, he served as a Consultant to the Navy Department, Bureau of Ships Oceanographic Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in 1943-44. He was a Fellow of

the American Physical Society, and a member of Sigma Xi and the American Oriental Society. He was interested in music and for a period played violin in the University Symphony Orchestra. In later life he became interested in Oriental philosophy and became a proficient translator of Sanskrit. He published one translation on the zodiac entitled Semitic and Oriental Studies and left numerous unpublished translations.

Dr. Ernest Gibson thoroughly enjoyed his scientific activities, but was very modest concerning his own accomplishments. He inspired others to participate in research and was selected as Ph.D. research director by such men as Latimer, Parks, Giaque, Phipps, Eyring, Rice, and Seaborg. He took pride in the fact that two of his students received Nobel Prizes.

W. F. Giauque J. H. Hildebrand G. T. Seaborg


Edward Winslow Gifford, Anthropology: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus
Director of the Museum of Anthropology, Emeritus

Edward Winslow Gifford was born in Oakland, California, on August 14, 1887 and died in Paradise, California, on May 16, 1959. Forty-three of his seventy-one years were spent in association with the University of California. Working with the late Drs. Alfred L. Kroeber and Robert H. Lowie, he played a significant part in shaping and developing the discipline of anthropology as it is now represented on the Berkeley campus. His education terminated with graduation from high school. Shortly after graduation in 1904, he was appointed to the staff of the California Academy of Sciences as an assistant. His duties were primarily in conchology at first; later, he became an assistant in the Department of Ornithology. As a member of the Academy's expedition to the Galapagos Islands in 1905-06 he observed and later described the use of a thorn or twig by the Pallid Tree Finch to pry out insects from the bark of trees. The scepticism which greeted his description was finally overcome thirty-five years later when motion pictures of the bird's activities proved the accuracy of his observations.

The Museum of Anthropology at the University of California was increasing its collections in the second decade of this century and also faced the problem of cataloguing and making accessible for study the large volume of material secured in Egypt, the Mediterranean, Peru, and California during the

prior decade. Professor Gifford joined its staff in 1912 as Assistant Curator.

In the spring of the following year he married Delila S. Giffen and settled down to a happy domesticity in the East Bay, including an expanding aviary which long served to maintain his and his wife's ornithological interests. Promoted to Associate Curator in 1915, he was given the added title of Lecturer in 1920 and began offering a course in one or another major ethnological area.

The Museum, from its inception, had undertaken a program of research in the field, and Professor Gifford early undertook field studies in the ethnology and culture history of aboriginal California. These he continued throughout his professional life. The year 1920-21 took him to Tonga under the auspices of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum; thus began what was to be a continuing interest in the anthropology of Oceania, reflected by his later expeditions to Fiji in 1947, New Caledonia in 1952, and Yap in 1956.

Professor Gifford became Curator of the Museum in 1925 and succeeded Professor Alfred L. Kroeber as Director in 1947. His Berkeley colleagues and the University recognized his attainments as mainly a self-trained anthropologist, a teacher, and a scholar in 1938 with promotion to Associate Professor. Promotion to Professor came in 1945.

Professor Gifford was interested in every aspect of anthropology, partly as a consequence of his personality, partly because of the philosophy of the discipline in the years he was both learning and practicing it. Treatises in ethnology, social organization, archaeology and culture history, folklore, religion, physical anthropology, material culture, and museum collections flowed from his pen. Over a hundred papers and monographs comprise his bibliography, not including reviews and notes. (See Annual Report of the Museum of Anthropology to Chancellor Clark Kerr, 1956.) A very keen perception of basic problems illuminates his writings; however, the

casual reader may be misled because Professor Gifford was never one to let a single observation or record do the work if more were available to demonstrate a fact or support a conclusion. His courses were tightly and carefully organized, his approach didactic. Many of his students have used the notes they took in his courses on Africa, Oceania, or California Indians as the basis for later lectures of their own.

The Museum and its collections were moved to the Berkeley campus in 1931. Until then Professor Gifford had been on “detached duty” on the San Francisco campus and was but little drawn into the larger stream of extradepartmental campus affairs. His impact on anthropology students from the time he began teaching was positive, even though he taught only one course a semester for many years. Those of us who knew him found a warm-hearted sympathy toward both our personal and academic problems. His wife supported him in these interests with an affectionate kindness that was widely appreciated. Professor Gifford never confused the roles of friend and teacher; his intellectual judgments of his students' attainments were always sound.

Professor Gifford played a major part in planning the museum facilities in Kroeber Hall and in arranging the housing and display of the collections while studies on them continued. He passed away before the formal dedication ceremonies of the Museum; however, he was profoundly gratified that anthropology had come of age and had an appropriate building. One of the rooms designed for both formal and informal meetings of faculty and students is named in his honor; thus, his very great contributions to the University and to discipline are recognized in some measure.

He is survived by his widow and one daughter, Mrs. Phyllis E. Slattery.

T. D. McCown G. M. Foster


Hans Nicholas Hansen, Plant Pathology: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus
Plant Pathologist Emeritus in the Experiment Station

Professor Hansen, who died April 26, 1960, attained wide recognition among plant scientists by his research on mutation, variation, and sexuality in fungi and their bearing on the concept of speciation. As a teacher, he was held in high esteem by two decades of forestry students because of his excellent course in forest pathology. He also guided and stimulated numerous graduate students.

His principal field of research was the fungi which cause plant disease. He specialized in the diseases of figs, forest and shade trees, and ornamental plants. His research on fig diseases is a classic in plant pathology and has resulted in control of the fig fruit diseases. He originated the disinfection procedure used on pollen-producing figs for the Calimyrna fig orchards in Fresno County. This research aided the growers in the production of high quality fruit and brought recognition to him and the University. His advice on fungi and plant diseases was continally sought, especially on diseases of trees and ornamental plants. He was widely known for his sound diagnosis of plant failure and for his wise advice to growers.

Professor Hansen had a deep insight into the life processes of fungi. His understanding of their behavior enabled him to devise selective culture media and favorable environmental conditions for study of their growth, reproduction, and life cycles. He developed a rapid and reliable method of making

and handling single spore cultures which provided an unusually effective means of revealing mutations and analyzing fungi for genetic variability. He combined great manipulative skill with keen and imaginative interpretation of the phenomena he observed.

Professor Hansen's research on the genetics of variation in fungi and the effect of variation on taxonomy was of great importance. Working with the late Professor Ralph E. Smith, he demonstrated the importance of heterocaryosis, showing it to to be a mechanism equally as significant as sexuality in the life cycle and variability of fungi. The work of Professor Hansen and his associates changed the prevailing concepts of the significance of variability in fungi, and this resulted in a more rational scheme for the classification of species. Their results, for example, solved for plant pathologists the difficult problem of the classification of Fusaria, the fungi which cause serious diseases of many crop plants. Professor Hansen and his co-workers were also keenly interested in the mechanism of sexuality and their origin. They showed that in the Fusaria, sex and non-sex characters were required before this type of reproduction could take place. His work and the University continue to be prominent in biology in general and genetics in particular.

Professor Hansen was born in Varde, Denmark, on November 8, 1891. He came to the United States at the age of seventeen and became a naturalized citizen in 1918 after serving in the United States Army during World War I. He attended Chaffey Junior College and the University of California, receiving a B.S. degree in 1924 and a Ph.D. degree in 1928, when he was appointed to the Faculty. He attained the title of Professor in 1946, and Professor, Emeritus, in 1959. He was married in 1932 and is survived by his wife, Constance, and two sons, Eric and Paul.

He was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Phytopathological Society,

Genetic Association, Torrey Botanical Club, California Academy of Sciences, Society of American Foresters, and the Washington Academy of Sciences.

Diligently devoted to his studies of his large collection of fungus cultures, Professor Hansen exerted a constant stimulus upon his graduate students to measure up to his critical standards of technique and interpretation.

M. W. Gardner T. E. Rawlins W. C. Snyder


Roland Dennis Hussey, History: Los Angeles


With the death of Roland Dennis (Dennie) Hussey on October 28, 1959, the University of California, Los Angeles lost a leading scholar in Latin-American history, an effective teacher at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and an indefatigable worker in helping to build up the University Library as a center for historical research in many fields, including his own. He is survived by his wife, Bertha (Dixie) Freeman Hussey and their three children, Frances, Luther Dennis, and Penelope Helen.

Professor Hussey was born in Milford, Massachusetts, on October 13, 1897, to parents whose forebears settled in New England in the early Colonial period. After serving two years with the Twenty-sixth Infantry Division of the United States Army during World War I, he entered Boston University and graduated with an S.B. degree in 1923. He was awarded an M.A. degree in history at Harvard University in 1928, and a Ph.D. degree, under the guidance of Professor Clarence H. Haring at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1930. He served for four years as an instructor in history while working on his doctorate. He was Assistant Professor from 1930 until 1935, Associate Professor from 1935 until 1945, and Professor since 1945. He served his department as Chairman in 1950, and from 1952 until 1954. He also gave many years of service to the Library Committee as a member, serving as Chairman from 1952 until 1953. During World War II and postwar years from 1944 until 1947, he interrupted his academic

duties to serve the Department of State as Assistant Chief of the Office of American Republic Affairs, and as Divisional Chief of the Office of Intelligence; two positions which he was admirably prepared to fill, and which he administered with skill and competence.

Professor Hussey's research field was Latin-American history. He made research trips to European, African, and Caribbean archives and libraries in 1925-1926, 1931, 1938, 1951-1952, and 1959. His first important study, The Caracas Company, 1728-1784, published by the Harvard University Press in 1934, was warmly welcomed by scholars, and has appeared in at least two editions since then. In 1936 he edited a revised edition of Hutton Webster's History of Latin America; and in 1955 he collaborated with Professor Robert N. Burr to translate and edit two volumes of Documents on Inter-American Cooperation, 1810-1948, published by the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Hussey's articles, bibliographical and historical, in the Hispanic-American Historical Review, dealt with Hispanic Americana manuscripts in the Newberry Library in 1930 and the Harvard University Library in 1937; and with such topics as “Antecedents of the Spanish Monopolistic Overseas Trading Companies (1624-1728)” and “Spanish Reaction to Foreign Aggression in the Caribbean, to about 1680.”

A publication to which Professor Hussey directed a prodigious effort for almost a score of years was the Handbook of Latin-American Studies. Originally set up by a group of able American scholars who had specialized in various fields within the area, it has become an indispensable vade mecum to a large number of scholars in the Americas. It was primarily a bibliographical venture that took account of every article and book dealing with almost every conceivable field and appearing in many languages and in all parts of the world. If a contribution seemed to deserve the attention of the scholarly public it was included. Professor Hussey's articles on Manuscripts

Hispanic Americana
were no doubt factors in his being invited to join the Handbook's staff in 1941 as a contributing editor. Of the seventeen volumes that have appeared by 1959, he contributed to eleven. Nine of these volumes he helped to edit, including Number 21 for 1959, and made discerning, signed comments on nearly 450 titles. In addition, he was the sole editor and judge of selected writings of the year for such topics as Middle America and the Islands. He devoted five to fifteen pages of numbered items to each of the nine volumes. The work of Professor Hussey and his fellow contributing editors to the Handbook of Latin-American Studies has provided a major service to scholars and research librarians in an increasingly important field. His services on the Hispanic-American Historical Review, first as an editor and later as an advisory editor, also have been a source of encouragement and expert guidance to many scholars in this country and abroad.

As a New England teen-ager, Professor Hussey found himself facing several widely varied fields of interest. Music, architecture, law, mathematics, and history fascinated him. During his college years he encountered some well-trained historians who encouraged him to make history his career. His rapidly growing interest in printed historical works was soon extended to printed collections of original sources, and then to manuscript sources, which, if properly understood, gave new perpectives to old themes. Before he had completed his doctoral dissertation, he made two study trips to foreign archives. These trips, and his many later visits to areas where history had been made, gave him a valuable background for his studies and lectures.

The energies of this tall, Yankee ranger of a man, who could be at once gruff and gentle, bold and shy, whether he was facing colleagues, librarians, or students, were expended primarily for the advancement of learning. As Librarian L. C. Powell put it recently, “New England born, Widener-bred,

staunch member of the American Civil Liberties Union, 'Dennie' Hussey was one of the pioneer builders of UCLA, especially of its Library.” His colleagues recall how he would disappear into his Haines Hall study and promptly don a faded jacket and a pair of old slippers before tackling the latest and most pressing job that lay before him. All in all, the contributions of this indefatigable worker, as a teacher and counsellor, a scholar and bibliographer, and a promoter of intelligent international cooperation, are recognized throughout the world.

At the time of his death, Professor Hussey had acquired an extensive biblographical file of publications on Spanish-American history, including articles and books in many languages, which, if published, would be an invaluable tool to historical students. He had practically completed the research on what he and his associates expected would be the most definitive study to date of European rivalries in the Caribbean area from the sixteenth through the eighteenth century--a subject on which he had concentrated his research for many years and for which he had combed the archives of Spain, France, England, and the Netherlands. One fruit of this research was his article, “America in European Diplomacy, 1597-1604,” published in Revista de Historia de America in June, 1956. Just before his death, he completed his contribution to the new edition of the Cambridge Modern History, Volume VI, entitled “Spain and Her Empire from 1688 to 1720,” published in 1960.

D. K. Bjork R. N. Burr B. Dyer L. C. Powell W. Westergaard


Harold Ellis Jones, Psychology: Berkeley

Director of the Institute of Human Development

Harold Ellis Jones, Psychologist and Director of the Institute of Human Development, died in Paris, June 7, 1960, at the very beginning of an elaborately planned six-months' retirement vacation in Europe with his wife, Mary Cover Jones.

Professor Jones, although born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, December 3, 1894, was reared in New England by New England parents. He married Mary Cover in 1920 when both were graduate students at Columbia University. They have two daughters and six grandchildren.

Professor Jones attended Massachusetts Agricultural College for two years and then transferred to Amherst College, where he received an A.B. degree in biology in 1918, and where the impact of Alexander Meikeljohn, Robert Frost, and Stark Young left an enduring influence. He received an M.A. degree in psychology in 1920 and a Ph.D. degree in 1923 from Columbia under the guidance of Professor Robert S. Woodworth who remained his model of a disciplined experimenter and scholar. He became an instructor at Columbia in 1922 and had risen to Assistant Professor by 1927, when he came to the University of California as Assistant Professor of Psychology and Research Director of the Institute of Child Welfare. In 1931 he was advanced to a professorship, and since 1935, has been Director of the Institute of Child Welfare (later renamed Institute of Human Development) which

he developed into an internationally respected research center for human growth.

Among the most outstanding characteristics of Professor Jones were his relentless curiosity, high energy, and breadth of interests accompanied by meticulous attention to detail. He was an outstanding photographer, a creative gardener with a broad knowledge of botany, a gadgeteer par excellence, and a prolific writer of erudite and humorous doggerel and parody, to name but a few of his many non-professional activities.

His research activities covered the entire age span from infancy through young children, adolescents, adults, to the aging. His publications list contains over 160 titles and includes studies on emotions and emotional development, motor development, mental development or decline, learning, and nature-nurture studies of twins. His research encompasses a large range of methods: experimental, measurement, observational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal. It also shows his sensitivity to the bio-social matrix in which psychological phenomena are embedded and his commitment to the indispensability of a multi-disciplinary approach to human development research.

In addition to his own research, he supported and often gave critical guidance, during his thirty-three years at the University, to over 450 research undertakings of others. He encouraged the wide use of the Institute for the personal research of members of many departments. For example, in his last year of service, twenty-three faculty members from twelve departments of this campus used the Institute facilities and data, and both predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows from twelve other institutions and three other countries, under private foundation and government awards, pursued their research interests at the Institute.

Dr. Jones had rare editorial skills. In addition to editorial service to the University of California Press, he served on the

editorial boards of Child Development, Psychological Monographs, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Genetic Psychology, Genetic Psychology Monographs, Journal of Gerontology, and the International Journal of Human Development. He was on the Board of Consulting Editors for the Journal of Experimental Education, Psychological Monographs, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, and Parents' Magazine.

Professor Jones served as President of the Western Psychological Association and the Society for Research in Child Development. He also served as President of three divisions of the American Psychological Association: the Educational Psychology Division, Developmental Psychology Division, and Maturity and Aging Division. He served as a member of the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association and was a member of the National Research Council and the Social Science Research Council. He was Pacific Coast Representative of the later council for years.

As Director of the Institute of Human Development, the aspect that perhaps stands out most sharply from his energetic and extremely full professional life was his heroic refusal ever to accept defeat even in the face of budgetary, staff, or administrative obstacles. The unflagging pursuit of knowledge about the nature and the process of growth and change outweighed personal comfort and at times even political expediency.

Mrs. J. W. Macfarlane D. H. Russell M. B. Smith


Alexander Marsden Kidd, Law: Berkeley

Elizabeth Josselyn Professor Emeritus

Alexander Marsden Kidd, uniformly and affectionately known as “The Captain,” was born in San Francisco on August 2, 1879, the son of Scotch and English parents. During his early childhood he spent nearly five years with his uncle, Joseph Marsden, then United States Commissioner in the Hawaiian Islands--a period which remained a pleasant memory throughout his life. At the age of nine he returned to San Francisco and in due course graduated from Spring Valley Grammar School and Lowell High School, and in 1895, entered the University of California.

He received an A.B. degree in 1899, and proceeded to Harvard Law School where he received an LL.B. degree in 1903. A letter written to his mother during his law school period acknowledged her telegram advising him of a California victory over Stanford in the “Big Game” of that year. The letter concluded, “It was a night of great joy and we ended it with a mighty Oski Wow Wow.” This anecdote illustrates the intense loyalty to the University and its athletics that was to remain with him throughout his life.

In 1905 Professor Kidd returned to the University as Instructor in Law. He became Assistant Professor of Law in 1909, Associate Professor in 1913, and Professor in 1914. In 1930 he was named Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt Professor of Law, an appointment which he retained until his retirement in 1949. During the periods from 1942 until 1944 and from

1946 until 1947 he served as Acting Dean of the School of Law.

Concurrently with his Law School assignments, Professor Kidd served as Lecturer in Legal Medicine and Chairman of the Legal Medicine Division from 1932 until 1942, and again as Lecturer in Legal Medicine from 1946 until 1947. He also served as Professor of Law in the Department of Political Science in the spring of 1948 and as Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia University from 1926 until 1928.

Except for a two-year period during World War I when he served with the American Red Cross in England, Professor Kidd maintained a full teaching load throughout his academic life of 44 years. Despite this dedication to his profession, he maintained a participating interest in outside activities.

Among his innumerable assignments in public service may be listed: Chairman of the Appeals Board of the Alameda County Selective Service System during World War II; member of the Board of Directors of the San Francisco Legal Aid Society for many years; member of the Board of Directors of the Legal Aid Society of Alameda County from the time of its organization; member of the Board of Directors of the University Students' Co-operative Association; member and latterly Vice-Chairman of the California Code Commission from 1930 until 1953; member of the Committee on Administration of Justice of the State Bar of California for many years; Arbiter, by appointment of the Secretary of Labor, in the 1943 dispute between the International Longshoremen and Warehousemen's Union and the Waterfront Employers.

His fields of interest in legal education include Bills and Notes, Criminal Law, Evidence, Procedure, and many others. His published writings include more than fifty notes, articles, and reviews on these and other subjects, as well as Cases and Materials on Criminal Law and Cases and Materials on Business Law.


He belonged to the State Bar of California, the American Bar Association, the Alameda County Bar Association, and the American Association of University Professors, and was elected to membership in Phi Beta Kappa and Order of the Coif.

On March 21, 1960, shortly before his death, he received the highest honor which his alma mater might bestow; in absentia, he received an LL.D. degree, honoris causa, from the University of California.

So much for a partial record of accomplishment. What of the man himself, as a teacher and a person?

As a classroom teacher he was exacting and autocratic. He loved the subjects he taught and the knowledge they were meant to convey; he openly resented anything which might be interpreted as a slight upon them, either by lack of preparation or by a slovenly performance. To say that he was “fierce” in their defense is not to overstate the facts. More than once, following a series of unprepared or inept student performances, “The Captain” terminated the session in midhour by picking up his books and stalking from the room. In the classroom, he invariably wore a green eyeshade pulled down slightly on one side, and in his moments of outraged ferocity, this tilted shade combined with his heightened color and flashing eyes gave him a really frightening appearance; more than one student must have questioned in his mind whether the appellation, “Captain Kidd,” was merely a consequence of his name. If the preparation of some courses had to be neglected by a hard pressed law student it was not likely to be one taught by “The Captain.”

As a person, outside the classroom, he was the antithesis of his classroom character. He had an intense interest in people, particularly young people, and gave patient and sympathetic attention to their personal problems and difficulties. His acts of individual kindness and helpfulness were innumerable;

his only requirement was that they be kept confidential and preferably unacknowledged.

His interest in, and loyalty to, the student programs of the University were an integral part of his life. Among his primary interests was the campus Order of the Golden Bear, to which he devoted both time and energy from its inception until almost the day of his death. His memory for names and events, particularly those connected with California athletics, was almost encyclopedic.

In 1921 he married Frances Wilson, who died in 1928, leaving a daughter, Portia Kidd Dauphinee, who with her four children, survive her father.

It may be added that Professor Kidd was undoubtedly the best loved, by the Law School alumni, of any faculty member in the history of Boalt Hall, and that since his death on April 24, 1960, his daughter has received letters from throughout the country attesting to this continuing attachment.

J. P. McBaine Mrs. B. N. Armstrong W. W. Ferrier


Robert Thomas Legge, Hygiene; Medicine: Berkeley

Professor of Hygiene, Emeritus

Among the disciples of Hippocrates, who swear by Apollo the Physician, Aesculapius, and all the gods and goddesses, none could have excelled Dr. Robert T. Legge in obedience to the injunction to follow that regimen which, according to his ability and judgment, he considered beneficial to his patients.

Robert Thomas Legge was born on July 16, 1872, in San Francisco, the son of Robert Legge and Anna Stelljes Legge. He received a Ph. G. degree in Pharmacy in 1891, and an M.D. degree in 1899, both from the University of California. After graduation he served a year as Assistant in Materia Medica in the School of Medicine and also as Interne in St. Luke's Hospital, San Francisco. In 1924 he received a diploma from the University of Vienna.

Dr. Legge began the practice of medicine in 1900 in the Northern California town of McCloud. There he was, until 1914, Chief Surgeon in the McCloud Hospital for the McCloud River Railroad Company and the McCloud River Lumber Company; in this capacity he was a pioneer in the field of industrial and occupational medicine. Dr. Legge's outstanding career at McCloud attracted the attention of President Benjamin Ide Wheeler who brought him to Berkeley as Professor of Hygiene and University Physician.

The Students' Infirmary of the University of California had been founded in 1906 by the late Dr. George F. Reinhardt. This pioneer institution for the protection of the health of

students occupied the former Meyer residence, a two-story frame building which was furnished with twenty beds, on the site of the present Women's Faculty Club. After the untimely death of the founder of the Infirmary, his splendid work was admirably carried on by Dr. Legge who assumed office on January 1, 1915. As Professor of Hygiene, he especially sought to teach students proper hygiene, understanding of their bodies, and avoidance of illness. Under his administrative leadership as University Physician there was built in 1930 the Ernest V. Cowell Memorial Hospital, a reinforced concrete building, which is the only student health service hospital in the United States that is fully approved and accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. An additional function was assumed by Dr. Legge in 1929 when he was also appointed Lecturer in Industrial Medicine in the School of Medicine. He retired from his position as University Physician in 1938 but continued as Professor of Hygiene and Lecturer in Industrial Medicine until his retirement at the age of seventy on July 16, 1942. The University conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws upon him in 1958.

Along with the performance of his duties for the University, Dr. Legge made many contributions to the public welfare on the local, state, national, and international level. He served on the Budget Committee of the Berkeley Community Chest and was an honorary member of the Berkeley Red Cross. He was a member of the Alameda County Institutions Commission for forty years. He was a member of the California Vocational Board of Education Advisory Council on Rehabilitation. He was Chairman of the Committee on Industrial Problems of Vocational Guidance of the California Heart Association. He served as President of the Western Association of Industrial Physicians. He was Associate Editor of the Journal of Industrial Medicine and Surgery. He was elected a member of the American Committee of five to represent

the United States at the Seventh International Congress on Industrial Accidents and Diseases held in Brussels, Belgium in July, 1935. At that time he was elected a permanent member of the International Committee on Industrial Medicine to represent the United States. He was a delegate to the Eighth Congress in Frankfurt on the Main, Germany in 1938 and to the Tenth Congress in Lisbon, Portugal in 1951. In 1954 he was elected honorary member of the permanent Committee on Industrial Medicine at the Eleventh Congress in Naples, Italy. He was Chairman of the United States Delegation to the Twelfth International Congress on Occupational Medicine in Helsinki, Finland in 1957. The Finnish Society of Occupational Medicine elected him an honorary member. He was reelected Chairman of the United States Delegation to the Thirteenth International Congress to be held in New York in July 1961. In 1951 Dr. Legge received the William S. Knudsen award in Industrial Medicine, the highest award in the field. The Northern California Section of the American Industrial Hygiene Association has established the annual Robert Legge award for an outstanding student in industrial hygiene.

In addition to his numerous public services, Dr. Legge contributed many articles on problems of the health of students and of industrial and occupational medicine. He manifested a lively interest in the history of his field and contributed historical articles almost to the end of his career.

Dr. Legge was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, California Medical Association, California Academy of Medicine, Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association and of its Physicians Emeriti, American Public Health Association, American College Health Association; and was an honorary member of the American Industrial Physicians and of the American Academy of Occupational Medicine. He was a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons and Diplomate

of the American Board of Public Health and Preventive Medicine.

In addition, he was a member of the American Association of University Professors, Faculty Club, City Commons Club of Berkeley, Henry Morse Stephens Lodge, Doctors' Historical Society, Bohemian Club of San Francisco, and the Ramazzini Society. He belonged to honor societies Sigma Xi, Delta Omega, and Scabbard and Blade; also to Alpha Kappa Lambda and Nu Sigma Nu.

Dr. Legge served as a Captain in the Medical Corps of the United States Army in 1917-18, and subsequently became a Lieutenant Colonel in the Reserves.

Dr. Legge was married on November 25, 1903, to Rene Farjeon. He is survived by Mrs. Legge; two sons, Captain Robert F. Legge, Medical Corps, U.S.N., Balboa, Panama, and Herbert W. Legge of Berkeley; a daughter, Mrs. Fritz Wurzmann of Carmel; and seven grandchildren.

Dr. Legge was fatally stricken while garbed in his academic robes just after joining the academic procession for the celebration of Charter Day, March 21, 1960, more than seventy charter days after he had entered as a student in the College of Pharmacy of the University of California. With his passing there has been lost a kindly and helpful friend to many members of the Faculty and citizens of Berkeley, a great builder for the welfare of students of the University, and an inspiring leader of guardians of the health of those who labor that mankind may enjoy the fruits of this productive but hazardous industrial civilization.

V. F. Lenzen H. B. Bruyn C. E. Smith


Frederick Charles Leonard, Astronomy: Los Angeles


Frederick Charles Leonard, Professor of Astronomy at Los Angeles, died on June 23, 1960, of his first serious illness since early childhood. He has been associated with the University continuously since 1919 and a member of the Faculty at Los Angeles since 1922.

Professor Leonard was born in March, 1896 to a family that traces its ancestry nine generations to a settler in the Massachusetts Colony in the early 1630's. His education through a Master's degree was obtained in Chicago. Having at the age of seven decided to make astronomy his profession, Professor Leonard was an active amateur astronomer with his own small observatory by the time he was fourteen and was publishing the results of his observations regularly in professional journals. Already at this early age several facets of his later career were foreshadowed. In 1909 he displayed his talented interest in organization by founding the Society for Practical Astronomy, which became a flourishing national amateur group, languishing only after his departure from Chicago in 1919. Professor Leonard's continued interest in bringing astronomy to the public was presaged by a talk in 1910 before the Chicago Press Club on the subject of Halley's comet, which was a conspicuous object at that time. In that year also he contributed a review of cosmological theories, “The Infinitude of the Universe,” to the respected journal, Popular Astronomy. His love of the English language, always

a strong influence in his career, is shown even in this early writing.

Professor Leonard had the advantage in Chicago, starting in about 1910 and continuing throughout his education, of associating directly with some of the leaders of American astronomy: Frost and Barnard at the Yerkes Observatory and Moulton at the University of Chicago. After receiving his Master's degree at Chicago in 1919, Professor Leonard came to Berkeley to continue under Leuschner the classical training commenced with Moulton. During his tenure as a Lick Fellow at Mount Hamilton, his earlier interest in stellar problems was rekindled under the influence of Aitken, Campbell, and Moore. His doctoral dissertation, The Spectra of Visual Double Stars, was a careful investigation that has maintained its significance over the years and is still cited in astronomical literature. He never lost his love for the San Francisco region, and visited it frequently.

Immediately upon receiving his Ph.D. degree in 1922, Dr. Leonard was invited to join the staff of the Department of Mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he remained for the rest of his career. During his early years on the Faculty, he pursued his investigations of double stars, using the facilities of the Mount Wilson Observatory. After a few years he decided that a heavy teaching schedule was not compatible with a research program requiring large amounts of observing time, and his research interest shifted into the field of meteoritics: the study of meteorites, those small astronomical bodies colliding with the earth which are eventually recovered. Since the middle 1930's the bulk of Professor Leonard's more significant contributions has been in this field, with greatest emphasis on the systematics and statistics of meteorites. His various catalogs are authoritative reference works for all investigators in the field. As an integral part of his research activities, Professor Leonard accumulated, largely through purchase from his own financial resources, an

outstanding collection of meteorites. He probably considered his most important contribution to be his revised and simplified classification scheme for meteorites, based upon their mineral compositions, of which there is a great variety. This new scheme is the subject of considerable controversy among experts in the field, and it is as yet not entirely clear whether Professor Leonard's views will prevail.

Contributions to science commensurate in importance with his research work have been Professor Leonard's organizational and editorial activities concerning meteoritics. Early in his studies in this branch of science, bordering upon both geology and astronomy (and more recently upon space research and cosmology), he became convinced of the need for a scientific organization that would unite those interested in the science of meteoritics, would conduct regular scientific meetings, and would provide a medium of publication. Enlisting the aid of a few leaders of the field, Professor Leonard succeeded in organizing the Society for Research on Meteoritics (now the Meteoritical Society) in 1933. He served as president of the now thriving organization, with international membership, from 1933 until 1937 and as editor of its publications until 1959. In this latter demanding position he was able to combine his scientific interests with his interest in the English language. Although a strict grammarian, he was fond of simplified, phonetic spelling and was bold in introducing new or thereto unused words into the technical vocabulary. Among the specialties Professor Leonard listed in his recent biographical compilations, in addition to “spectra of visual double stars,” “minerals in meteorites,” “statistical studies of meteorites,” and “the simplified classification of meteorites,” is included “terminology in meteoritics and astronomy.” An entirely different aspect of his approach to English resulted in composition of an occasional poem; two of these have been published: “An Astronomer's Apostrophe to Urania” and “The Guardian of the Golden Gate.”


Professor Leonard was one of those who feels a genuine love as well as an obligation for teaching. He probably derived considerably more satisfaction as a human being from the achievements of one of his students than he did from a well received piece of research of his own. Until the end he willingly taught elementary as well as advanced classes. He could not conceivably enter a classroom without meticulous preparation.

Although Professor Leonard's initial employment at the University was as Instructor in Mathematics, his title was soon changed to Instructor of Astronomy in the Department of Mathematics. By 1931 he had become restive in that Department, and decided to form the independent Department of Astronomy. This proposal met with a large measure of apathy and opposition, and Professor Leonard took considerable delight in relating his successful struggle to have the one-man department established. The first addition to the staff was obtained in 1937. Another project he worked for over the years was the installation of permanently mounted observing facilities, primarily for instructional purposes. This goal was finally attained in 1957.

In addition to his long service as Chairman of his Department, Professor Leonard served on an assortment of University committees, both administrative and of the Academic Senate. He played active roles in organizing the Los Angeles chapters of the scholastic honorary societies of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, serving a term as president of each. As implied earlier, Professor Leonard showed a continuing interest in making the results of astronomical inquiry known to the public. He was in considerable demand as a public lecturer and served for a number of years on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Griffith Observatory of the City of Los Angeles. As well as holding membership in the major national and international astronomical organizations at the time of his death, Professor Leonard held office as a member

of the Board of Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and as a member of the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was also a member of the sub-commission on Meteorites of the International Astronomical Union.

Professor Leonard's manner was somewhat that of a “gentleman of the old school,” and at first meeting he may have seemed a bit formidable, particularly to younger people. Nevertheless, students who spent a semester or more with him, particularly in his smaller classes, characteristically would become attracted to him, and during most semesters there would be two or three students who became very close to him and would spend much of their time in his office and laboratory. From these students he chose his research assistants, the names of a goodly number of whom appear as co-author of his more important scientific contributions. These favored students were also frequent visitors to the Leonards' home in West Los Angeles.

During his first twenty years in Los Angeles, Professor Leonard remained a bachelor, but after spending several summer sessions at the University of British Columbia, he returned with the former Rhoda Walton as his bride. Two sons, Roderick and Frederick, survive with Mrs. Leonard.

S. Herrick G. E. F. Sherwood D. M. Popper


Harriet Margaret MacKenzie, English: Los Angeles

Associate Professor Emeritus

Associate Professor Emeritus Harriet Margaret MacKenzie, of the Department of English, died on July 12, 1959, in Los Angeles. She had retired on January 1, 1946, having served in the Department devotedly and effectively since 1921.

Dr. MacKenzie was born on May 4, 1876, in Ludington, Michigan, of Scotch-English parentage; her father was a successful architect interested in classic architecture. One of her fondest memories was of the camping trip made to the great temples at Paestum when she was a young girl. Graduated in 1896 from the Michigan State Normal College, Dr. MacKenzie taught Latin and German and served as principal of several small high schools in Michigan and Indiana for ten years. On receiving a B.A. degree from the University of Michigan in 1908, she went to the Normal School at Mankato, Minnesota, as Instructor in English and after four years returned as an Instructor to the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti. There she remained, rising to the associate professorship, until she joined the faculty of the new Southern Branch of the University of California in 1921. From 1917 until 1919, when on leave of absence from the Normal College, she performed important war service for the YMCA in France as Director of Military Base, Section I, and Region I and VI of the Women's Department.

She earned an M.A. degree at the University of Michigan in 1914, and in 1927 she was awarded a Ph.D. degree in comparative literature by the same institution. In 1924 she

received an honorary Master of Education degree from the Michigan State Normal College.

Dr. MacKenzie was a vigorous and capable teacher, and for many years she was in charge of the courses (115, Primitive Literature, and 370, The Teaching of English) designed especially for candidates for the secondary teaching credential in English. Her earlier experiences as a high school teacher and as a principal and a professor in teachers' colleges gave her a professional training unique in the Department, and her passionate belief in the necessity of well-trained high school teachers of English kept her abreast of changing theories of instruction and curricula and in contact with groups of secondary teachers, many of whom she knew personally. For many years, until her retirement, she was the chief adviser for English majors working for the secondary credential.

In 1936 she prepared, at the request of the State Department of Education, a booklet on the teaching of composition. Earlier, she had published in the American Schoolmaster (1921), “Teaching National Hero Tales,” and as a member of the Committee on Home Reading and the Committee on Leisure Reading of the National Council of Teachers of English, she had helped prepare two useful booklets published by the Council: Books for Home Reading for High Schools, Chicago, 1930, and Leisure Reading for Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine, Chicago, 1932, and also an annotated test report, Home Reading for Junior and Senior High-School Students. In 1939 she published a monograph, Byron's Laughter: A Study in Life and Poetry, the outgrowth of her doctoral thesis. A number of articles and stories with a background of hiking and adventure, based on her youthful experiences, were written before she came to California.

Colleagues of Dr. MacKenzie will remember her with affection because of her enthusiasm for her profession and for life itself. Hearty by temperament, good-humored and witty, she brought to her students and to her friends a sense of zest

for living that even the deepening losses of family did not extinguish. She loved books, friends, good food, and foreign travel, and she loved to share her pleasures in them with others. She was an indispensable member of the Department during all the years she served in it.

F. M. Carey C. E. Jones M. Ewing


Paul Hélie Périgord, French: Los Angeles and Santa Barbara

Professor Emeritus

Paul Hélie Périgord was born in Toulouse, France, on October 23, 1882. He graduated from the University of Toulouse in 1902 and came to the United States the same year. He was Professor of Ethics at the St. Paul (Minnesota) Seminary from 1907 until 1914. In 1912 he received an M.A. degree from the University of Chicago, and the same degree from Columbia University the following year. He interrupted his graduate study at Harvard in 1914 to enlist as a private in the French infantry, and rose to the rank of captain. Twice wounded at Verdun, Captain Périgord was decorated with the Croix de Guerre and the Legion d'Honneur. Sent to the United States in 1917, he served as an instructor in the American army.

Professor Périgord returned to teaching after the war. He was named Professor of European History at the California Institute of Technology in 1919, serving in that position until 1924, when he joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles as Professor of French Civilization. In 1924, the year after he gained American citizenship, he received a Ph.D. degree from the University of Minnesota.

During the years immediately following the war, Professor Périgord devoted considerable time to public service. He was a member of the French High Commission in Washington, D.C., 1918-1919; American representative on the Committee of Intellectual Cooperation at the League of Nations in 1923 and a member of the advisory board of the Washington branch of the International Labor Office. He served as President

of both the Pasadena Community Guild and the Pasadena Community Playhouse, and as a member of the advisory board of the National Academy of American Literature.

Professor Périgord's greatest public service in the immediate post-war years was his effort to promote the League of Nations. At the request of President Wilson, he spoke on behalf of the League in all the principal cities of the United States. International peace was probably the greatest and most daring dream of his life, and he gave unstintingly of his time in working toward its realization. No doubt his experiences on the battlefields of World War I were among the factors which made his love of peace one of the guiding forces of his life. After World War II he became a delegate to the United Nations organization meeting in San Francisco, and served as Chairman of the United Nations Council in Southern California.

Professor Périgord served as Professor of French Civilization in the University of California, Los Angeles from 1924 until 1947. His publications during that time included: Short Biographies of Great American Personalities (3 volumes); Foreign Policies of France; Politics-The Old Order and the New; The Outlook for European Civilization; Ideas of Justice, Tolerance and Liberty in French Literature; and The International Labor Organization. An able administrator, he was Chairman of the Department of French for several years, and Acting Dean of the College of Letters and Science during the year 1931-32.

He was much in demand as a public speaker. His success in this field was enhanced by the clarity and logic of his ideas, his contagious enthusiasm, his sparkling wit and great personal charm. He gave numerous addresses before the civic organizations and service clubs of Southern California; his contribution to public relations with the University was outstanding.

In 1947 Professor Périgord joined the faculty of the University

at Santa Barbara as Professor of French Civilization. Despite failing health he continued his activities in public relations in addition to his teaching duties. After retirement in 1950, he moved to Haiti, where he became director of that nation's only English language newspaper, the Port-au-Prince Times. He continued to speak and write for the promotion of international peace although he was saddened by the prevailing international immorality.

When we have enumerated the many achievements of Paul Périgord, called him an unselfish, public-spirited citizen, a tireless worker for international peace, an accomplished scholar, a most skillful and dedicated teacher, we have not mentioned the principal reason why he is mourned by his family, his colleagues, and thousands of his former students. Paul Périgord was a man who gave generously of himself, who chose to overlook the faults of his fellow men, to speak only of their virtues. He was an extremely tolerant, kindly soul who took genuine interest in the problems of others and who gave those seeking it, sound advice that reflected his thorough understanding of human nature. Paul Périgord was profoundly a Christian and a gentleman in the traditional sense, in the fullest sense of the word.

He died of a heart attack on November 4, 1959, in Nyack, New York. He is survived by his widow, Emily McBride Périgord, whom he married in 1920, and two children, Lorraine McBride Wallace, and James McBride Périgord.

M. E. Faulkner J. H. Williams W. F. Aggeler


Harold Gregory Ray, Periodontology: San Francisco


The events immediately preceding Harold Ray's untimely death in London and those planned for the months to come describe in themselves the busy and productive life of this leader in American dentistry. He had just left Minneapolis, where he directed the three-day Workshop for Teachers of Periodontology devoted to considering postgraduate and graduate teaching of the specialty. In April of 1960 he began his term as a Director of the American Board of Periodontology examining candidates for certification. In July he was to have lectured before the American Dental Society of Europe in Edinburgh and in August before the Swedish Centennial Congress in Stockholm. His main purpose in going abroad, however, was to begin a sabbatical year which would afford new insights in his profession and enrich his teaching.

Dr. Ray was born on March 12, 1903, in Two Rivers, Wisconsin; he graduated from the School of Dentistry of Northwestern University in 1926. He was immediately appointed to the faculty, and he divided his time between teaching and private practice in Chicago. From the start he was interested in the health of the supporting tissues of the teeth as well as the restoration of teeth, so that he gravitated naturally to the specialty of periodontology. In 1946 he accepted a post as Research Associate at the University of Illinois, where he earned an M.S. degree in 1948. Soon thereafter, he decided to make academic life his principal sphere of activity; it was this decision which brought him to California.


After a year spent in the Division of Dental Medicine, the responsibility was given to Dr. Ray to organize Periodontology as a separate division; it had previously been a section of Operative Dentistry. Not only did the undergraduate dental curriculum benefit from his leadership, but there also came into being courses in periodontology for practicing dentists: weekend didactic courses, clinical courses of two-weeks' duration, and one-day-a-week courses over an entire semester. A specialist himself, Dr. Ray nevertheless was convinced that the general practitioner could render a valuable, albeit limited, service in the field.

Devoted as he was to his specialty, he nonetheless gave prodigally of his time and talents to other interests in the San Francisco Medical Center. He served on the Admissions Committee and the Curriculum Committee of the School of Dentistry, where he persuasively set forth his ideas. He was an influential member of the Academic Planning Committee of the San Francisco Medical Center.

The Workshop in Minneapolis, the last dental meeting in which he participated, actually had its beginnings in a similar workshop devoted to undergraduate teaching and held on the San Francisco campus in 1958. Representatives from every dental school in the United States and Canada were there and the proceedings were published by the University of California Press.

Dr. Ray contributed substantially to the meetings and periodical literature of the American Dental Association, the American Association of Dental Schools, the American Academy of Periodontology, and the International Association for Dental Research. He was a consultant to the United States Navy, the United States Army, the United States Public Health Service, and the Council of Dental Education. He was honored by election to Omicron Kappa Upsilon, the honorary dental fraternity, and the American College of Dentists. On many occasions, he held elective offices in these organizations.


Surviving Dr. Ray are his mother, Mrs. Thomas W. Ray, his wife, Jessie Matteson Ray, a son Thomas, a daughter, Jennifer Ray Green, and two grandchildren.

W. L. Wylie B. Dienstein R. Rule


James Fleece Rinehart, Pathology: San Francisco


James F. Rinehart, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, was born on May 7, 1901, in Oakland, California. After a distinguished career as a teacher and investigator, he died suddenly of coronary occlusion on November 30, 1955, at the age of fifty-four.

He received his medical education at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, graduating in 1926. He served an internship at the Alameda County Hospital in Oakland and joined the University of California School of Medicine in 1927 as an Assistant in Pathology. In 1930 he was appointed Littauer Research Fellow at the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory of Harvard University in Boston. During this year, he was greatly influenced by Dr. George R. Minot. Dr. Rinehart returned to the University of California in 1931 as Assistant Professor of Pathology; he subsequently became Associate Professor in 1936 and Professor of Pathology and Chairman of the Department in 1942. He served as a member of the State Board of Health since 1942 and was Vice-chairman of the Board for several years. His broad interests in science and medicine were reflected by membership in numerous scientific and professional societies. He served as President of the American Society for Experimental Pathology from 1950 until 1951.

A large number of undergraduate medical students and postdoctoral students received their training in pathology

under Dr. Rinehart during the twenty-seven years that he served the University. He imbued his students with the importance of careful, precise scientific approaches to the study of disease.

His research interests were of fundamental importance. Early in his career he conducted studies on hematologic problems. He was a pioneer in the study of experimental scurvy. He made many outstanding contributions to our knowledge of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis, clarifying the close relationship between ascorbic acid and certain phases of these diseases. He also contributed to our knowledge of the effect of bioflavonoids on rheumatic fever. His studies on pyridoxine deficiency and arteriosclerosis in subhuman primates represent a major milestone in clarification of the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. He was a man of great foresight in developing new concepts in the study of diseases. He was one of the pioneers in the field of electron microscopy of pituitary and renal cytophysiology.

As a person Dr. Rinehart was kind and compassionate. His unselfish devotion to the best interests of the University of California and his fellow men was outstanding.

H. D. Moon S. R. Mettier D. A. Wood


Royal Arlington Roberts, Business Administration: Berkeley

Associate Professor Emeritus

Royal Arlington Roberts was born on February 2, 1892, in Racine, Wisconsin. His father was Charles William Roberts; his mother, Lillian Florence Heather Roberts. Professor Roberts passed away in Oakland, October 30, 1959, quietly and unexpectedly following a brief illness. His father's family, migrating from Toronto, Canada, were early settlers in Wisconsin. His mother's family were “Mayflower” and Colonial Virginia descendants and early settlers in Kentucky and Illinois.

A provision written in his own hand at the end of Professor Roberts's will beautifully characterized him. Over one hundred persons were listed to whom the executor of the estate was asked to give mementos from among Professor Roberts's personal effects. He had been an inveterate collector of artistic items characteristic of different cultures around the world. In fulfilling this provision, the executor, Professor William J. Regan of San Francisco State College, a former student and friend, found it necessary to send appropriate remembrances to persons who would appreciate them living in many parts of the world, far beyond the borders of the California community.

Professor Roberts was one of the most outgoing members of our faculty. His friendships were legion, locally and throughout the world, including hundreds of former students with whom he had developed deep personal attachments. He

never married; hence, especially following the death of his widowed mother to whom he was deeply devoted, students and friends became his family, regardless of race or creed, political party or economic status. It is doubtful whether anyone else on the Berkeley faculty in Business Administration over the years has enjoyed comparable relationships with former students and members of the community, either in numbers or in warmth of affection.

Professor Roberts was first and basically a teacher. He gave up a promising career in the department store field to join the Berkeley faculty in Commerce and Business Administration in the fall of 1926. He served continuously in Berkeley until he achieved emeritus status on July 1, 1959. His teaching fields were general marketing, retailing, advertising, sales management, and purchasing. In his courses he drew heavily upon his earlier and continuing experiences in business. He was always in close contact with his laboratory: the business community. He commanded enormous respect among advertising and sales executives, purchasing agents, and retail merchants. His students were in eager demand by business enterprises. He had provided them not only with interest and incentive but also stern discipline in and outside the classroom. Professor Roberts spent many hours outside his regular teaching duties working with students individually. Time and again he became a friendly guide, counselor, and placement officer. One illustration, from the field of retailing, portrays his extraordinary contributions as a teacher in preparing students for executive and professional careers in business. During his final semester the Emporium Capwell organization held a testimonial luncheon for him at the Emporium in San Francisco. Thirty-three of his former students then employed by Emporium Capwell were present; twenty others were unable to attend. Thus, in this one company alone, fifty-three executives ranging right up to the top echelons of responsibility were indebted to Professor Roberts for university education

for careers in their chosen fields. Examples could be multiplied in advertising, salesmanship, and purchasing. Friends in advertising donated to the University a set of Advertising Management Guidebooks published by the Association of National Advertisers, as a memorial. The San Francisco Sales Executives Association in its Reporter, November, 1959, noted that Professor Roberts had been an educational member since 1949, and commented, “His contribution to our Association will be long remembered.” His friends were equally or even more numerous and warm among purchasing executives. Over the years he had often given special lecture series and educational programs in this field. Each year also he handled the C. W. Whitney Memorial Award of the Northern California Purchasing Agents to the most deserving student in his course in purchasing.

This web of relationships with the business community was not all. Professor Roberts was also deeply interested in religion and religious activities. His own denominational affiliation was Episcopalian; the sole surviving member of his immediate family is the Reverend Elmer Roberts of the Episcopal clergy. His wide ranging interests and broad tolerance gave him a broad outreach into other religious bodies.

Professor Roberts served as an ensign in the Navy during World War I. For a period following his initial training, he was in charge of Insurance and Allotments at the Great Lakes Naval Station. At the end of the war, he was Assistant Officer in Charge of the Central Bureau in Washington, D. C. Following the war period he remained active in the Naval Reserve. In 1940 he was brought back into active duty as a faculty member of the Armed Forces Industrial College of Washington, D. C. He maintained a strong interest in the Navy and military matters throughout his lifetime.

Professor Roberts received a B.A. degree from the University of Wisconsin in the class of 1916. An M.B.A. degree was conferred by the Graduate School of Business Administration

of Harvard University in 1923. He held a continuing interest in the activities and affairs of the University of Wisconsin and Harvard throughout his lifetime along with the University of California. Many thousands of students and friends will cherish his memory.

E. T. Grether M. M. Davisson D. A. Revzan


Worth Allen Ryder, Art: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

Professor Worth Ryder, though born in Kirkwood, Illinois, in 1884, came to California so early that he seemed the very type of a native Californian. He was at ease in the mountains and forests and with the men of those regions. He was robust, could take care of himself in the wilds, could hire out as a professional guide, and could spin a fine yarn. He had a deep love of nature, especially for the mountains, which were one of the major influences of his life. From his feeling for beauty in nature, it was but a small move to the desire to become an artist and teacher and to create and spread this feeling for beauty among others.

His boyhood was spent in Berkeley with many excursions into the high Sierra Nevada. He graduated from Berkeley High School in 1903 and entered the University of California in the class of 1907. Before finishing the courses for an academic degree, he turned to art and studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1906 until 1908. He made good use of his time in New York, for after school hours he was an usher in the boxes at the Metropolitan Opera House where he absorbed its extensive cultural offerings. It was his good fortune to have been associated with the Metropolitan Opera during the time that Gustav Mahler and Arturo Toscanini were conductors, and Caruso and Chaliapin were at the height of their careers. One incident occurred during this experience, which Professor Ryder liked to relate, involving

another celebrity, paradoxically a non-music lover. Mark Twain was a frequent visitor at the opera and, because he did not care for musci, would spend his time in the anteroom discussing the West with Professor Ryder who was well acquainted with the California and Nevada towns known to Twain.

After New York he went to Europe for two years and studied painting at the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and anatomy at the University of Munich. In 1911 he returned to California and, until 1918, was Instructor of Drawing and Anatomy at the California School of Arts and Crafts. In 1918 he became Curator of the Oakland Art Gallery (now the Oakland Art Museum). From 1919 until 1921 he was in business for himself providing equipment and pack trains for travelers into the high Sierra Nevada. This business venture provided him with funds to continue his studies in Europe. He returned there and spent six years painting and studying art in Germany, France, and Italy. He was impressed particularly by his studies with such artists as Venturini in Rome and Leo Putz and Hans Hofmann in Munich.

It was, in fact, chiefly through Professor Ryder's instrumentality that Hans Hofmann was invited to have his first one-man show in America at the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco in 1930, and that Hofmann was appointed to teach at the University of California in the Summer Sessions of 1930 and 1931. This was long before Hofmann's fame had spread to New York. Hofmann's influence in introducing abstract art to the West was pronounced and is one of the main reasons for the present advanced state of art activity in the Bay Area.

It was during Professor Ryder's second period in Europe that he married Cornelia Breckenfeld, whom he had known for some time in California. The wedding took place in Paris in 1921. Also, during this period, he spent time in the Swiss

and Bavarian Alps where he indulged his great love of mountains. He was a member of the Swiss Alpine Club and made many memorable cross-country walking and skiing excursions. On his return to this country, he became one of the pioneers in the sport of skiing.

In January, 1927 Professor Ryder was appointed Lecturer in Art at the University of California, Berkeley, and returned from Europe to accept the appointment. The following year he was promoted to Associate Professor and served in that capacity until 1939. In 1937 he was appointed as a delegate to the International Art Conference in Paris to represent the State of California and its University. He remained abroad for almost a year to research and travel. In 1939 he became Professor and taught, with occasional sabbatical leaves, until 1952 when he became Professor, Emeritus. Before he could retire, he was recalled by the University for three more years of active teaching.

He was one of the great teachers of this University. His well-rounded personality, his breadth of interests, and his fine critical perception transferred to his students a sense of cultural value as well as matters of technique and historical fact. Few men have had the gift to do this so well. For many years his Art 1B was the focal course on the critical analysis of painting from the Byzantines to the present. Hundreds of students benefited from his insight into the aesthetic values of our cultural heritage. He was equally skillful in technical criticism in his small practice courses and graduate seminars.

The University is perhaps most deeply indebted to him for the constructive development of the whole structure of the art practice courses and the educational theory behind it. Because of his activity and direction, the Art Department broke away from a system of academic art instruction that had serious limitations and had grown dead and originated a new system stressing fundamental principles of visual design. The

Berkeley Art Department is now considered a leader in this phase of art education.

Despite the energy he expended in perfecting his teaching and in working out a new program of art practice, his creative production was not neglected. He set such high standards for a picture that he was generally dissatisfied with his work; however, a small stream of paintings did come before the public, for he was represented in most of the local art shows and took a number of prizes. One of his paintings is in the permanent collection of the San Francisco Museum of Art, another hangs in the library in Kroeber Hall on the Berkeley campus, and many others are in private collections.

He was a member of the College Art Association and a very active member of the San Francisco Art Association, serving for many years on its Board. He was also active in the Pacific Art Association where his advice in educational matters was in great demand. His services were sought constantly outside the University for lectures on art to groups of every complexion: laymen, teachers, and professional artists. In these off-campus lectures, in his membership on art juries, and in many other respects, he performed much public service that reflected a dignity upon the University.

Throughout his professional activities and his social relations with friends he impressed everyone as a man of exceptional culture, unusual sensitivity and perceptiveness, great strength of character, and unswerving integrity. He was admired by colleagues and students alike, not only for his deep understanding of art and his dedication to the highest standards of art and teaching but also for his humor and humanity. All who knew him affirm that he was a great teacher with a genius for reaching and moving students and that his influence is immeasurably spread afar.

In appreciation for his contribution to the University and the world of art, a tribute was extended to Professor Ryder

with the dedication of the Worth Ryder Art Gallery in Kroeber Hall. Also Hans Hofmann has presented to the University one of his own recent paintings to commemorate his friend and former student.

Professor Ryder died on February 17, 1960.

S. C. Pepper J. C. Haley G. A. Wessels


John Clyde Scheib, Jr., Business Administration: Los Angeles

Assistant Professor

The academic world lost one of its most promising young scholars in 1959 with the untimely death of Dr. John Scheib. Until the time of his death from cancer, he was extremely active in the field of production management in such research as “Analysis of Techniques for Performance Rating in Measurement of Work.” Even at this early stage of his career Dr. Scheib was considered by his colleague as an authority in many aspects of work measurement.

Dr. Scheib was born March 25, 1925, in Shenandoah, Iowa. He received a B.S. degree in engineering from the State University of Iowa, an M.S. degree in industrial engineering from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. degree in 1956 at the University of Minnesota. He received an appointment during that same year to the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles, as Assistant Professor of Production Management. Before this, Dr. Scheib was Supervisor of Industrial Engineering at the National Tube Division of United States Steel. He held similar positions with the Collins Radio Company and John Deere Dubuque Tractor Works. The combination of professional and academic experience plus an able mind made Dr. Scheib extremely competent in his field.

In addition to being active in research, Dr. Sheib was one of the most capable instructors on the Faculty of the School of Business. With methodical care, he had assembled a remarkable collection of slides illustrating various aspects of his

subject matter. His students recall that his class presentation was rigorous and intellectually stimulating.

In addition to his professional qualifications, Dr. Scheib was highly valued as a friend by his associates. His quiet good humor and extreme bravery in the face of prolonged physical pain endeared him to his many friends. Certainly the death of this fine scholar, teacher, and friend is a tragedy not only to his close associates, but also to his profession.

Dr. Scheib is survived by his wife Joan, and his mother, Edna E. Scheib.

J. B. Boulden J. G. Carlson


Herman Adolph Spindt, Education: Berkeley

Director of Admissions and Relations with Schools

With the death of Herman Adolph Spindt on March 19, 1960, the University of California and the secondary schools of the State lost a valued leader in university and school relations.

He was born in Waupaca, Wisconsin, on January 9, 1893, the son of Niels P. N. Spindt and Ellen S. Spindt. After graduation from the Waupaca High School, he enrolled in the University of California. During his undergraduate years, he achieved a good academic record and attained prominence in student activities at the same time. He was a member of the Varsity Track and Cross Country Teams, Congress Debating Society, and University YMCA. His popularity and leadership resulted in his election to Golden Bear, Winged Helmet, Sphinx, and Phrontisterion. He also served as President of the Circle “C” Society, Captain of the Cross Country Team, Speaker of Congress, Chairman of the Debating Council, Chairman of the Belgian Relief Committee, and Cabinet Member of the YMCA. His scholarship record earned him election into Phi Delta Kappa during his senior year.

Dr. Spindt received an A.B. degree in 1916, majoring in history and political science. The following year he completed the requirements for a secondary teaching credential. During subsequent summer sessions he met all requirements leading to an M.A. degree in 1920, specializing in history. While employed in the public schools and later in the University, he continued his graduate studies, obtaining a Ph.D.

degree in Education in 1946. His thesis, History of the Relations of the University of California and the Public High Schools of California, 1872-1946, is still the most authentic guide to university and secondary school relations and also an important chapter in the history of the University.

In 1917 he was appointed Teacher of History and Political Science in Kern County Union High School and Junior College. Five years later he was promoted to District Superintendent of Schools and High School Principal, serving with distinct success during the next sixteen years. In 1938 he resigned to become Manager of the Bureau of Guidance and Placement in the University. In 1946 he became the University's Director of Admissions. He was appointed Lecturer in Education in 1947, and also taught a graduate course, “The Junior College,” during the next nine years. In 1956 he was assigned the additional responsibility of Director of the Office of Relations with Schools.

While employed in Kern County, Dr. Spindt was very active in various education organizations. He was President of three scholastic organizations: the California Secondary School Principals' Association from 1931 until 1938; the California Society of Secondary Education from 1933 until 1938; and the Central Section of the California Interscholastic Federation from 1928 until 1932. He was a member of the State Federated Council of the California Interscholastic Federation from 1928 until 1932. He was also active in the California Teachers Association and the National Education Association. Because of his recognized leadership among secondary school administrators, he served as Secretary of the Committee on Affiliation with Secondary Schools from 1929 until 1931 and from 1933 until 1938.

After his appointment in the University, he became active in its administrative affairs. He continued to serve on the affiliation committee and also served on the Junior College Conference Committee and the Committee on Accreditation

of State Colleges. He served many years on the following University Committees: Foreign Students, University Public Relations, Graduate Matters, Scholarship Study, Fraternity Affairs Advisory (Chairman), Counseling Center Advisory and Admissions, School of Nursing Admissions, and Advisory on Vocational Teachers Education (Chairman).

During his years in the University, he served on the Editorial Board of The California Journal of Secondary Education, the California Committee for the Study of Education, the Accreditation Committee of the California Association of Secondary School Administrators, the Board of Trustees of the College Entrance Examination Board, and the Stiles Hall Advisory Committee. He was Chairman of the National Advisory Council on the Evaluation of Foreign Student Credentials and President of the National Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers.

In Bakersfield and Berkeley, he was a recognized leader in community affairs. In the former city, he was President of the Community Theatre; President of the Exchange Club; Director of the Red Cross Chapter; and member of the Governing Board of the Community Chest, the Advisory Board of De Molay, and the Board of Directors of the YMCA. He also served on the Board of Trustees of the First Congregational Church. Most of these activities he repeated in Berkeley: President of the Rotary Club; President of the Community Chest; and member of the Hillside Club, the Board of Directors of the YMCA, Henry Morse Stephens Lodge No. 541, F. and A. M., and the First Congregational Church.

In spite of his busy professional and community life, he found time to prepare and publish thirty articles dealing primarily with the areas of his work: secondary education, teacher selection, teacher placement, and accreditation. His scholarly ability resulted in his published historical research studies: The Route of the Butterfield Stages from Los Angeles to Porterville in 1938; Some Notes on the Life of Edward

M. Kern
in 1939; The First Junior College in 1951; and Establishment of the Junior College in California, 1907-1921 in 1957. He was also co-author of two secondary school text books: Foundations of American Government; A Textbook in Civics in 1929; and California Government for High Schools in 1955.

Every year his important speaking engagements were numerous. Frequently he was the principal speaker at high school and junior college commencements and at meetings of educational organizations, parent-teacher associations, alumni groups, and service clubs. In these activities he was an excellent representative of the University; thus, further serving it and the State.

He married Josephine Petty on March 25, 1915. Mrs. Spindt, their three children, Herman Spindt, Jr., Allen Spindt, and Jo Ellen Spindt York, and four grandchildren survive Dr. Spindt.

G. C. Kyte L. D. Bernard H. W. Edwards


Edmund Vincent Street, Operative Dentistry: San Francisco


Edmund Vincent Street, Professor of Operative Dentistry, died in San Francisco on August 30, 1960, following a brief illness. He is survived by his widow, Madeleine, to whom he was married in 1931.

Dr. Street was born on September 5, 1899, in Fresno where he received his early schooling and entered a business career before studying dentistry. Following graduation from the College of Dentistry in 1930, he entered private practice and also accepted a part-time appointment on the faculty. Since 1944 he pursued teaching and research on a full-time basis. He was advanced to the rank of Professor of Operative Dentistry in 1953.

As a teacher, Dr. Street was devoted and conscientious and was highly regarded by his students and colleagues. He was ever mindful of the need for improved methods of instruction. Great value was added to his courses through the preparation of carefully planned syllabi and visual aids. He insisted upon a high level of performance from his students.

His research was meticulously performed, without hurrying into print until he felt certain that the results were well founded. This resulted in some valuable publications concerning the techniques of dental amalgams, the effects of various instruments and cutting speeds on the finish of tooth enamel walls, and the use of ultrasonics and higher speeds used in dental operations. This research program was still highly active at the time of his death.


Dr. Street took an active interest in faculty affairs, and served as a valued member of numerous important committees within his Department and the San Francisco campus.

His service to his profession and to the public was extensive. He gave unstintingly of his time by offering innumerable lectures and clinics. He was called upon to present many postgraduate and Extension Division courses. For many years he served as a Lecturer at the Lux School of Industrial Training and later at the City College of San Francisco. Also, he was often called upon to serve on or head numerous committees. For many years he was on the Advisory Committee of the California State Department of Dental Health.

Dr. Street's high devotion to duty, his high principles, deep-lying convictions, and exacting standards of excellence remain goals of achievement. By his death, students, colleagues, and the profession at large have lost a valued fellow worker, and many of us have lost a very dear friend.

H. E. Frisbie C. W. Craig D. H. Grimm R. W. Rule, Jr.


Marvel Marion Stockwell, Economics: Los Angeles


Marvel Marion Stockwell was born in DeKalb, Illinois on September 28, 1896, the son of Elmer and Lucy Stockwell. He departed this life on December 15, 1959, at the age of sixty-three.

Professor Stockwell spent most of his first thirty years in the Midwest. He attended the public schools in Illinois; served in the nation's armed forces during World War I; and earned degrees successively at Cornell College, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois. As a graduate student he held a teaching fellowship while at Berkeley and an instructorship while at Illinois. After receiving a Ph.D. degree at Illinois and teaching for a brief period at Lehigh University, Professor Stockwell in 1926 joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles, where he remained for the final thirty-three years of his life, progressing in grade from Instructor to Professor and serving a five-year term as Chairman of the Department of Economics.

Professor Stockwell was a conscientious and devoted teacher whom thousands of former students will remember with respect and affection. He was always meticulous in his preparation for class, and his lectures were models of precision and clarity. He had a talent for remembering names and faces, and was able to identify and know many of the hundreds of students who enrolled each year in his lecture classes in elementary economics. He had an enviable memory

for ideas and their sources, and was able offhand to suggest and locate references on a surprising number of topics.

Professor Stockwell's principal scholarly interests centered in the field of public finance, with particular emphasis on State and local taxation in California. His book, Studies in California State Taxation 1910-1935, is the definitive historical reference in its field, and he was working on a sequential volume, still uncompleted, in the years preceding his death. Some of this work appears in the report of the research staff to the California Senate Interim Committee on State and Local Taxation in 1951. Professor Stockwell was also a frequent contributor to the Tax Magazine, the National Tax Association Bulletin, and other scholarly and professional journals. He also took an active part in professional discussions, especially those of Pacific Southwest Academy, Western Economic Association, and National Tax Association.

In the field of direct public service, Professor Stockwell's contributions were outstanding. As a recognized authority on the tax structure of California, he was repeatedly called to serve as a tax adviser to both official and private civic groups. These included legislative committees, county supervisors' groups, city officials, state and local Chambers of Commerce, Town Hall, the California Taxpayers Association, and many service clubs and local citizens' organizations.

Professor Stockwell served as an officer in numerous professional and scholarly associations. At various times he held, among others, the following positions: member of the Board of Directors and Vice-President of the Pacific Southwest Academy; member of the Educational Finance Committee of the National Education Association; member of the All-University Committee on Support of Public Education in California; Regional Chancellor, Director, and National Vice-President of Pi Gamma Mu, National Social Science Honorary Society; member of the Tax Committee of the Southern California Council of the California State Chamber of Commerce;

member of the Board of Editors for Economics of the University Press; and President and Director of the Western Economic Association.

As an individual, Professor Stockwell will be remembered above all for his unfailing kindness and generosity. His personal sympathy and financial help were always available to those who needed it, and through the years many people have had occasion to rely on him. He was also a contributor to and participant in many church and welfare activities; in fact, the last evening of his life, typically, was spent at a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Wesley Foundation.

In 1932 Professor Stockwell was married to Wilhelmina Godward, who survives him. He is also survived by five nephews and two nieces, all of whom have lived at times in his home, and by a host of other relatives and friends.

Although Professor Stockwell's activities in the last few years were moderately circumscribed by the heart condition which caused his passing, neither his work nor his community service was seriously impaired and he continued his normal activities until his final hour.

E. J. Miller D. F. Pegrum J. C. Clendenin


Edward Chace Tolman, Psychology: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

Edward Chace Tolman was born in West Newton, Massachusetts, on April 14, 1886. His mother, of Quaker origin, was warm and loving, but puritanical. His father, a member of the first graduating class of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and one of its trustees, was strong, gentle, and prosperous.

After graduation from Newton High School, Dr. Tolman entered M.I.T., preparatory to entering the family business: a rope manufacturing company. During his senior year, however, he began reading William James, and in the summer of 1911, after his graduation from M.I.T. with a degree in electro-chemistry, he enrolled in two summer school courses at Harvard: a philosophy course from Ralph Barton Perry, and a course in comparative psychology from Robert M. Yerkes. This step was decisive, for that fall he began graduate work in psychology at Harvard. The work with Perry and Yerkes influenced much of his later thought: from Perry he learned the objective-relativist answer to Titchenerian subjectivism; from Yerkes, the functionalist answer to Watsonian behaviorism.

Dr. Tolman spent the summer of 1912 in Germany with Kurt Koffka who introduced him to Gestalt psychology. After receiving a Ph.D. degree from Harvard in 1915, Dr. Tolman married Kathleen Drew on August 30th of that year, and in the fall the two of them moved to Evanston, Illinois, where for three years he taught at Northwestern University. In 1918

they came to Berkeley. For forty-one years, at this University, Dr. Edward and Kathleen Tolman led a happy and full life, honored and loved by neighbors, colleagues, and students. Generations of students remember with warmth the friendly Tolman house on LaLoma Avenue.

In 1922, four years after crossing the Rocky Mountains, Dr. Tolman was elected President of the Western Psychological Association. From this time until his death, November 19, 1959, his contributions to the world of science brought distinction to him and to the University. A listing of his honors clearly indicates the eminence of this gentle and kind man of science: elected member of the Society of Experimental Psychologists; President of the American Psychological Association; member of the National Academy of Sciences and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Co-President of the Fourteenth International Congress of Psychology; appointed Penrose Lecturer of the American Philosophical Society; Visiting Professor of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton; Honorary Fellow of the British Psychological Society; Faculty Research Lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley; recipient of the Kurt Lewin Memorial Award presented by the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues; honorary Doctor of Science from Yale University; honorary Doctor of Science from McGill University; recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award presented by the American Psychological Association.

During his first years at the University, Dr. Tolman established an animal laboratory, and almost immediately there was an extraordinary burst of research publications by graduate students working in the Tolman Laboratory: testimony to his gift for teaching. His favorite teaching was done in a class known widely as “The Tolman Seminar”--a most marvelous seminar in which teacher and student were often indistinguishable. Dr. Tolman's curiosity and open mind enabled him gladly to learn as well as teach.


Perhaps one reason that “The Tolman Seminar” had such a hold on generations of students was that Dr. Tolman was always able to uncover the essential problems underneath the fluctuating experimental fads. Three questions continued to command his interest: (1) the evidence that rats and men learn even when there is no immediate practical advantage for such learning led him to ask how rewards and punishments influence behavior; (2) the evidence that rats and men learn more than is directly evident in their behavior while they are learning led him to ask how we can describe the changes in association that learning produces; and finally (3) the idea, original with Kurt Lewin, that the rat or man can be conceived to be a particle in a “perceptual space” composed of attractive and repellent forces led him to ask how we can describe acts of comparison and choice as the resultants of these competing forces.

Many American experimental psychologists saw no necessity to face these questions. It was generally accepted that Pavlov had proved that associations were stimulus-response connections; that Thorndike had proved that reward stamps in such associations; and that Watson had proved that questions about perception and choice were metaphysical, not experimental questions. But Dr. Tolman, through his theoretical arguments and his experimental data, forced his colleagues to re-examine the accepted answers. Fifty years after this M.I.T. student of electro-chemistry discovered William James, the intellectual climate of American psychology is changed, and no experimental or theoretical psychologist will today deny the intrinsic importance and currency of Dr. Tolman's three questions.

During the long year that stretched from the spring of 1949 to the summer of 1950, “The Year of the Oath,” Dr. Tolman raised one more question that had to be faced: Is the college professor responsible for academic freedom? He answered that question with firmness and dignity by leading an effective

fight to keep this University free. Perhaps in no other action did Dr. Tolman so clearly demonstrate his faith in the idea of a university and his loyalty to the University of California. Ten years later, the Regents and the President of the University expressed their appreciation of Dr. Tolman, the scientist, teacher, civil libertarian, and revered colleague, by awarding him an LL.D. degree, honoris causa.

Edward Chace Tolman is survived by his widow, Kathleen Drew Tolman; his two daughters, Mrs. Deborah Tolman Whitney and Mrs. Mary Tolman Kent; and his son Edward James Tolman.

D. Krech B. F. Ritchie R. C. Tryon


Lester Alonzo Williams, Education: Berkeley

Professor Emeritus

Lester Alonzo Williams was born in Hampstead, New Hampshire, on June 11, 1880, the son of Caleb W. Williams and Martha H. Gordon Williams. The ancestry of both parents dates back to New England settlers of the Colonial period.

Dr. Williams attended the public schools and then the American International College in Springfield, Massachusetts, from 1898 until 1901. He transferred to Dartmouth College, where he received an A.B. degree in 1903, having prepared himself for teaching. While engaged in this profession, he continued his studies at Dartmouth, obtaining an M.A. degree in 1908. Shortly after this, he enrolled in New York University and continued his studies as a part-time student until 1911. During 1911-1912, he spent a year in residence and completed the requirements for a Doctor of Pedagogy degree in 1912.

After graduation from Dartmouth College, he served as teacher, principal, and finally superintendent in various school systems in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. In 1912 he was appointed Supervising Principal of Schools in Leonia, New Jersey. At the end of the school year, he resigned to accept the type of appointment for which he had been preparing by training and experience.

In 1913 he became Professor of School Administration in the University of North Carolina, where he engaged in considerable research and writing. He was also in great demand to conduct applied research in North Carolina: collaborating

in the intensive study of the University's Bureau of Extension; conducting three educational surveys, one for Winston-Salem during 1915-1916, and two for the county school systems; and serving on the North Carolina School Survey Commission during 1917-1918. Throughout his nine years at the University of North Carolina, he was a consultant in the establishment of North Carolina's new high schools. He also found time to serve as Associate Editor of the High School Journal from 1918 until 1922. His record as a productive scholar and educational leader led to the inclusion of his name in Who's Who in America in 1921.

In 1922 he was appointed Professor of Education at the University of California. From 1922 until 1945 he was the senior Professor in Secondary Education, responsible for expanding the graduate program in this specialization. He also taught the upper division course, Secondary Education. He continued his research and writing. His scholarship and teaching led many graduate students to pursue their advanced work under his guidance; fifteen students obtained their doctor's degrees and numerous others earned their master's degrees. Countless undergraduate students gained their insight into the nature and function of secondary schools through his courses. They became secondary school teachers and principals in California's schools.

For fifteen years Dr. Williams served on the University's Committee on Schools. He was also Associate Director of Relations with Schools from 1936 until 1940. In this latter capacity, he visited every private secondary school and over ninety per cent of the public high schools in California. Through his constructive advice and help to these schools, he promoted cordial relations between them and the University. Throughout the years that the State Committee on Cooperating Schools existed, he was an active member of it. He also served as Associate Editor of the California Journal of Secondary Education. As special adviser in secondary education to

undergraduate and graduate students, he gave extensive advice and help to numerous individuals.

At various times Dr. Williams was a visiting Professor of Education in the summer sessions at Harvard University, the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of San Francisco. Occasionally he also taught courses in secondary education during the college year at the University of San Francisco, College of the Holy Names, and the San Francisco College for Women.

In addition to his articles in educational periodicals, he wrote three books: Principles of Secondary Education in 1927, with George A. Rice; The Making of High School Curricula in 1928; and Person-consciousness of a Selected Group of High School Students in 1931.

Dr. Williams was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of eight other educational organizations: the American Association of University Professors; National Society of College Teachers of Education; National Association of Directors of Educational Research; American Psychological Association; National Education Association; California Society for the Study of Secondary Education; and two scholarly fraternities, Phi Delta Kappa and Alpha Psi Delta. He belonged to the Education Section of the Commonwealth Club and was an officer of the Hillside Club of Berkeley. He was also a member of the Berkeley Faculty Club.

He married Charlena Augusta Tenney on December 31, 1908. After almost twenty years of a happy married life, he was bereaved by her death early in 1937. He married Doctor Elizabeth Louise Bishop, Professor of Psychology and Director of Research at Santa Barbara State College, on June 18, 1938.

When Dr. Williams retired in 1945, they moved to Carmel, California. He continued his research, publishing articles about the private secondary schools. Drs. Lester and Elizabeth Williams became very active in the community life of Carmel. He served on its Board of School Trustees, constructively supporting the efforts of the Superintendent of Schools to improve the Carmel High School. As a member of the Board of Directors of the Monterey Symphony, he worked vigorously in its organization and development. Mrs. Williams and he moved to the Carmel Valley, where he became Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Valley Community.

When Dr. William's health began to fail, his wife and he moved to Menlo Park, California. The proximity to Stanford University enabled him to pursue his scholarly interests in the study of the ancient civilizations. In connection with this, they planned a trip to the museums of the Universities of Chicago and Pennsylvania, but his health prevented it. Failing to recover from an emergency operation, he died on June 12, 1960, just a few hours after his eightieth birthday. He is survived by his widow who shared so richly in his life.

G. C. Kyte L. D. Bernard F. N. Freeman

About this text
Courtesy of University Archives, The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-6000;
Title: 1961, University of California: In Memoriam
By:  University of California (System) Academic Senate, Author
Date: April 1961
Contributing Institution:  University Archives, The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-6000;
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