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C. Hart Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, ca. 1890-1938
Microfilm: BANC FILM 2004 Originals: BANC PIC 1978.008--PIC  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Collection Summary
  • Information for Researchers
  • Administrative Information
  • Scope and Content
  • Biographical Sketch
  • Rationale of the Catalog System

  • Collection Summary

    Collection Title: C. Hart Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs,
    Date (inclusive): ca. 1890-1938
    Collection Number: Microfilm: BANC FILM 2004

    Originals: BANC PIC 1978.008--PIC
    Extent: 4,462 items 1441 digital objects
    Photographer: Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942
    Repository: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
    Berkeley, California 94720-6000
    Languages Represented: English

    Information for Researchers


    Viewing prints available on microfilm. Use of originals only by permission of the Curator of Pictorial Collections.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to The Bancroft Library. All requests for permission to publish photographs must be submitted in writing to the Head of the Pictorial Division. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Bancroft Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.
    Copyright restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], by Heizer's number (e.g. A/1a/P1 no. 1), C. Hart Merriam collection of Native American photographs, BANC PIC 1978.008, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

    Digital Representations Available

    Digital representations of selected original pictorial materials are available in the list of materials below. Digital image files were prepared from selected Library originals by the Library Photographic Service. Library originals were copied onto 35mm color transparency film; the film was scanned and transferred to Kodak Photo CD (by Custom Process); and the Photo CD files were color-corrected and saved in JFIF (JPEG) format for use as viewing files.

    Related Material

    Title: C. Hart Merriam pictorial collection:
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC PIC 1980.023--PIC
    Title: C. Hart Merriam papers:
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 80/18 c
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 83/129 c
    (both available on microfilm only)
    Title: Florence Merriam Bailey papers:
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 79/139 c
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS 82/46 z
    Merriam's home and field journals, 1873-1938, and other papers are located at the Library of Congress, Manuscripts Division.

    Administrative Information

    Acquisition Information

    The C. Hart Merriam collection of Indian photographs was transferred from the Dept. of Anthropology in 1977.

    Scope and Content

    The photographs in this collection accompanied a collection of material described by Robert Heizer in his "Catalogue of the C. Hart Merriam Collection of Data Concerning California Tribes and Other American Indians." (This manuscript collection is available on microfilm with call number BANC FILM 1022.) Heizer's guide arranged the photographs by tribe, according to a system devised for the manuscripts. This arrangement is described below. In 1978 Lawrence Dinnean, Pictorial Curator of The Bancroft Library, reviewed the collection, removing numerous duplicate photographs and produced a new listing that followed the general structure of Heizer's guide. Dinnean assigned a collection number and numbered the photographs according to this collection number. The structure of his system was the collection number (1978.008) followed by a group number that corresponded to Heizer's picture number (P1, P2, etc.), followed by an item number. This resulted in catalog numbers like 1978.008.1.1, 1978.008.2.3, etc. This cumbersome system has been dropped in the current finding aid and the pictures are identified solely by Heizer's system (see "Rationale of the Catalog System" below).
    Merriam was a good photographer and this collection of his work is an important one. The collection, consisting mostly of prints, is primarily photographs taken during Merriam's work documenting the languages of California Indian tribes. The photographs are mostly of the people and places Merriam encountered in his work. The arrangement by tribe provides unique access to these latter photographs, allowing one to see the locations members of these tribes inhabited.
    The collection also contains a number of miscellaneous photographs likely given to Merriam by persons who knew of his interest in Indians. These are largely Alaskan tribes, and a few Southwestern tribes, unidentified people, scenery, tools, and objects. Also included are photographs and other pictorial material (110 items altogether) from the Alaska Harriman Expedition in 1899. Additional photographs of the Expedition can be found in collection number BANC PIC 1980.23.
    1,447 photographs of members of Californian tribes have been digitized and made available on the Internet. None of the non-Californian material found in the "Miscellaneous Photographs" portion of the finding aid has been digitized.

    Biographical Sketch

    1855 Born in New York, December 5 to Clinton Levi Merriam, a merchant, banker, and member of Congress and Caroline Hart Merriam. Siblings include an older brother, Charles Collins Merriam and younger sister Florence Merriam. Florence married an associate of C. Hart's, Vernon Bailey.
    1872 Naturalist on the Hayden Survey of the territories.
    1877 A Review of the Birds of Connecticut published.
    1879-1885 Received M.D. Columbia University. Practiced medicine for 6 years.
    1883 Surgeon on S.S. Proteus Arctic Seal Fishery from Newfoundland.
    1884 Mammals of the Adirondacks published.
    1885-1910 Appointed Special Agent in charge of Economic Ornithology under the Division of Entomology of the Dept. of Agriculture. This Division evolves into the U.S. Biological Survey, of which Merriam is named chief. He holds the position for 25 years.
    1886 October 15. Marries Virginia Elizabeth Gosnel.
    1889 U.S. Biological Survey to the San Francisco Mountains, Arizona. The life zone concepts are developed.
    1890 May 21. Daughter Dorothy born.
    1891 Appointed by President Harrison to a commission to investigate the problems of pelagic sealing in the Bering Sea.
    1891-1892 President, Biological Society of Washington
    1892 April 14. Daughter Zenaida born.
    1898 U.S. Biological Survey of Mount Shasta, California.
    1899 Harriman Alaska Expedition
    1900-1902 President, American Ornithologist's Union
    1905 Indian Population of California published.
    1907 Distribution and Classification of the Mewan Indians of California published.
    1910 Resigns from U.S. Biological Survey. Begins biological and ethnological investigations with Harriman special trust fund. Ethnological work is primarily with California Indian tribes. Continues until 1936.
    1910 Dawn of the World published.
    1917-1925 Chairman, U.S. Board on Geographic Names
    1919-1921 President, American Society of Mammalogists
    1920-1921 President, Anthropological Society of Washington
    1924-1925 President, American Society of Naturalists
    1928 An-nik-a-del, the History of the Universe, as told by the Modes-se Indians of California published.
    1931 Receives Roosevelt Medal "for distinguished work in biology."
    1942 Dies in Berkeley, Calif., March 19 at age of 86.

    Rationale of the Catalog System

    In 1966 there was published Heizer, Robert F. Languages, Territories and Names of California Indians. University of California Press, 1966 (vii, 1-62, 5 maps) a list and map of California tribal groups organized by linguistic stock as identified by Dr. Merriam. This classification was used as the basis for the arrangement of the manuscript material and has therefore also been used for the pictorial material. The list is reproduced below for easy reference. Each linguistic stock has been assigned a letter of the alphabet in the order in which it appears in the list; thus, A is for Athapascan, B is for Polikla (Yurok), C is for Soolahteluk (Wiyot) and so on. Tribal groups are numbered in the appended list which is both a classification and a map key. The finding aid has the following format:
    1a. Tolowa  
    Reel Pic. No. Vol Contents
    1 P1 1 John Lopez; Hah-wun-kwat village; 22 July 1934; 2 prints, 2 negatives
    From the above listing one extracts the following catalog number:
    • A/1a/P1: Read as Athapascan stock/Tolowa tribe/Picture no. 1
    The final element of the classification system (P1, P2, etc.) can refer to either a single photograph or a group of photographs. Reel refers to the microfilm reel where the viewing print can be found. Location refers to the shelf location of the original. All originals are shelved as PIC in volumes unless otherwise indicated.

    C. Hart Merriam's Classification of California Indian Tribes

    List adapted from Heizer, Robert F. Languages, Territories and Names of California Indians. University of California Press, 1966, (pp. 37-47)
    • A. Athapascan Stock
      • 1a. Tolowa or Huss
      • Hoopa group (Hupa)
        • 1b. Hoopa or Tin'-nung-hen-na'-o
        • 1c. Ma'-we-nok
        • 1d. 'Hwil'-kut (Whilkut)
        • 1e. Tsa'-nung-wha
      • Wilakke group (Wailaki) or Nung'-hahl (Nongatl)
        • 1f. Mat-tol' (Mattole)
        • 1g. Lo-lahn'-kok
        • 1h .To-cho'-be
        • 1i. Lassick or Ket-tel' (Lassik)
        • 1j. Set-ten-bi'-den
        • 1k. Tsen-nah'-ken-nes
        • 1l. Che-teg'-ge-kah
        • 1m. Bah-ne-ko ke'-ah
        • 1n. Nek'-kan-ni (Bear River)
        • 1o. Kahto or To-chil-pe-ke'ah-hahng
    • B. Polikla Stock (Yurok)
      • 2a . Ner'-er-ner' (Coast Yurok)
      • 2b. Polikla (Yurok)
    • C. Soolahteluk Stock (Wiyot)
      • 3a. Pah'-te-wat
      • 3b. We'-ke
      • 3c. We'-yot
    • D. Yukean Stock
      • Northwestern or Coast Division
        • 4a. Oo'-ko-ton-til'-kah
      • Round Valley Division
        • 4b. Oo'-ko-ton-til'-kah
        • 4c. Kah'-shut-sit'-nu
      • Upper South Eel Division
        • 4d. Hootch'-nom
        • 4e. Wet-oo'-kum-nom
        • 4f. Tah'-too or Nar'-ko-po-mah
        • 4g. On-kal-oo'-kum-nom (Onkolukomnom)
    • E. Southern Division (Wappo)/Mi-yahk'-mah (Makoma)
      • 4h. Mish'-a-wel band
      • 4i. Moo'-tis'-tool band
      • 4j. Mi-yahk-mah band
      • 4k. Lil'-lak
    • F. Lutuamean Stock
      • 5a. Mo'-dok
    • G. Shastan Stock
      • 6a. Ko'-no-me'-ho (Konomihu)
      • 6b. Wah-te'-roo
      • 6c. Ke'-kahts (Kikatsik)
      • 6d. O-kwahn'-noo-choo
      • 6e. Hah-to-ke'-he-wuk
      • 6f. Tlo'-hom-tah'-hoi (New River Shasta)
    • H. Achomawan Stock
      • 7a. A-choo'-mah'-we
      • 7b. As-tah-ke-wi'-che (Astakiwi)
      • 7c. At-wum'-we
      • 7d. Ham-mah'-we
      • 7e. Ha'-we-si'-doo
      • 7f. Il-mah'-we
      • 7g. Ko-se-al-lek'-te
      • 7h. Mo-des'-se (mahdesi)
      • 7i. To-mal-lin'-che-moi'
      • 7j. At-soo-ka-e (Atsugewi)
      • 7k. Ap-woo'-ro-ka'-e
      • 7l. A-me'-che
      • 7m. E-poo'-de
    • I. Karok Stock
      • 8a. Ar'-rahr
      • 8b. Kah-rah'-ko-hah (Karok)
    • J. Tlohomtahhoi Stock
      • 9a. Tlo'-hom-tah'-hoi (New River Shasta)
    • K. Chemareko Stock
      • 10a. Chemareko
    • L. Yahnah Stock
      • 11a. Yah'-nah
    • M. Pomo Stock
      • Northern Division or Family
        • 12a. Mah'-to-po'-mah
        • 12b. Me-tum'-mah
        • 12c. Kah'-be-tsim'-me-po'-mah
        • 12d. Po-mo'-ke-chah'
        • 12e. Mah-soo'-tah-ke'-ah (Masut)
        • 12f. Mah-too'-go
        • 12g. Ki-yow'-bahch (Kaiyau)
      • Yokiah-Boyah Division
        • 12h. Boyah
        • 12i.Tah'-bah-ta'
        • 12j. Lah'-ta
        • 12k. Kan-no'-ah
        • 12l. Yo-ki'-ah
        • 12m. She-a'-ko (Shiego)
        • 12n. Sho-ko'-ah or Sha-nel
        • 12o. Den-nol'-yo-keah
        • 12p. Yo-buk'-ka'-ah (Yobutui)
      • Kah-chi'-ah Division
        • 12q. Kah-chi-ah
      • Mah'-kah-mo-chum'-mi or We-shum'-tat-tah Division.
        • 12r. Mah-kah-mo-chum'-mi
        • 12s. Shah-kow'-we-chum'-mi
        • 12t. We'-shah'-chum-mi
        • 12u. Me-hin-kow'-nah
        • 12v. We-shum'-tat-tah
      • Han-nah -bah- ch or Clear Lake Division
        • 12w. Dan-no'-kah
        • 12x. She'-kum (Shigom)
        • 12y. Bo-al-ke'-ah
        • 12z. Ku'-lan-na'-po
        • 12aa. Ha'-be-nap'-po (Khabenapo)
      • Sho-te'-ah or Stony Creek Division
        • 12bb. Sho-te'-ah (Cheetido)
      • Ham-fo or Lower Lake Division
        • 12cc. Ham'-fo (Anamfo)
    • N. Chumash Stock
      • 13a. Ah'-moo
      • 13b. Kah'-she-nahs-moo
      • 13c. Kah'-sah-kom-pe'-ah
      • 13d.Kas'-swah (Cashwah)
      • 13e. Chu-mahs
      • 13f. Hool'-koo-koo
      • 13g. Tso-yin'-ne ah-koo
    • O. Yuman Stock
      • 14a. Mohave
      • 14b. Kam'-me-i
      • 14c. Tis-se'-pah
      • 14d. Diegue*o
      • 14f. Es-kah'-ti
    • P. Washoo Stock
      • 15a. Washoo
    • Q. Esselen Stock
      • 16a. Esselen
    • R. Ennesen Stock (Salinan)
      • 17a. Antoniano or Kah-tri-tam(?)
      • 17b. Migueleno or Te-po-trahl(?)
      • 17c. Lahm-kah-trahm (?)
    • S. Olhonean Stock (Costanoan)
      • 18a. Hor-de-on
      • 18b. Hoo'-mon-twash
      • 18c. Moot-soon'
      • 18d. Achestah
      • 18e. Kah'-koon or Room-se-en
      • 18f. Yak-shoon
    • T. Wintoon Stock
      • Northern Wintoon
        • 19a. Wintu or Num'soos Wintoo
        • 19b. Num'-te-pom' or Wintoon proper
        • 19c. Nor'-rel-muk (Normuk)
        • 19d. Ni-i'-che
        • 19e. Daw'-pum
      • Nom-lak-ke or Central Division
        • 19f. Nom'-lak-ke
        • 19g. Wi-e'-ker'-ril band
        • 19h. Dah'-chin-chin'-ne
        • 19i. Te-ha'-mah
        • 19j. No-e-muk (Norelmuk?)
        • 19k. No-mel'-te-ke'-we (Nomecult?)
      • Southern Division (Patwin)
        • 19l. Choo-hel'-mem-shel
        • 19m. Chen'-po-sel
        • 19n. Lol'-sel band
        • 19o. Klet'-win
        • 19p. Ko-pa or Win (Copeh)
        • 19q. Nan'-noo-ta'-we or Nap'-pa
        • 19r. Ko'-roo (Korusi)
        • 19s. Pat'-win
        • 19t. Poo'-e-win
    • U. Midoo Stock
      • Northern Division
        • 20a. Mitchopdo
        • 20b. No'-to-koi-yu
        • 20c. Sa-ap-kahn-ko band
        • 20e. Oso'-ko band
      • Central Division
        • 20f. Kon'-kow or Ti'-mah (Concow)
        • 20g. Tahn'-kum
        • 20h. Kow'-wahk
        • 20i. Kum-mo'-win
      • Southern Division or Nissenan
        • 20j. To-sim' -me-nan
        • 20k. Ho'-mah band
        • 20l. Nis'-sim Pa'-we-nan
        • 20m. Nis'-se-nan
        • 20n. No-to'-mus'-se band
        • 20o. Es'-to Nis' e-nan band
    • V. Mewan Stock (Miwok)
      • Me-wuk or Sierra tribes (3 divisions)
        • 21a. Northern Me'-wuk
        • 21b. Hoo-ka-go band
        • 21c. Middle Me'-wuk
        • 21d. Southern Me'-wuk
        • 21e. Po-ho'-ne-che band
      • Mew-ko or Plains tribes
        • 21f. Hul-pom'-ne (Hulpumni)
        • 21g. Mo-koz'-um-ne (Mokosumni)
        • 21h. O '-che-hak (Ochehamni?)
        • 21i. Wi'-pa (Guaypem; Khulpuni )
        • 21j. Han-ne'-suk
        • 21k.Yatch-a-chum'-ne (Yachikamne)
        • 21l. Mo-kal'-um-ne (Mokelumni)
        • 21m. Chil-um'-ne
        • 21n. Si'-a-kum'-ne (Sakayakumne)
        • 21o. Tu-ol'-um-ne
        • 21p. Saclan
      • In-ne-ko or Coast tribes (Coast Miwok)
        • 21q. Tu-le-yo'-me
        • 21r. Hoo-koo c'-ko
        • 21s. Olamentko
        • 21t. Le-kah'-te-wuk (Likatuit)
    • W. Yokut Stock
      • 22a. Heu'-che
      • 22b. Chow-chil'-lah
      • 22c. Chuck-chan'-sy
      • 22d. To-ko'-lo band (?) (Toholo)
      • 22e. Tal-lin'-che (Dalinchi)
      • 22f. Pit-kah'-che
      • 22g. Toom '-nah band (Dumna)
      • 22h. Ketch-a'-ye
      • 22i. Kum'-nah
      • 22j. Kosh-sho'-o or Ko-shon (Kassoyo, Gashowu?)
      • 22k. Ho-ye'-mah
      • 22l. Chu-ki'-ah
      • 22m. Cho-e-nim'-ne
      • 22n. Wa'-cha-kut (Wechikit?)
      • 22o. Cho-ki'-min-nah (Chuk amina)
      • 22p. No-to'-no-to (Nutunutu)
      • 22q. Tah'-che
      • 22r. Wik-chum'-ne
      • 22s. Ka-we'-ahs (Kawia)
      • 22t. Ta-dum'-ne (Telamni)
      • 22u. Choo'-nut
      • 22v. Choi'-nook or Cho'-nook or Choo'-enu or Wa-da'-she
      • 22w. Yo'-kol or Yo-o'-kul or Yo'-a-kud'-dy
      • 22x. Yow-lan'-che (Yaulanchi)
      • 22y. No-chan'-itch band
      • 22z. Ko-yet'-te
      • 22aa Pal-low'-yam'-me (Paleuyami)
      • 22bb. Wo'-wul (Wolasi)
      • 22cc. Yow'-el-man'-ne (Yaulmani)
      • 22dd. Tin'-lin-ne (Tinlinin)
      • 22ee. Too-lol'-min
      • 22ff. Ye-wum'-ne or Pah-ah'-se
      • 22gg. Ham-met-wel'-le (Hometwoli)
      • 22hh. Tu-lum'-ne (Telamni?)
    • X. Shoshone Stock
      • 23a. Northern Piute
      • 23b. Koo-tsab'-be dik'-ka (Mono Lake)
      • 23c. Pahng'-we-hoo'-tse
      • Monache Piute /Western Monache
        • 23d. Nim or Monache
        • 23e. Posh-ge'-sha
        • 23f. Kwe'-tah
        • 23g. Too-hook'-mutch
        • 23h. Ko-ko-he'-ba band
        • 23i. Toi-ne'-che band (Toihicha, Talinchi)
        • 23j. Hol'-ko-mah band
        • 23k. To-win-che'-ba band
        • 23l. Wo'-pon-nutch
        • 23m. En'-tim-bitch
        • 23n. Wuksa-che' (Waksachi)
        • 23o. Pot-wish'-ah (Balwisha)
      • Owens Lake Monache Piute
        • 23p. Kwe'-nah-pat'-se band
        • 23q. Ut'-te-ur-re-we'-te
        • 23r. To'-bo-ah-hax-ze
        • 23s. Chuk'-ke-sher-ra'-ka
        • 23t. No'-no-pi-ah
      • Panamints
        • 23u. Pak'-wa-sitch
        • 23v. Moo-et'-tah (Muah?)
      • Southern Piute
        • 23w. New-oo'-ah (Kawaiisu)
        • 23x. Tol-chin'-ne
        • 23y. Nu-vah'-an-dits
        • 23z. Chem-e-we'-ve'
      • Ke-tahn-na-mwits or Serrano
        • 23aa. Ke-tah'-na'-mwits (Kitanemuk)
        • 23bb. Pur'-ve'-tum or Pur-vit-tem
        • 23cc. Yo-hah'-ve-tum
        • 23dd. Mah'-re-ah-ne-um or Mah'-ring-i-um or Mo'-he-ah'-ne-um
      • Kah-we-sik-tem or Cahuilla
        • 23ee. Koos'-tam
        • 23ff. Wah'-ne-ke'-tam or Mahl'-ke
        • 23gg. Kah-we-sik'-tem
        • 23hh. Pan'-yik-tem
        • 23ii Wah-ko-chim'-kut-tem
        • 23jj. Sow'-wis-pah-kik'-tem
        • 23kk. Pow'-we-yam
        • 23ll. We-is'-tem
      • Koo'-pah
        • 23mm. Koo'-pah
      • A-katch'-mah or Luiseño
        • 23nn. A-katch'-mah
        • 23oo. Pi-yum'-ko
        • 23pp. So-bo'-ba
    • Y. Tongva Stock
      • 24a. Tongva (Gabrielino)
    • Z. Tubotelobela Stock
      • 25a. Pahn'-ka-la'-che (Bankalachi)
      • 25b. Tu'-bot-e-lob'-e-la (Tubatulabal)