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Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material
BANC PIC 1963.002:0001-1886  
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Collection Details
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  • Collection Summary
  • Information for Researchers
  • Administrative Information
  • Scope and Content
  • Biographical Note
  • Project Information
  • Arrangement
  • Access Information

  • Collection Summary

    Collection Title: Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material
    Collection Number: BANC PIC 1963.002:0001-1886
    Collector: Honeyman, Robert B.
    Extent: 2371 items: oil paintings, watercolors, drawings, lithographs, engravings, etchings, lettersheets, clipper cards, ephemera, objects, etc. 2271 digital objects
    Repository: The Bancroft Library.
    Berkeley, California 94720-6000
    Languages Represented: English

    Information for Researchers


    Restricted originals. Use digital facsimiles or selected viewing prints only. Use of originals only by permission of the Curator of Pictorial Collections, The Bancroft Library.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to The Bancroft Library. All requests for permission to publish pictorial materials must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Pictorial Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Bancroft Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.
    Copyright restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material, BANC PIC 1963.002:0001-1886, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

    Digital Representations Available

    Digital representations of all original pictorial materials are available as a part of the Container list of the finding aid. Digital image files were captured from originals by the Library Photographic Service. Most Library originals were captured directly using a Phase One Powerphase digital camera back and a Hasselblad camera. Some flat, unmounted originals were scanned using an Epson 836XL flatbed scanner. Some framed items were first copied on 4x5 color transparency film, then scanned using the Epson flatbed. Lower-resolution viewing files were prepared from the high-resolution master TIFF files: the master files were downsampled, sharpened, color-corrected, adjusted for a gamma 2.2 viewing environment, and saved in JFIF (JPEG) format before being placed on the server.

    Separated Material

    The Honeyman Collection originally included books, maps, manuscripts, and printed matter in addition to pictorial materials. The non-pictorial materials were transferred to other areas of The Library and catalogued separately: books have been cataloged in the call number range F591.H72.A-Z; maps have been cataloged in the call number range G9990.H6 No. 1-; manuscript materials have been cataloged with the provenance noted and traced under the catalog entry, Honeyman, Robert B.; Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. collection; selected printed materials, such as newspapers, were transferred to the Western Americana Collection of the Bancroft Library.


    Baird, Joseph Armstrong. California's Pictorial Letter Sheets, 1849-1869. San Francisco: D. Magee, 1967.
    ______. Catalogue of Original Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors in the Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection. Berkeley: The Friends of the Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, 1968.
    ______. Honeyman Collection Inventory Sheets (unpublished, held by The Bancroft Library).
    Bénézit, Emmanuel. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs & graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays. Paris: Librairie Gründ, 1976. 10 vols.
    Bryan, Michael. Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. New York: MacMillan, 1903. 5 vols.
    Cummings, Paul. Dictionary of Contemporary American Artists, Third Edition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977.
    Dakin, Susana Bryant. The Honeyman Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material: a Project of The Friends of the Bancroft Library. Berkeley: The Bancroft Library, 1963.
    Leeper, Blanche Magurn. Early Prints of California: from the Robert B. Honeyman Collection. Pasadena, California: Pasadena Art Institute, 1952.
    Fielding, Mantle. Mantle Fielding's Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors & Engravers. Poughkeepsie, New York: Apollo Book, 1983.
    Fine Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor. American Primitive Painting, [catalog of] an exhibition organized by The Fine Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor. Balboa, California: The Pavilion Gallery, 1965.
    Groce, George C. & Davis H. Wallace. New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936.
    Hamilton, Sinclair. Early American Book Illustrators and Wood Engravers 1670-1870. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.
    ______. Early American Book Illustrators and Wood Engravers 1670-1870, Volume II Supplement. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1968.
    Hart, James D. A companion to California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
    Hughes, Edan Milton. Artists in California 1786-1940 II. San Francisco: Hughes Publishing Company, 1989.
    Karolik, M. & M. Collection of American Water Colors & Drawings, Volumes 1 & 11. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1962.
    Kuchel & Dresel. California in the '50's. San Francisco: John Howell, 1936.
    Langsdorff, Georg Heinrich von. Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803-1807. Frankfurt, 1812, London, 1813. 2 vols.
    Mills, Paul. "Collection of Robert B. Honeyman, Jr." In California Pictorial 1800-1900; an Exhibition of Two Parts: the Collection of Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. and Paintings by William Keith. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1962.
    Mills, Paul and Joseph R. Knowland. Early Paintings of California in the Robert B. Honeyman Jr. Collection. Oakland: The Oakland Art Museum, 1956.
    Peters, Harry T. California on Stone. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1935.
    Reps, John W. Views and Viewmakers of Urban America. Colombia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1984.
    Taft, Robert. Artists and Illustrators of the Old West 1850-1900. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
    Van Nostrand, Jeanne and Edith M. Coulter. California Pictorial. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, University of California Press,
    Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World. London: Robinson and Edwards, 1798.

    Administrative Information


    The Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material was purchased by The Bancroft Library in 1963. It was funded by the UC Regents and private donations raised by The Friends of The Bancroft Library. Robert B. Honeyman Jr. assembled this collection largely with the help of his agent Warren Howell of John Howell Books in San Francisco. Many items were purchased abroad, chiefly in Britain, Germany, and Spain. The collection was previously housed in Mr. Honeyman's private museum at Rancho Los Cerritos near Mission San Juan Capistrano, California, and until now has never been exhibited in its entirety.

    Scope and Content

    The Robert B. Honeyman Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material is comprised of over 2300 items, with formats and media ranging from original oil paintings, watercolors, drawings, lithographs, engravings, etchings, lettersheets, clipper cards, and ephemera, to plates and spoons featuring western themes, and a fore-edge painting. The collection focuses on pictorial interpretations of the old West, with emphasis on the early California and Gold Rush periods. Views depict the changing landscape of the West under the impact of westward migration, the development of towns and cities, early settlements, California missions, railroads, gold mining scenes, pioneer and frontier life, native populations, social history, and many other topics.
    Many items in the collection are of unique historical value as they represent some of the earliest records of a particular scene, location, or event. Included are the earliest known views of the Presidio of Monterey, Mission Carmel, San Francisco, and Yosemite. Geographically, the collection focuses primarily on California, but also includes images from the Pacific Northwest, other Northern American states, South and Central America, Oceania, Europe, Russia, and other locations. The entire collection covers from ca.1790 through the early 1930s, with the bulk of works dating between 1850 and the 1870s.
    The Honeyman Collection contains original watercolors and drawings from important early voyages and scientific expeditions to the Pacific Coast and California including: the Malaspina expedition (1791-1792); the Vancouver expedition (1791-1795); the Rezanov, Kruzenshtern, and Langsdorff expeditions (1803-1807); the Otto von Kotezebue expedition (1816); and others. These works include some of the earliest known depictions of native populations of North America and indigenous peoples from Oceania and the Pacific Coast.
    Numerous well-known painters of the West are represented in the collection, as noted by Susana Bryant Dakin in a brochure produced by The Friends of The Bancroft Library in 1963 to aid in fundraising for the purchase of the collection:
    "Well-known painters of the West... are represented by oils and watercolors and drawings in the collection. Charles Christian Nahl may be considered the most important resident artist of the early American period in California history. Besides a sketch-book, dated 1853 and 1854, Mr. Honeyman managed to acquire five Nahl oils, including the beautiful and exciting Incident on the Chagres River. A watercolor by Charles Russell, The War Party, is small but of prime quality. Alexander Edouart's Blessing of the Enrequita Mine, New Almaden, in the Year 1859 is a superb documentary of an important mining activity. There is a magnificent oil painting of Mokelumne Hill by A. D. O. Browere; and impressive scenes by the French artist E. E. Narjot de Francheville, an early arrival on the West Coast, attracted by news of gold."
    In addition, the collection includes works by Albert Bierstadt, Augusto Ferran, Alfred Jacob Miller, Jules Tavernier, William B. McMurtrie, Charles Wimar, Joseph Lee, Thomas Hill, William Keith, Edward Jump, and other prominent artists. Lithographs, engravings, etchings, and other prints were produced by such well known firms and individuals as Britton & Rey, Currier & Ives, Louis Nagel, Charles B. Gifford, Sarony & Major, and others. Lesser known artists are also represented in this collection, as well as artists of various nationalities, including French, British, Italian, Spanish, and Russian, many of whom were lured to the Pacific Coast by the California gold fields.

    Biographical Note

    Robert Brodhead Honeyman graduated in 1920 from Lehigh University, Pennsylvania, with an engineering degree. Mr. Honeyman was an avid collector throughout his lifetime. He collected in a variety of areas including art, science, American and English literature, stamps, British orders, decorations, medals, and others. His collection of books and manuscripts in the history of science was quite significant, and was later auctioned at Sotheby's. Mr. Honeyman maintained two homes, one in Rye, New York, and the other in Southern California, near Mission San Juan Capistrano, where he built his private museum at Rancho Los Cerritos. He died in 1987 at 90 years of age.

    Project Information

    Goals and Limits of the Project

    The main goal of the Honeyman Digital Archival Project, funded by the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA), was to make The Bancroft Library's Robert B. Honeyman Collection available on the internet. As one of the premier sources of pictorial documentation of the history of California and the West, this collection is a valuable resource for teaching, learning, and research; access to which has primarily been limited to those who could travel to The Bancroft Library.
    The Honeyman Digital Archiving Project sought to obtain full bibliographic control over the collection through creation of USMARC collection, series, and sub-series records; a comprehensive and detailed online finding aid encoded using EAD (Encoded Archival Description); and archival digital images of all items hyperlinked to descriptions. The project followed cataloging rules established in Elisabeth W. Betz's Graphic Materials: rules for describing original items and historical collections and created internal conventions for data capture when necessary. The extent of the project was to create records sufficient for access to the collection, but did not allow for extensive research of the collection holdings. Item-level description relied primarily on pre-existing documentary resources for intellectual content, with other descriptive information (where available) taken directly from the item. Numerous sources were consulted regarding the content of the collection (see Bibliography), but more extensive research and documentation of the collection still remains to be done. Any correction or feedback regarding the collection should be directed to the Project Archivists (Eva M.M. Garcelon and Mary W. Elings) or the Pictorial Curator (Jack von Euw) of The Bancroft Library; Email: honeyman@library.berkeley.edu 

    Descriptive Standards and Methodology

    This finding aid grew out of several existing documentary resources compiled about the Honeyman Collection since its acquisition in 1963. These included inventories, exhibition catalogs, sales catalog, shelf lists, and other documents related to the collection. Resources which existed in electronic form were converted and imported to serve as the basis for the project control database. The data records were then compiled, edited, expanded, and descriptive standards applied in order to provide more consistent and comprehensive descriptive information for each item in the collection.
    Because the collection was primarily comprised of original works of art and prints, the project looked at museum and visual resource standards for description in structuring the data to be captured at the item-level. The following resources were consulted during the development of the descriptive standards of the project:
    The Honeyman project was a participant and the first major contributor to the Museums and the Online Archive of California (MOAC) project [ http://www.bampfa.berkeley.edu/moac/ ]. This collaborative project between libraries and museums seeks to establish best practices for including museum and special collections within the Online Archive of California (OAC). As a participant, the Honeyman project followed guidelines agreed upon by the MOAC partners. For descriptive elements, the project used the REACH element set; for granularity of description, the project used the Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA); and for data mark-up, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) standard, an SGML platform independent descriptive standard maintained by the Library of Congress. It is hoped that the Honeyman project will, along with the other participants involved in the MOAC project, serve as a model for the implementation of the EAD standard for similar collections.


    History of Arrangment

    The Honeyman Collection arrived at The Bancroft Library in various stages and was primarily unarranged. A systematic inventory of the collection was never done by Mr. Honeyman, however, the collection was accompanied at the time of acquisition by a sales catalog created by Warren Howell of John Howell Books of San Francisco. The present physical arrangement of the collection was carried out at The Bancroft Library by Joseph Armstrong Baird Jr. from 1964-1965. Call numbers were assigned sequentially and, whenever possible items were arranged in logical groupings, such as pictorial lettersheets, sketchbooks, etc. Items were described in detail by Baird in the Honeyman Collection Inventory Sheets (hereafter referred to as Inventory Sheets) following standard American museum accession methods. Out of his work grew a publication Catalogue of Original Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors in the Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection published by the Friends of the Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, 1968, which has been a valuable resource in the creation of this finding aid.

    Arrangement of Container List

    For purposes of this finding aid, the container list was organized into three hierarchical groups. The arrangement of these groups does not reflect the physical arrangement of the collection, but was created in order to facilitate online display and browsing. The groupings do not represent all items in that area; other items may be searched via controlled terms or by keyword. The three groups are as follows:
    I. Individual items by geographical location:

    Items, the primary subject matter of which was a geographical location, were organized based on locations predominantly represented in the collection.
      Northern California: Sacramento

      Pacific Northwest

      West (U.S.): Nevada
    II. Individual items by subject or format:

    Items, the primary subject matter of which does not represent a specific geographic location, were organized under general subject or format groupings.
      California Gold Rush

      Indians of North America


      Ephemera: Certificates
    III. Series groupings:

    Items which comprise a series or prearranged group (i.e. sketchbooks, survey drawings, albums, published series, collections by format, etc.) were organized under a general series headings.
      William B. McMurtrie drawings and watercolors

      Clipper ship advertisement cards

      Kruzenshtern/Rezanov/Langsdorff expeditions

    Access Information

    Key to Item-Level Description

    The format of the entries in the container listing is as follows:
    Creator(s), dates, nationality, role (qualifying notes)


    Date, place of publication (if available)

    Physical description (technique and support: medium)

    Dimensions (in cm., and other dimensions)

    Call number - shelf location (qualifying notes)


    Subjects (controlled vocabulary terms)

    Genre/Formats (controlled vocabulary terms)


    Note: all bracketed text indicates supplied information, i.e. not transcribed from the item. Justification for supplied information is generally recorded in the Notes/Inscriptions section.
    Langsdorff, Georg Heinrich von (1773-1850) German, artist

    [A dance of Indians at Mission of San Jose, New California]

    [between 1806 and 1810]

    drawing on paper: ink wash highlighted with gouache

    22.4 x 28.2 cm.

    BANC PIC 1963.002:1023--FR

    Six Indians with elaborately painted and tattooed bodies, wearing native costumes and headdresses, dance in clearing near river. Possibly the earliest known view of Mission Indians at Mission San Jose, California.

    Supplied title. Handwritten title (LC): Ein Tanz der Indianer in der Mission in St. Jose in Neu-Californien. Signature (LR): Dessiné par G. de Langsdorff. Handwritten (UR): XIII. Also attributed to Tilesius von Tilenau (see Van Nostrand's California Pictorial). Ref. note: Langsdorff--German ed., Vol. II, Plate 10; text, p. 43; English edition, Vol. II, Plate 2; text, p. 48. Inscriptions in German.
    Subjects: California, Northern; Clothing & dress; Expeditions & surveys; Indians of North America; Manners & customs; Missions; San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.); Voyages to the Pacific.  
    Genre/Formats: Wash drawings; Travel sketches.  

    Explanation of Descriptive Elements

    Creator(s), dates, nationality, role (qualifying notes):All creators (artists, lithographers, etchers, engravers, publishers, printers, etc.) associated with the production of an item are listed by name; followed by dates (birth and death, or active dates), nationality (if known), and roles (if determined). Creator names and roles were cited based on authorship information as it appeared either in printed or handwritten form on the item. In cases where assignation of authorship did not appear directly on the item, a qualifying note indicating "attributed to," "in style of" or "based on original by" was provided following the creator information. Justification for assignation of authorship is given in the Notes/Inscriptions area. Name types (personal or corporate) are indexed within the finding aid.
    Creator biographies: [available in near future]:each entry is linked to brief biographical information compiled during collection processing and from variety of printed and online resources (see Bibliography).
    Title: titles were transcribed from the item or supplied. Locations (city, state, or country) and expansions of abbreviations were added to some transcribed titles for clarity. Foreign titles were transcribed in the Notes/Inscriptions area and an English equivalent supplied in the title area.
    Date: transcribed from item (either printed or in the hand of the artist) or supplied. The following date forms were used in this finding aid:
    1853 date certain
    1853? date probable
    c1850 date of copyright
    185- decade certain
    185-? decade probable
    18-- century certain
    18--? century probable
    Place of publication: transcribed from item or supplied, if known. In cases where place of publication is unknown or does not apply (as with original works of art), no information is recorded.
    Physical description: technique, support and medium. Ex.: Print on tinted paper: lithograph.
    Dimensions: height by width in centimeters to the nearest tenth. Other dimensions, such as irregular shapes (oval, dome, etc.), visible image (if full view obstructed), sheet or mount size (if significantly larger than image), folded (if published as such), etc., follow dimensions.
    Call Number -shelf location (qualifying notes): the call number consists of the collection number "1963.002" followed by a colon and the item number. This number is followed by two dashes and the shelving location. Example: 1963.002:0001--A. In some cases, this is followed by qualifying notes provided in parenthesis, including:
    • Copy: exact duplicate (digital representation not provided).
    • Variant: similar item or copy, with clear variation in size, color, creator, date, etc.
      • Note: multiple copies or variants are numbered sequentially, example: 1963.002:0001--A (variant 1).
    • Supplement: item that provides additional information related to another item, such as keys, modern reprints with supplementary notes, etc. (some digital representations not provided).
    • Enclosure: additional material shelved with item, such as reproductions, transcriptions, etc.
    • Recto: front, if images appear on both sides.
    • Verso: back, if images appear on both sides.
    • View: numbered or lettered views indicating relationship of several items to one another.
    Content/description: textual description of image and supplementary information adding to content. Major and minor subjects are mentioned. Uncontrolled and alternative vocabulary is used in order to complement controlled terms used in subject access section (see Controlled Access).
    Notes/inscriptions: includes information transcribed from item, preceded by the form (printed, handwritten, or supplied) and its location on item (see abbreviations below). Supplied information is indicated, as is justification for attributions and other descriptive information. Some copy, variant, supplement, and other explanatory notes are included here. Notes related to "Inventory Sheets" refer to J.A. Baird's Honeyman Collection Inventory Sheets (see History of Arrangement). Other reference notes are indicated by 'Ref. note'. Language of inscriptions, if other than English, was indentified.
    Abbreviations used for locations of transcribed notes:
    (UL) = upper left

    (UC) = upper center

    (UR) = upper right

    (ML) = middle left

    (MC) = middle center

    (MR) = middle right

    (LL) = lower left

    (LC) = lower center

    (LR) = lower right

    Controlled Access

    Controlled access is provided via lists of selected subject terms (topical and geographic) and genre/format terms which focus on the major themes and types of works represented in the collection. Access is provided to major subject themes through controlled vocabulary terms applied to each item record, while minor subjects themes (or alternate terms) were used in other descriptive areas, such as Title, Series, Content/description, and Notes/inscriptions. Controlled vocabulary genre/format terms provide access to broad genre types and formats, with more detailed description of the item's physical characteristics provided in the Physical description.
    The goal of this approach was to balance the use of both controlled and uncontrolled vocabulary in order to facilitate both controlled term and keyword searches. In order to maintain limited lists of controlled terms, personal and corporate names were not included in the list of subjects. An attempt was made, however, to use standardized name forms for personal and corporate names in the descriptive areas (see above). These name forms were drawn from sources including: LC Name Authority File, ULAN (Union List of Artist Names), and selected printed resources (see Bibliography.)
    Subject: topical and geographic subject terms were drawn from two sources: the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (hereafter cited as lctgm), primarily for topical terms, and the Library of Congress Subject Headings (hereafter cited as LCSH) primarily for geographical locations and ethnic terms not found in lctgm (the source of each term is noted within the finding aid mark-up).
    List of topical terms used:
    • Afro-Americans
    • Agriculture
    • Animals
    • Arms & armament
    • Bays
    • Bears
    • Bison
    • Buildings
    • Business enterprises
    • Camping
    • Cattle
    • Children
    • Chinese
    • Churches
    • Clothing & dress
    • Cowboys
    • Criminals
    • Discovery & exploration
    • Dwellings
    • Environmental degradation
    • Equipment
    • Events
    • Expeditions & surveys
    • Fires
    • Frontier & pioneer life
    • Funerary facilities
    • Fur trade
    • Gold rushes
    • Harbors
    • Horses
    • Hotels
    • Hunting
    • Indians of North America
    • Indigenous peoples
    • Industry
    • Interiors
    • Laborers
    • Lakes & ponds
    • Lumber industry
    • Manners & customs
    • Mexicans
    • Military facilities
    • Military personnel
    • Miners
    • Mining
    • Missions
    • Mountains
    • Nature
    • Overland journeys to the Pacific
    • Packtrains
    • Plants
    • Railroads
    • Ranches
    • Rites & ceremonies
    • Rivers
    • Settlements
    • Settlers
    • Spaniards
    • Vehicles
    • Vessels
    • Voyages to the Pacific
    • Water works
    • Waterfronts
    • Westward movement
    • Women
    List of geographical terms used:
    Terms designating major geographical areas (U.S. states, non-U.S. countries, and regions such as Oceania, Pacific Northwest, Central America, etc.) were applied to items representing specific locations. Because California is predominantly featured within the collection, the state was divided into California, Southern and California, Northern. Within these divisions, terms for major cities and regions were applied. Specific locations, not in the list of geographic terms below, may be found via keyword search.
    • Alaska
    • Arizona
    • Arkansas
    • Australia
    • Austria
    • Barbados
    • Bermuda Islands
    • Brazil
    • California, Northern
    • California, Southern
    • Canada
    • Canary Islands
    • Central America
    • Chile
    • Colorado
    • Costa Rica
    • Croatia
    • Cuba
    • Ecuador
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Italy
    • Jamaica
    • Japan
    • Kansas
    • Los Angeles region (Calif.)
    • Louisiana
    • Maine
    • Malta
    • Mexico
    • Monaco
    • Montana
    • Monterey Bay region (Calif.)
    • Monterey (Calif.)
    • Nebraska
    • Netherlands
    • Nevada
    • New Mexico (State)
    • New York
    • New Zealand
    • Nicaragua
    • Northwest, Pacific
    • Oceania
    • Oregon
    • Panama
    • Peru
    • Portugal
    • Russia
    • Sacramento (Calif.)
    • San Diego (Calif.)
    • San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)
    • San Francisco (Calif.)
    • Sierra Nevada (Calif. and Nev.)
    • South America
    • Spain
    • Tahiti
    • Utah
    • Washington (State)
    • West (U.S.)
    • Wyoming
    • Yosemite Valley (Calif.)
    Genre/Form: Genre and format terms were drawn from the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (hereafter cited as gmgpc).
    List of genre/format terms used:
    • Advertisements
    • Allegories
    • Architectural drawings
    • Artifacts
    • Bird's-eye views
    • Botanical illustrations
    • Broadsides
    • Caricatures
    • Cartoons (Commentary)
    • Certificates
    • Cityscapes
    • Clipper ship cards
    • Drawings
    • Engravings
    • Engravings, color
    • Ephemera
    • Etchings
    • Gouaches
    • Illustrations
    • Keys (Legends)
    • Landscapes
    • Lithographs
    • Lithographs, color
    • Maps
    • Marines (Visual works)
    • Oil paintings
    • Paintings
    • Panoramic views
    • Photographs
    • Photomechanical prints
    • Pictorial lettersheets
    • Portraits
    • Posters
    • Seascapes
    • Sheet music covers
    • Travel sketches
    • Wash drawings
    • Watercolors
    • Woodcuts
    • Zoological illustrations