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Register of the Japan, Koshikan (Korea) records
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Access
  • Publication Rights
  • Preferred Citation
  • Related Collection(s)
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • Organization And Order
  • Entry And Annotation
  • Index
  • Romanization
  • Chronology
  • Sources for the Chronology

  • Title: Japan, Koshikan (Korea) records
    Date: 1894-1910
    Collection Number: 48022
    Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Archives
    Language of Material: Mainly in Japanese
    Physical Description: 7 cubic foot boxes, 23 microfilm reels (8.8 linear feet)
    Abstract: Photocopies of originals no longer extant. Correspondence, dispatches, instructions, reports, treaties, agreements, lists, and charts relating to Japanese-Korean relations, and to the internal administration and foreign affairs of Korea. Includes reports of the Japanese Residency General (1906-1910) and Government-General (1910) in Korea. Also available online at http://koreanhistory.or.kr/ .
    Language of the Materials : Mainly in Japanese.
    Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives
    Creator: Japan. Koshikan (Korea)


    Collection open for research. Boxes stored off site; a minimum of two days notice is required for use. Boxes may be requested through Stanford University's online catalog at http://searchworks.stanford.edu/  The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

    Publication Rights

    For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Japan, Koshikan (Korea) Records, [Box no.], Hoover Institution Archives.

    Related Collection(s)

    Also available online at http://koreanhistory.or.kr/ . Published versions of the material also available at Stanford's East Asia Library: Chuhan Ilbon Kongsagwan Kirok (駐韓日本公使館記錄)  or Chuhan Ilbon Kongsagwan kirok (駐韓日本公使館記錄) 


    The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace at Stanford University undertook in 1954 to publish guides which would give to the scholars and students a possibility of getting acquainted with the holdings of its Library. Two separate series were designed to fulfill this task: a) the Collection Surveys, of which three issues appeared to-date, * and b) the Bibliographical Series, continuing a series begun before World War II. **
    The Collection Surveys deal with particular area collections. They describe the holdings with a view to topical concentration and chronological order. The surveys are not lists of materials contained in the particular area collections; they do, however, contain titles of the most important source material as well as selective lists of newspaper and periodical holdings. In addition, they attempt to evaluate the collections for research purposes, and to indicate their strengths and shortcomings.
    The issues of the Bibliographical Series contain detailed lists of the Library's holdings on particular subjects and problems which might be of special interest to scholars and students. Their value to scholars is enhanced by annotations discussing each listed item.
    The present publication is the fifth in this Bibliographical Series. Its preparation and publication is to be particularly welcomed, because it makes available to scholars a unique body of material which the Hoover Institution has been privileged to help preserve. In 1948 the Hoover Library received an urgent plea from the Director of the Korean National History Museum to help photostat a group of archival materials that were gradually fading, namely the archives of the Japanese Legation in Seoul and of the Japanese Residency-General in Korea for the crucial period of 1894 to 1910. These were indeed indispensable for the study of modern Korean and Japanese history and of Far Eastern international relations from the Sino-Japanese War to the annexation of Korea in 1910. The necessary photographic supplies were shipped immediately and two copies were made: one for the Korean National History Museum, and the other for the Hoover Institution.
    For ten years these archives remained largely unknown and unused; for lack of organization, only a few scholars and graduate students utilized them during this period. In 1958 Dr. Peter A. Berton, Acting Curator of the Japanese and Korean Collections, took the initiative in organizing the archives. Under his direction, Andrew C. Nahm, a native of Korea, a Ph. D. candidate in history at Stanford University, and a staff member of the Japanese and Korean Collections in the Hoover Institution, prepared this checklist and index to the archives. The compilation of the annotated list was facilitated by a grant received from the Committee on East Asian Research of Stanford University.
    It is our hope that the present publication will make this valuable collection readily available to scholars throughout the country and abroad. We shall welcome comment and suggestions.
    Witold S. Sworakowski
    Assistant Director

    The Hoover Institution

    December, 1959


    1. Witold S. Sworakowski, The Hoover Library Collection on Russia, Stanford 1954, 42 p.
    2. Hildegard R. Boeninger, The Hoover Library Collection on Germany, Stanford, 1955, 56 p.
    3. No. 3: Nobutaka Ike: The Hoover Institution Collection on Japan. Stanford, 1958, 63 p.


    1. A Catalogue of Paris Peace Conference Delegation Propaganda in the Hoover War Library. Stanford, 1926, 96 p. (out of print)
    2. Nina Almond and Ralph Haswell Lutz, An Introduction to a Bibliography of the Paris Peace Conference. Stanford, 1935, 32 p. (out of print)
    3. Frederick W. Mote, Japanese-Sponsored Governments in China; 1937-1945. Stanford, 1954, 68 p. (out of print)
    4. Eugene Wu, Leaders of Twentieth-Century China. (Bibliography of Biographies) Stanford, 1956, 106 p.


    The history of Japanese penetration into Korea and the gradual take over of the peninsula remains to be written. To a large extent this is due to the lack of documentation, as up to the end of the Second World War the Japanese zealously guarded their records and kept them secret. Most of the Japanese archives dealing with Japanese policy and activity in Korea were stored in the Archives and Documents Section of the Japanese Government-General in Seoul, and even Japanese scholars were unable to consult them. In 1940, however, the Government-General's Office for the Compilation of Korean History (Chosen Sotofuku Chosen Shi Henshukai) which had up to that time published a number of documentary volumes on pre-modern Korean history, was allowed to examine the records in the custody of the Government-General for the purpose of compiling a history of modern Korea. For the next few years this group selected and photographed some one hundred thousand pages of the most important documents covering the period from the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 to the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910. Plans to continue the reproduction of archives beyond 1910 were dropped owing to the scarcity of photographic supplies during the Pacific War. In August 1945, at the time of the surrender, the Japanese authorities burned the original documents in the Government-General, as well as the photostats in the possession of the history group.
    Fortunately, Mr. Shin Sok-ho, the senior Korean scholar on the project, at a risk to his life managed to remove the photographic plates and bury them in his garden. After the arrival of the American troops, these plates were placed in the National History Museum, which was then organized for the purpose of collecting, editing and publishing materials on Korean history. The plates, however, gradually deteriorated and in 1948 Professor Shin Sokho, by that time the Director of the Museum, appealed to the Hoover Institution for photographic supplies in order to make a new set of prints from the original plates before they would completely deteriorate. The Hoover Institution responded immediately and two sets of positive prints were made, one each for the Korean National History Museum and the Hoover Institution. The Korean set of these documents, however, was not yet safe. During the Korean War the original plates and a part of the prints were destroyed, making a portion of the Hoover Institution collection unique. Unfortunately, in a few years as a result of poor photographic work the Hoover set began to discolor. In 1957, Dr. Nobutaka Ike, Curator of the Japanese and Korean Collections, arranged for the microfilming of all the prints, thus preserving this important body of archival material.
    These archives are basic source material for the study of the history of modern Korea, international relations in the Far East, and Japanese policy and actions in Korea during the critical fifteen years preceding the annexation. They also portray, in some detail, the political and economic policies and activities of Russia, the United States, Great Britain, France and other countries in Korea, as well as Korean domestic politics. The collection consists of some five hundred folders of documents of the Japanese Legation in Seoul (1894-1905), the Japanese Residency General in Korea (1906-1910), and a few documents of the Japanese Government-General that extend a few years beyond 1910. The documents include Japanese diplomatic correspondence originating in the Foreign Office in Tokyo, in the Seoul Legation and in the various Japanese consulates in Korea, as well as in other Japanese diplomatic and consular posts. The folders contain instructions emanating from Tokyo to Japanese missions in Korea; reports submitted to Tokyo by Japanese diplomatic and consular staff in Korea; records of conversations of Japanese diplomats with Korean officials and with foreign diplomats in Korea; diplomatic correspondence of the Korean government with Japan and with other foreign countries; instructions to Japanese military and police commanders in Korea and their reports to Tokyo; copies of letters to and from the American, Russian, British, French and other diplomatic personnel in Korea (some of them in the original language); drafts and texts of treaties and agreements, lists, charts, and personal correspondence.
    Despite the fact that these important documents have been available for some ten years, not many scholars have used them. Only a few Stanford graduate students and visiting scholars have consulted these materials, partly because lack of an index made it extremely difficult to use them. One had to go through thousands of pages to find the needed references. In the spring of 1958, shortly after assuming the Curatorship of the Japanese and Korean Collections, the present writer proposed to compile an accurate checklist and an analytical index to the documents in order to make these historical materials readily available to scholars. Special research assistance funds were provided by the Committee on East Asian Research of Stanford University, while the Hoover Institution assumed all publication costs. The work to prepare annotations for each document file and to compile an index was assigned to Mr. Andrew C. Nahm.
    In order to ascertain the availability of accurate checklists and indices to these archives in Korea, an attempt was made, in June 1958, to contact Professor Shin Sok-ho, then the Director of the Korean Committee for the Compilation of National History and also the President of the Historical Society of Korea. In the meantime the annotation and indexing of the Hoover Collection went forward. In February 1959 we were fortunate to receive from Professor Shin the first two issues of Sahak yongu (The Study of History), a quarterly published by the Historical Society of Korea in Seoul. The first issue, which was dated August 15, 1958, contained a list of the archives in question and brief descriptive annotations covering the folders for the first two years. The second issue (December 1958) continued the coverage up to 1900. The third issue which appeared shortly thereafter in the spring of 1959 included the document annotations for the period up to 1903. It is expected that the subsequent issues of the journal will bring the series up to 1910. No index has appeared so far. The list published in the first issue of Sahak yongu differed from the lists sent to the Hoover Institution from Korea in 1948. Subsequently we also received from Professor Shin a new and revised "Master List of Titles of Documents of Japanese Secret Archives in Korea." Unfortunately this new list differed from the list published in Sahak yongu and from the old Korean lists, and both showed discrepancies when checked against the folders annotated in the journal.
    Nevertheless, with Professor Shin's cooperation we have attempted to compile a comprehensive list of all the extant files, whether at the Hoover Institution or in the collection of the Committee for the Compilation of National History in Seoul. As a result of this work, an Addendum was prepared which lists all the folders identified from the above-mentioned lists of extant files, and at the same time the Index to our Checklist was expanded to include also this Addendum. (Since many folders have similar titles, there may be some duplication.) Most of the files listed in the Addendum have been located in Korea and it is hoped that they will be microfilmed and added to our collection. The folders which are in the Hoover Institution and no longer available in Korea have been reproduced and sent to the National History Museum in Seoul.
    There are 294 folders in the Archives, and 139 in the Addendum. Of the latter, thirty items appeared only in the new Korean "Master List" while three others appeared only in the first issue of Sahak yòngu. The Archives lists folders totalling over 33,000 frames (over 66,000 pages of documents). The Addendum lists folders totalling 10,324 frames (over 20,600 pages of documents) plus a number of folders which give no indication of the number of frames. The total number of pages in all the folders listed in Part I is probably close to one hundred thousand.
    The annotations are descriptive rather than critical, and selective rather than comprehensive. Emphasis was placed on Korean foreign relations (especially with Japan), and the policies toward Korea and actions in Korea of Japan, China, Russia and other powers. Additional topics such as Korean internal politics were covered only partially, as listing all the topics dealt with the documents would have enlarged the size of the checklist substantially.
    The appendices were provided to facilitate the use of the documents. While some of the information contained in them was readily available, others involved extensive research and compilation. The chronology (Appendix I), averaging some twenty entries per year, is based on Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Russian and American sources. Its purpose is to provide additional reference data for the users of this checklist; hence the selection of dates was primarily motivated by the topics found in the documents. It was not planned as a chronology of the most important events in modern Korean history and Far Eastern international relations.
    Photographic prints and microfilms of all the documents listed in here as "Archives" can be consulted at the Hoover Institution. Microfilms of individual reels may be ordered by mail.
    Finally, it remains to acknowledge with thanks the generous assistance of the Committee on East Asian Research of Stanford University, the friendly help of the staff members of the Hoover Institution's Japanese and Korean, and Chinese Collections, as well as the cooperation of the staff of the East Asiatic Library, University of California at Berkeley, who put at our disposal the valuable Asami Collection and their other rich source materials on Korean history.
    Peter A. Berton

    Organization And Order

    1. The documents listed in Part I consist of two parts: Archives and Addendum. Those in the Archives are at present available at the Hoover Institution. The Addendum lists documents identified from several lists of the photographic prints of the Japanese secret documents in Korea. All of the folders listed in the Addendum are in Korea, but arrangements are being made to microfilm and add them to the Hoover Institution collection.
    2. The photographic prints of the documents in Part I were grouped together, when the prints were made in Korea, in "folders" roughly according to subject matter. Each folder is numbered consecutively in more or less chronological sequence.
    3. A photographic print containing two pages of original documents is called "frame" for convenience. Each frame (not to be mistaken with the microfilm frame) in the folder, except for a few, is numbered consecutively. The number of frames given at the end of each entry is the number of photographic prints in each folder. The right side of each frame is referred to as "a" and the left as "b". Some frames are not numbered.
    4. Each microfilm frame contains four frames, i.e., four photographic prints, arranged in the order of the folder number except in Reels No. 18 and No. 19.
    5. The Addendum is likewise arranged according to folder numbers. Three sources were used in compiling the Addendum. The first was a "List of Missing Folders" prepared by the compiler by comparing the holdings of the Hoover Institution against the list of materials which came from Korea in 1948. This "List of Missing Folders" contains the folder numbers and titles of those folders which have not been received by the Hoover Institution. The second was a new chronologically arranged "Master List" of the entire archives prepared in 1958 by the Historical Society of Korea. The third was Sahak yongu (The Study of History), a journal published by the Historical Society of Korea in Seoul, which contained a chronologically arranged "General List" of the folders of the entire archives in issue No. 1 (Aug. 1958). Annotations for these folders are being published in this and subsequent issues of Sahak yongu.

    Entry And Annotation

    6. Each entry in the Archives gives: (1) a free English translation of the title of the folder with western date(s), (2) the original Japanese title in parentheses with the Japanese date(s) at the head, (3) number of frames in the folder, (4) the microfilm reel number in which the folder was microfilmed, (5) annotation of the documents, (6) physical description of the frames in the folder, such as illegible, unnumbered, or damaged frames, in addition to information relating to missing frames, and numbers of frames containing documents written in languages other than Chinese or Japanese, and (7) the inclusive dates of the documents.
    7. The entries in the Addendum give information similar to those in the Archives. However, since no photographic copies of the documents were available to the compiler, and only less than the half of the numbers of the "missing folders" were annotated in Sahak yongu (see Nos. 1-3), he was unable to provide information relating to items (4), (5), (6), in the foregoing paragraph.
    8. In the Addendum, following the folder numbers, certain information is given in parentheses, e.g. (1894-4). For the most part this information was secured from the chronologically arranged "Master List" (see 5 above). This "Master List" arranged the documents by year, and within each year, the documents are numbered consecutively. The numbering, unfortunately, does not correspond to the original folder number. For example, Folder No. 1 "Reports on the suppression of the Tonghak Rebellion, 1894 (Meiji 27-nen Togakuto seito ni kansuru shohohoku)" is the 4th entry under 1894 in the "Master List." In Folders No. 531-533 the prefix SY has been used. This prefix refers to Sahak yongu (No. 1, Aug. 1958). This was necessary because in these three instances there appears to be a discrepancy between the "Master List" and the "General List" (see 5 above). In these three cases, the annotation was taken from Sahak yongu.
    9. Some folders in the Addendum do not have the additional information in parentheses described in the preceding paragraph. The titles of these folders do not correspond to the titles in either the "Master List" or the "General List" prepared by the Historical Society of Korea in Seoul. While it is possible that these folders may no longer be in existence (many folders were destroyed during the Korean War) they are listed for reference.
    10. The annotation indicates the most important subjects contained in the folder. To facilitate finding the documents, the subjects are listed in order of appearance. The annotation also gives the dates of the earliest and the latest documents. No annotation was made when the title was self-explanatory.
    11. Some folder titles bear no relation to the contents of the folders, and in these instances, correct information is given in the annotation.
    12. Japanese Legation always means the Japanese Legation in Korea.
    13. Although Gaibu means literally the Korean "Foreign Office," it was often rendered as "Korean government," because many of the Japanese Legation papers sent to Gaibu were actually addressed to Korean Prime Ministers.


    14. The Archives and the Addendum are both indexed.
    15. The Index comprises subject information obtained from the titles of the folders and from the annotations; in addition it includes geographical and personal names mentioned in the documents themselves.
    16. Since practically all the documents deal with Japanese-Korean relations, this subject was not indexed except for several important Japanese-Korean treaties and agreements.
    17. Korean relations with other foreign countries appear under "Korea, relations with..." See also entries beginning with the word "American," "British," "Russian," etc.
    18. The subject "Rebellions and uprisings" includes also local disturbances.
    19. A separate index, "Language Index," lists the folders which include documents in languages other than Japanese and Chinese.


    20. Romanization systems used: Revised Hepburn, Wade-Giles, and McCune-Reischauer (except well-established geographical names such as Seoul, Inchon, Pyongyang or Tokyo).
    Andrew C. Nahm


    1. NOTES
    2. Some dates are dates of arrival in Korea.
    3. In some instances no accurate date could be established due to the absence of records in the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    4. All Japanese consulates in Korea were closed on January 31, 1906.
    1876 Feb. 26 Korean-Japanese Treaty of Amity (The Kanghwa Treaty) signed.
    1882 May 22 Korean-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (The Shufeldt Treaty or Chemulp'o Treaty) signed at Inchon (Chemulp'o).
    1883 Nov. 26 Korean-German Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.
      Korean-British Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.
    1884 June 26 Korean-Italian Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.
    July 7 Korean-Russian Treaty of Amity and Commerce signed.
    Dec. 4-7 The "Kapsin Incident." Coup d'etat by Pak Yong-hyo, Kim Ok-Kyun and other progressives with the cooperation of Japanese Minister Takezoe. Assassination or wounding of Min Yong-ik, Min Tae-ho and other Ministers. Establishment of a new radical progressive government under Yi Chae-won.
    6 Counter-revolution under the command of Yüan Shih-k'ai. Fall of the revolutionary government. Flight of Japanese Minister Takezoe and members of the Progressive (or Independent) Party to Inchon.
    1885 Jan. 9 The Hansong (Seoul) Treaty signed between Japan and Korea, settling the Japanese property damage claims arising from the Kapsin Incident of Dec. 4-7, 1884.
    Apr. 18 Sino-Japanese (Li-Ito or Tientsin) Convention on Korea signed by Li Hung-chang and Ito Hirobumi.
    May 12 British forces occupied Port Hamilton (Komundo Island). (Remained until February 1887.)
    1886 June 4 Korean-French Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.
    Sept. Secret oral agreement regarding Korea between Russia and China.
    1892 June 23 Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation between Korea and Austria-Hungary signed.


    Mar. 23 Kim Ok-kyun, accompanied by Hong Chong-u, sailed from Kobe for Shanghai.
    28 Kim Ok-kyun assassinated by Hong Chong-u in Shanghai. Attempted assassination of Pak Yong-hyo by Yi Il-sik in Tokyo.
    31 Interrogation of Yi Il-sik and Pak Yong-hyo by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police.
    Apr. 12 Hong Chong-u returned with Kim Ok-kyun's body to Inchon aboard the Chinese warship "Wei-ch'ing."
    30 American Minister-Resident John M. B. Sill arrived in Seoul.
    May 6 The outbreak of the Tonghak Rebellion. (Sporadic riots since autumn 1893.)
    31 Chonju occupied by the Tonghaks.
    June 1 Korean court asked for Chinese military assistance through Y[UNK]uan Shih-k'ai.
    2 Japanese cabinet decided to send one brigade to Korea in case China sends troops to Korea.
    3 Korea officially requested Chinese military assistance.
    6 China notified Japan of sending troops to Korea.
    7 Japan notified China of sending troops to Korea.
    June 10 Japanese Minister Otori Keisuke returned to Seoul with a detachment of marines.
    12 Chinese expeditionary forces landed at Asan.
    14 Korean government demanded the withdrawal of Japanese troops from Korea.
    16 Japanese brigade landed at Inchon. Japanese Foreign Minister Mutsu Munemitsu proposed to the Chinese Minister in Tokyo a joint plan for the suppression of the Tonghak Rebellion and for the implementation of reforms in Korea.
    21 Chinese government rejected the Japanese proposal.
    25 Upon the request of the Korean government, the American, British, French, and Russian Ministers in Seoul urged China and Japan to withdraw simultaneously their troops from Korea.
    26 Japanese Minister to Korea Otori strongly urged the King to carry out internal reforms.
    27 Special instructions from the Japanese Foreign Ministry to Minister Otori to prepare an appropriate pretext for the beginning of hostilities.
    30 Russian Minister in Tokyo advised Japan to comply with the Korean demand for the withdrawal of Japanese troops from Korea and warned that otherwise Japan would assume grave responsibilities.
    July 3 Otori presented to the Korean government a plan for administrative reform.
    9 American Minister in Tokyo warned Japan not to reject the Korean demand for the withdrawal of Japanese troops from Korea.
    12 U.S. Admiral S. Kerett arrived at Inchon.
    20 Otori presented an ultimatum to the Korean government to abrogate Korea's tributary relationship to China.
    23 The former Korean Regent (Taewongun) took over the government under Japanese protection. Kim Hong-jip became Prime Minister.
    25 The former Regent demanded the withdrawal of Chinese troops from Korea. Japanese fleet clashed with the Chinese fleet near Inchon. Korea nullified all treaties with China.
    26 The "Kap'o Reforms" by Prime Minister Kim Hong-jip.
    28 The former Regent restored to the Regency and declared war on China (?).
    28-29 Battle of Song'hwan and Asan. First Japanese victory.
    31 Japan severed diplomatic relations with China.
    Aug. 1 Japan declared war on China.
    20 Korean-Japanese preliminary agreement for an alliance signed.
    26 Korean-Japanese Offensive-Defensive Alliance signed by Minister Otori and Korean Foreign Minister Kim Yun-sik.
    Sept. 1 Prince Saionji Kimmochi arrived at Seoul.
    Oct. 15 Japanese Minister Inoue Kaoru arrived in Seoul.
    Nov. 20 Minister Inoue presented demands to the Korean government (later known as "The Twenty Demands").
    Dec. 17 Ousting of the Regent. Kim Hong-jip formed a "reform" cabinet. Pak Yong-hyo appointed Minister of Interior, So Kwang-pom the Minister of Justice, and Dr. Philip Jaisohn (So Chae-p'il) Government Advisor. Administrative reforms in Korea.


    Jan. 21 Additional administrative reforms in Korea. Pak Chong-yang became Prime Minister.
    Mar. 30 Agreement for a loan of 3,000,000 yen signed between the Korean government and the Bank of Japan.
    Apr. 17 The Treaty of Shimonoseki signed. China and Japan recognized the complete independence of Korea.
    24 The Tonghak leader Chon Pong-jun executed.
    May 14 Overthrow of the Kim Hong-jip Cabinet by the pro-Russian faction.
    June 7-8 Pak Yong-hyo fled to Japan. Pak Chong-yang formed a pro-Russian cabinet.
    Aug. 24 Kim Hong-jip reappointed Prime Minister.
    Sept. 1 Japanese Minister Count Miura Goro arrived in Seoul.
    Oct. 8 The "Ulmi Incident." Queen Min assassinated. The fall of the pro-Russian cabinet and the rise of a pro-Japanese faction under the Regent. Insurrection in Seoul.
    13 Military reforms in Korea.
    17 Japanese Minister Miura recalled to Japan and replaced by Komura Jutaro.
    21 Inoue Kaoru dispatched to Korea as Special Envoy.
    26 Count Miura arrested and brought to trial for conspiracy in Korea. Japanese government declared a policy of non-intervention in Korea.
    Nov. 28 Attempted kidnapping of the King by the pro-Russian group under An Kyong-su and Yi Pom-jin.
    Dec. Ibyong ("Righteous Army") uprising.


    Jan. 1 Western Calendar adopted in Korea.
    Feb. 9 Russian Minister Weber arrived in Seoul accompanied by two hundred Russian sailors.
    10-11 Yi Pom-jin conspiracy. The King and the Crown Prince fled to the Russian Legation. Pro-Japanese Prime Minister Kim Hong-jip arrested and executed. Kim Byong-si formed a new cabinet with Yi Wan-yong as Foreign Minister.
    17 O Yun-jung assassinated.
    Mar. 5 Japanese Prime Minister Ito Hirobumi arrived in Seoul.
    29 American financier James R. Morse signed an agreement with the Korean government for the construction of a railroad between Seoul and Inchon.
    Apr. 7 Dr. Philip Jaisohn (So Chae-p'il) founded Tong'nip Shinmun (The Independent News), a Korean-English bilingual newspaper in Seoul.
    May 14 Russo-Japanese (Weber-Komura) agreement on Korea signed in Seoul.
    16 Japanese Minister Komura urged the Korean King to return from the Russian Legation to the Palace.
    21 Pak Yong-hyo fled to Japan.
    June 3 Russo-Chinese (Li-Lobanov) Treaty; secret military alliance against Japan in case of the latter's attack on Russia, China or Korea signed in St. Petersburg.
    9 Russo-Japanese (Lobanov-Yamagata) agreement on Korea signed in St. Petersburg.
    July 3 French company Fives Lille obtained a concession for the construction of a railroad between Seoul and Iju.
    16 Japanese Minister Hara Satoshi arrived in Seoul.
    Aug. A Vladivostok merchant Bryner obtained from the Korean government a timber concession in the Yalu and Tumen river valleys. (This concession was purchased from Bryner by the Russian Ministry of Imperial Household through Matiunin and Neporozhniv in May 1898.)
    Sept. 3 Japanese Minister Hara left Korea.
    Oct. 5 The Council of State urged the King to return from the Russian Legation to the Palace.
    24 Colonel Putiata and other Russian military personnel arrived in Korea.
    Nov. 21 Construction of the Independence Arch and publication of Tong'nip Shinmun (The Independence News) by Tae Han Hyop'hoe.


    Feb. 20 The King left the Russian Legation, and took residence at the newly constructed Kyong'un (Toksu) Palace.
    23 Russo-Korean agreement for the employment of 160 Russian military instructors.
    24 Japanese Chargé d'Affaires Kato Masuo appointed Minister to Korea.
    27 Japan protested against the Russo-Korean agreement for the employment of Russian military instructors in Korea.
    Mar. 12 Japanese government informed the King of the secret provisions of the Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1896.
    Aug. 17 Proclamation of the new reign name of Kwangmu.
    Sept. A. de Speyer (Shpeer) replaced Weber as Russian Minister. Arrival of Russian financial adviser K. Alekseev, and Russian military instructors to Korea.
    Oct. 11 The Kingdom of Choson became the Tae Han Empire. The King adopted an Imperial title.
    12 Coronation of Emperor Kojong.
    16 Signing of an agreement with Great Britain, United States, Japan, France, Russia, and Germany concerning the opening of Mokp'o and Chinnamp'o.
    28 Korean-Japanese agreement for a loan of 1,000,000 yen for the construction of a railroad between Seoul and Inchon. (Later abrogated.)
    Nov. Russian Minister Speyer succeeded in replacing the British financial adviser and Chief of Customs Brown by Alekseev. Approval of the Russo-Korean Bank charter.
    4 Independence Club banquet incident.
    Dec. 1 Russian fleet arrived at Inchon.
    16 Japanese government protested against the appointment of Alekseev.


    Jan.-Mar. Anti-Russian agitation by the Independence Club, specifically against Russian financial adviser Alekseev and the Russian military instructors.
    Jan. 2 Ex-Foreign Minister Kim Yun-sik banished to Chejudo Island.
    15 Baron Roman Rosen, Russian Minister in Tokyo, proposed a Russo-Japanese convention on Korea to Japanese Foreign Minister Nishi Tokujiro.
    Feb. Japan demanded the transfer of the financial advisership in Korea from Russia to Japan.
    22 The death of the former Regent Taewongun.
    Mar. Korean government dismissed Alekseev as financial adviser and Chief of Customs, and restored Brown to his former position after a strong protest by the British Minister in Seoul J. H. Jordan.
    1 Russo-Korean Bank established in Seoul. (Closed shortly afterwards.)
    Mar. 7 Russia demanded Korea's acceptance of Russian aid.
    12 Korean government demanded the withdrawal of the Russian military mission from Korea.
    19 Japanese proposal to Russia to exchange spheres of influence (Korea for Manchuria).
    23 Withdrawal of Russian advisers and Russian military mission from Korea.
    r. 12 Speyer resigned as Russian Minister to Korea; replaced by N. Matiunin.
    25 Russo-Japanese (Rosen-Nishi) Agreement on Korea signed. Both parties pledged non-interference in the internal affairs of Korea.
    July 11 The "Abdication Conspiracy." An Kyong-su fled to Japan.
    28 Prince Heinrich of Prussia visited Korea.
    Sept. Negotiations between James R. Morse and a Japanese firm for the sale of Seoul-Inchon railroad concession.
    8 Korean-Japanese agreement for the construction of a railroad between Seoul and Pusan signed.
    12 A pro-Russian Korean Kim Hong-yuk attempted to poison the Emperor and the Crown Prince.
    14 Pak Yong-hyo returned to Korea.
    Oct. 17- Nov.27 Clashes between members of Tong'nip Hyop'hoe (The Independence Club) and Hwangguk Hyop'hoe (The Imperial Association).
    20 Manminhoe (The All People's Assembly) organized by the Independence Club.
    Nov. 26 The Independence Club and the Imperial Association dissolved by Imperial decree.


    Jan. 12 Russian Minister to Korea Pavlov arrived.
    Mar. 29 Count Henry Keyserling, a Russian, secured a whaling concession.
    30 A British M.P. Pritchard-Morgan appointed Honorary Korean Consul-General in London.
    May 26 The "Streetcar Incident" in Seoul. Rioting against the Korean American Electric Company.
    June 2 Signing of foreign settlement regulations for Masan, Kunsan and Songjin.
    July 8 Prince Heinrich of Prussia visited Korea.
    Sept. 11 Korean-Chinese Commercial Treaty signed.
    Nov. 14 Japanese Minister Hayashi Gonsuke arrived.


    Feb. 14 Granting of a whaling concession to Japan.
    Mar. 8 William H. Stevens appointed Honorary Korean Consul-General in New York.
    Mar. 18 Japanese Minister Hayashi protested against Korea's lease of land to Russia in Masan and demanded lease of land on Kojedo Island in Chin'hae Bay for Japan.
    Mar. 30 Korean-Russian secret treaty for the lease of land in Masan.
    May 17 An Kyong-su and others sentenced to death.
    Summer Japanese Minister to Russia began negotiations for the revision of Russo-Japanese agreements on Korea of 1896 and 1898.
    Oct. 3 Korean-Japanese Supplementary Fisheries Convention signed.


    Jan. 23 Japan refused to consider the Russian proposal for the neutralization of Korea until the withdrawal of Russian troops from Manchuria.
    26 The Chinese Minister in Seoul protested the violation of Korean-Manchurian boundary by the Korean Army.
    Mar. 23 Korean-Belgian Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.
    29 Russian warships arrived in Inchon Bay.
    Apr. 17 Korean-French Postal Agreement signed.
    20 Japanese Minister Hayashi demanded the rights for the construction of telegraph lines and submarine cables between Pusan and Masan. (Previously, Russia had obtained the right to construct telegraph lines between Seoul and Vladivostok.)
    July 23 National Grain Law, prohibiting export of grain to Japan proclaimed.
    Aug. 8 Japan protested against the Korean Grain Law.
    Sept. 6 A loan contract for 500,000 yen signed between the First Bank of Tokyo (Daiichi Ginko) and the Korean government.
    Oct. 8 Korea rejected a Russian request for telegraph line concessions.
    Nov. 14 Italian Legation in Korea opened.
    15 Grain laws repealed.
    30 The meeting between Ito Hirobumi and Russian Foreign Minister Lamsdorf. Ito proposed that Russia recognize Korea to be in the Japanese sphere of influence.
    Dec. 4 Ito presented to Rusian Foreign Minister Lamsdorf a draft of a Russo-Japanese agreement on Korea.
    13 Lamsdorf proposed certain restrictions on Japanese activity in Korea (Russian agreement before Japan could dispatch troops to Korea, etc.).
    23 Breakdown of Russo-Japanese negotiations.
    31 Revision of Korean Customs Law.


    Jan. 11 Indictment of E. T. Bethell of the Korea Daily News.
    30 Signing of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Great Britain recognized the independence of Korea and Japanese special interests there.
    Feb. 26 Korean government rejected a French loan proposal.
    Mar. 12 The French Minister in Seoul protested against the rejection of a French loan proposal.
    23 Daiichi Ginko's one yen note recognized as legal tender in Korea.
    Apr. 24 Construction began on a railroad between Seoul and Shin'iju.
    May 17 Japanese-Korean agreement concerning the Japanese settlement at Masan.
    20 Daiichi Ginko circulated demand drafts in Korea.
    June 25 Anti-Japanese uprisings in the Cholla Provinces.
    July 15 Korean-Danish Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed.


    Jan. 7 Korean government banned the circulation of Daiichi Ginko notes in Korea.
    Feb. 3 The second ban on the circulation of Daiichi Ginko notes in Korea.
    13 Korean government repealed the ban on the circulation of Daiichi Ginko notes in Korea.
    16 Russian Chargé d'Affaires E. Stein requested the Korean government for a railroad concession between Seoul and Shin'iju.
    17 The Belgian Consul requested mining concessions.
    20 Korean government rejected the Russian request for a railroad concession between Seoul and Shin'iju.
    25 Merger of the Seoul-Inchon and the Seoul-Pusan railroad companies.
    Mar. 26 Bank of Korea charter issued.
    Apr. 21 Russian troops occupied Yong'amp'o. Russian Timber Company established at Yong'amp'o.
    June 10 Anti-Japanese riots.
    July 3 Japanese Minister Hayashi Gonsuke strongly protested against the anti-Japanese riots.
    20 Timber concession granted to a Russian company. Korean-Russian agreement on the lease of land in Yong'amp'o.
    22 Korean government requested Japan to remove the telegraph lines between Seoul and Pusan.
    Aug. 11 Japanese Minister Hayashi protested against Russian lease of land in Yong'amp'o.
    19 Russian lease of land in Yong'amp'o cancelled.
    21 New Russian proposal for the lease of land in Yong'amp'o.
    26 Minister Hayashi protested against Russian lease of land in Yong'amp'o.
    Oct. 3 Russian Minister in Tokyo Rosen reopened negotiations with Japanese Foreign Minister Komura.
    17 Russia prohibited the entry of Japanese nationals into Yong'amp'o.
    Nov. 1 Clash between Japanese and Russians at Inchon
    17 Korean attempts to make Yong'amp'o an open port failed due to Russian objection.


    Jan. 9 Russian marines entered Seoul.
    23 Korea declared neutrality in case of a war between Russia and Japan.
    Feb. 6 Rosen-Komura negotiations broke down.
    8 Russo-Japanese diplomatic relations severed. Japanese fleet sank three Russian warships in Inchon Bay.
    9 Japanese expeditionary force entered Seoul.
    10 Japan declared war on Russia.
    11 Russian Minister Pavlov left Seoul.
    23 Japanese-Korean Protocol signed by Japanese Minister Hayashi and Acting Foreign Minister Yi Chi-yong.
    Mar. 3 Anti-Japanese riot in Seoul against the Protocol signed on Feb. 23.
    10 Japanese-Korean agreement on the Seoul-Iju railroad signed.
    17 Ito Hirobumi, Japanese Special Envoy to Korea arrived.
    23 Korea granted to Japan additional fishery rights. Yong'amp'o became an open port to all foreigners.
    Apr. 14 The Kyong'un Palace burned down by arsonists.
    May 18 Korea abrogated all treaties with Russia.
    July 23 10,000,000 yen Japanese loan to Korea.
    Aug. Ilchin'hoe party organized under the leadership of Song Pyong-jun, Yun Shi-hyon, and Son Byong-hi. The party advocated the establishment of a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
    20 Japanese-Korean Convention concerning the employment of Japanese advisers by the Korean government.
    22 Japanese-Korean Treaty (first treaty of protection). Japan obtained partial control over Korean foreign relations and finances.
    23 Korean Army reduced in force.
    Sept. 6 Kankoku Kogyo Kaisha (Korean Industrial Company) established in Tokyo.
    17 Mekada Tanetaro appointed Financial Adviser to the Korean government.
    26 Japanese Minister in London Hayashi Tadasu secured British understanding of the Japanese takeover of Korean foreign affairs.
    Oct. 17 Japanese Commander of the Korean Army General Hasegawa Yoshimichi arrived.
    Nov. 1 Sections of the Seoul-Pusan Railroad opened.
    Dec. 20 Upon Japanese recommendation, Durham White Stevens, an American, appointed by the Korean Foreign Office as Adviser.


    Jan. 25 Japanese Minister in Washington Takahira Kogoro approached President Roosevelt in connection with Japanese plans in Korea and Manchuria after the war.
    29 The Seoul Office of Daiichi Ginko became the Central Bank of Korea.
    Apr. 1 Japanese-Korean agreement on communications signed. Japan secured control over the Korean communications system.
    May 25 Completion of the Seoul-Pusan Railroad.
    June 6 The opening of the Masan Railroad.
    July 2 Transfer of the Korean communications system to Japan completed.
    29 Taft-Katsura Agreement. United States recognized Japanese suzerainty over Korea.
    Aug. 13 Japanese-Korean agreement on coastal and inland navigation signed.
    25 Renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Great Britain recognized Korea to be exclusively within the Japanese sphere of influence.
    31 British Chief of Korean Customs J. M. Brown resigned.
    Sept. 5 Treaty of Portsmouth between Russia and Japan. Russia recognized Korea to be entirely in the Japanese sphere of influence.
    Oct. 5 Japan took over Korean Customs Service.
    Nov. 6 Yi Yong-gu and other Ilchin'hoe Party leaders advocated Japanese protectorate over Korea.
    9 Special Envoy Ito Hirobumi arrived.
    17 Signing of the Japanese-Korean Treaty (second treaty of protection). Establishment of Japanese protectorate over Korea. Japan took over Korea's foreign relations. A Japanese Resident-general to be appointed.
    24 Withdrawal of the United States Legation in Korea.
    25 American Chargé d'Affaires in Tokyo notified the Japanese government that all matters relating to Korea will be handled by the American Legation in Tokyo.
    29 Former Ministers Min Yong-hwan, Cho Pyong-se and others committed suicide in protest against the second Japanese-Korean Treaty. Popular uprising in Korea.
    Dec. 1 The opening of the Seoul-Shin'iju Railroad
    20 Tokanfu (The Residency-General) established.
    21 Ito Hirobumi appointed first Resident-General.


    Jan. 31 Japanese Legation and all consulates in Korea closed.
    Feb. 1 Opening of the Residency-General.
    7 All foreign legations in Seoul closed.
    Mar. Founding of anti-japanese organizations and newspapers: So'u Hakhoe (North-west Learned Society); Cheguk Shinmun (Imperial News); Tae Han Maeil Shinbo (Korea Daily News) and the Korea Daily News by the Britisher Ernest T. Bethell; and Hanguk P'yong'non Chapchi (Corea Review) by the American missionary Homer B. Hulbert.
    2 First Resident-General Ito Hirobumi arrived.
    Apr. 17 Residency-General Peace Preservation Law proclaimed.
    May 17 Popular uprisings in the Kyonggi, South Ch'ungch'ong, and North Cholla Provinces demanding the abrogation of the Japanese-Korean treaty of Nov. 17, 1905.
    July 12 Japanese immigration law restricting the entry of Koreans into Japan passed.
    Aug. 4 Russian Minister of Foreign Affaires Izvolsky instructed the Russian Minister in Tokyo to notify the Japanese government that the Russian representative in Seoul will henceforth deal with the Korean government only through the Japanese Resident-General.
    7 Japanese Army in Korea organized.
    Oct. 19 Japanese-Korean agreement on joint exploitation of timber resources in the Yalu and Tumen valleys.
    Nov. 28 The establishment of Toyo Takushoku Kaisha (Oriental Development Company) in Tokyo with sphere of activity in Korea and Manchuria.


    20 Rumors about the dispatch of a secret Korean mission to the Second Hague Peace Conference by Emperor Kojong.
    May-June Riots in South Cholla and the Ch'ungch'ong Provinces.
    15 The emissaries of Emperor Kojong failed to gain admittance to the Hague Peace Conference.
    July 2 General Conscription Law proclaimed.
    3 Disturbances in Seoul after the arrival of the news of the failure of Emperor Kojong's secret mission to the Hague Peace Conference.
    17 Pro-Japanese Cabinet ministers censored the Emperor for sending Korean delegates to the Hague Peace Conference.
    19-20 The decree of abdication of Emperor Kojong. Popular uprising in Korea. Prime Minister Yi Wan-yong's residence mobbed and burned.
    21 Pak Yong-hyo, Yi To-jae and others arrested for attempts to restore Emperor Kojong.
    24 Japanese-Korean Treaty (The Third Treaty of Protection) signed by Ito Hiro-bumi and Yi Wan-yong. Establishment of effective Japanese control in Korea.
    28 Emergency Security Law proclaimed.
    30 Russo-Japanese Public and secret agreements signed in St. Petersburg. Russia recognized Korea to be entirely in the Japanese sphere of influence.
    Aug. 1 Korean Army with the exception of the Palace Guard abolished. Riots in Seoul. Korean and Japanese troops clashed in Seoul.
    Aug.-Sept. General anti-Japanese uprising in southern Korea. The strengthening of Japanese Army, gendarmerie, and police in Korea. By the end of September the major Ibyong forces were crushed, but guerrilla warfare continued.
    2 Proclamation of the new reign name of Yung'hi. Maruyama Shigetoshi appointed Inspector-General of Korean police.
    7 Emperor Sunjong's younger brother, Ubn, made Crown Prince.
    10 Korean and Japanese troops clashed on Kanghwado Island.
    20 Residency-General established a branch office in Yongjong, Kando (Chientao).
    27 Coronation of Emperor Sunjong, the twenty-seventh ruler of the Yi Dynasty.
    Sept. 3 Pak Yong-hyo exiled to Chejudo Island.
    Oct. 10 Japanese Crown Prince (later Emperor Hirohito) left Tokyo for a visit to Korea.
    29 Japanese-Korean protocol on the administration of Korean police by Japan.
    Nov. 13 Emperor Sunjong moved from Kyong'un Palace to Ch'angdok Palace. Kyong'un Palace was renamed Toksu Palace and became residence of Yi T'aewang, the former Emperor Kojong.
    18 Charter Oath of Emperor Sunjong.
    19 Decree on internal reform proclaimed.
    Dec. 5 Crown Prince Un, accompanied by Ito Hirobumi as guardian, left Seoul for study in Tokyo.
    31 Appointment of Japanese advisers to Korean provincial governors.


    Mar. 20 Japanese loan contract for 19,680,000 yen without interest signed.
    23 Durham White Stevens assassinated at the Oakland Railroad Station by two Koreans. (Died on March 25.)
    26 Korean Privy Council adopted a resolution condemning the activity of Japanese Army in connection with the suppression of uprisings in Korea and demanded the removal of Japanese advisers from the Korean government. President and Vice-President of the Privy Council removed by the Japanese.
    Oct. 31 Korean-Japanese fishery agreement.
    Nov. 2 District courts established.
    Dec. 28 Branch office of Toyo Takushoku Kaisha (Oriental Development Company) established in Seoul.


    Jan.-Feb. Emperor Sunjong toured Korea.
    Feb. 13 New tax law proclaimed.
    Mar. 6 Family Registration Law proclaimed. Population of Korea estimated to be almost thirteen million.
    15 Japanese-Korean agreement on police matters relating to foreign residents in Korea.
    June 14 Deputy Resident-General Sone Arasuke became Resident-General upon Ito's resignation.
    July 6 Japanese cabinet decided on a policy of annexation of Korea.
    12 Japanese-Korean memorandum on the transfer to Japan of judicial power and prison administration signed.
    26 Japanese-Korean memorandum regarding the Central Bank of Korea.
    31 The Ministry of War and the Officer's School abolished. The Palace Guard reorganized.
    Sept. 4 Japanese-Chinese agreement on the settlement of the Korean-Manchurian boundary. Kando (Chientao) ceded to China.
    28 New provincial administrative and judicial reforms.
    Oct. 26 Ito Hirobumi assassinated in Harbin by An Chung-gun.
    29 Bank of Korea established.
    Dec. 4 The Ilchin'hoe Party memorial to Emperor Sunjong advocating his abdication and Japanese annexation of Korea.
    8 The Second Ilchin'hoe Party memorial.
    22 Attempted assassination of Prime Minister Yi Wan-yong by Yi Chae-myong. Anti-Ilchin'hoe riots.


    Jan. 29 Anti-Japanese riots in Korea.
    Feb. 18 Japanese Foreign Minister Komura Jutaro announced the Japanese policy of annexation of Korea to the foreign diplomatic corps in Tokyo.
    Mar. 26 Prince Ito's assassin An Chung-gubn executed.
    Apr. 4 Sino-Japanese Protocol on the construction of a bridge across the Yalu River between Shin'iju and Antung signed.
    May 30 Resident-General Sone resigned. Minister of War General Terauchi Masatake appointed Resident-General.
    June 3 Japanese administrative policy for Korea after annexation adopted by the Japanese cabinet.
    24 Japanese-Korean Memorandum on the transfer of police power to Japan signed.
    July 23 General Terauchi arrived in Seoul. Beginning of ruthless suppression of anti-Japanese activity in Korea.
    24 Japanese gendarmerie replaced Korean police.
    Aug. 16 Negotiations for the annexation of Korea between General Terauchi and Yi Wan-yong.
    22 Treaty of Annexation signed.
    Sept. 29 Japanese government announced the signing of the Treaty of Annexation.
    30 Japanese Residency-General abolished. Chosen Sotokufu (Korean Government-General) established. General Terauchi Masatake appointed the first Governor-General.

    Sources for the Chronology

    Allen, Horace N. A Chronological Index: Korea. Seoul, 1901
    Chosen Boeki Kyokai (Korean Trade Association). Chosen boeki shi (A history of Korean trade). Keijo (Seoul), 1943.
    Chosen Shigakkai (Korean Historical Association). Chosen shi taikei (An outline of Korean history). 5 vols. Keijo (Seoul), 1928.
    Chung, Henry. Korean Treaties. New York, 1919.
    Gal'perin, A. "Khronika tikhookeanskikh sobytii" (Chronology of events in the Pacific area), Tikhii okean (The Pacific Ocean), No. 3(5) (July-Sept 1935), pp. 231-286; No. 4 (6) (Oct.-Dec. 1935), pp. 223-269; No. 1 (7) (Jan.-Mar. 1936), pp. 249-318; No. 2 (8) (Apr.-June 1935), pp. 195-247; etc. This chronology compiled at the Pacific Office of the Communist Academy's Institute of World Economy and International Politics in Moscow covers the period from 1776 to date.
    Hanguk Kuksa P'yonch'an Wiwon'hoe (Committee for the Compilation of Korean History). Hanguk kenyonsa (A chronological history of Korea). 2 vols. [Seoul], 1958. ( Hanguk saryo ch'ongso, No. 5 [Korean history series No. 5]).
    Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Nihon gaiko nempyo narabi shuyo monjo, 1840-1945 (Japanese diplomacy: chronology and important documents, 1840-1945). 2 vols. Tokyo, 1955.
    Korea (People's Democratic Republic). Academy of Sciences. Institute of History. Chosonsa nyonp'yo (Chronology of Korean history) Pyongyang, 1957.
    Korea (Government-General, 1910-1945). Tokujukyu Ri Taio jikki (Authentic records of Toksukung Yi T'aewang). Keijo (Seoul), 1943.
    Langer, William L. (ed.) An Encyclopedia of World History. Cambridge, 1948. Rev. ed.
    Morse, Hosea B. The International Relations of the Chinese Empire. London, 1918. (Vol. 111, The Period of Subjection, 1894-1911)
    Toyo Keizai Shimpo Sha. (Oriental Economist Publishing House). Sakuin seiji keizai dai nempyo (Indexed political and economic chronology of Japan). 2 vols. (Chronology and Index). Tokyo, 1943.
    Tsuji Zennosuke. Dai Nihon nempyo (Chronology of Greater Japan). Tokyo, 1942.
    Wang, Hsin-chung. Chung-Jih chia-wu chan-cheng chih wai-chiao pei-ching (Diplomatic background of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894). Peiping: National Ch'ing-hua University Press, 1937.

    Subjects and Indexing Terms

    Japan--Foreign relations--Korea.
    Korea--Foreign relations--Japan.
    Korea--Foreign relations.
    Korea--Politics and government.