Preliminary Inventory of the Mark Aleksandrovich Popovskii collection

Finding aid prepared by Hoover Institution Library and Archives Staff
Hoover Institution Library and Archives
© 2000
434 Galvez Mall
Stanford University
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Title: Mark Aleksandrovich Popovskii collection
Date (inclusive): 1919-1977
Collection Number: 84016
Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Library and Archives
Language of Material: Russian
Physical Description: 16 microfilm reels (2.4 Linear Feet)
Abstract: Reminiscences, reports, correspondence, and other writings of members of Tolstovtsy communes in the Soviet Union, relating to the agrarian dissent movement of followers of Leo Tolstoy. Digital use copies of the entire collection are available in the reading room.
source: Popovskiĭ, Mark
Physical Location: Hoover Institution Library & Archives


The collection is open for research; materials must be requested in advance via our reservation system. If there are audiovisual or digital media material in the collection, they must be reformatted before providing access.


For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Library & Archives.

Acquisition Information

Materials were acquired by the Hoover Institution Library & Archives in 1984.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Mark Aleksandrovich Popovskii collection, [Reel no.], Hoover Institution Library & Archives.

Alternate Forms Available

Digital use copies of the entire collection are available in the reading room.

Biographical Note

Mark Aleksandrovich Popovskii (1922- ), Russian writer journalist and essayist, was born in Odessa. A veteran of World War II, he started freelance literary work in 1946, and had numerous publications in the Soviet press (including 14 books), primarily dealing with issues of science and scientific ethics. During the 1970s two of Popovskii's books, Beda i vina akademika Vavilova and Zhizn' and Zhitie Voino-Iasenetskogo were rejected by the censor and circulated in samizdat. Popovskii also signed several letters in support of Russian dissidents. Systematically persecuted by KGB, he left the country in 1977 and settled in New York City. In emigration he contributed to numerous Russian-language periodicals, and served as a North American editor of émigré journal Strana I Mir. He wrote and published numerous books, some were translated into English French and German. After the fall of the Soviet Union Popovskii's work started once again to appear in Russia.
In the early 1980s a fire at Popovskii's New York apartment destroyed a large part of Popovskii's archive, so the microfilm in this collection may be the only extant copy.
Source of information: Mark Popovskii Papers, Finding Aid Prepared by Jane Gorjevsky, Columbia University, October 2002

Scope and Contents note

The material was not microfilmed according to archival standards, page arrangements are not always sequential or logical, and the film shows many signs of damage and deterioration. Image quality is extremely poor, with scratches, fogging, extremes of dark and light density, images obscured by tape, and other problems. In addition, in some cases the sprocket holes were cut off and the film was cut into short segments. It is possible that some of the physical damage was done intentionally to facilitate transport of the microfilm by Popovskii. The digital use copies are also of poor quality due to the condition of the source microfilm. As a result, researchers must digitally manipulate the PDF image files by rotating and enlarging to make them as legible as possible for viewing.

Related Collections

Mark Popovskii papers, 1957-2000, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York City

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Dissenters -- Soviet Union
Cooperative societies -- Soviet Union
Pacifism -- Soviet Union
Tolstoy, Leo, graf, 1828-1910
Popovskiĭ, Mark

reel 1 (320 pages)

B. Mazurin - "Story and Thoughts about One Tolstoii Commune - Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work)


Part one: page 1-62


Part two: page ?-221


Letter of the Tolstoii disciple Olga Biriukova from Switzerland to the Tolstoii disciple Petr Alekseev 1960


Correspondence between Tolstoii disciples Priakhin and Mazurin, re writer L. Leonov's speech at the 50th anniversary of L. N. Tolstoii's death 1960


Correspondence of Tolstoii disciples B. Mazurin, Mozgovoi, Dragunovskii and Pavlov with writer Popovskii re his work on the history of Tolstoii disciples in USSR, ; photo of B. Mazurin, photo of the group of Tolstoii disciples Christians - Council of "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work) Commune in Siberia 1976-1977


Tolstoii disciple Ivan Dragunovskii's autobiography (born 1908)


Historical notes about Tolstoii school in "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work) Commune 1931-1934?

reel 2 (175 pages)

Manuscript of Iarkov "Moia Zhyzn' (Iarkov Iliia Petrovich, born in Kuibyshev) 1892




Part one: pages 1905-1908-95


Part two: pages, about Tolstoii disciple 1909-1912-80

reel 3 (about 200 pages)

Tolstoii disciple L. I. Zabolotskii "Vospominania o Novo-Ierusalimskoi Kommunie Imieni L. N. Tolstogo" (Reminiscences of L. N. Tolstoii Commune of New-Jerusalem), 32 pages


Letter of Tolstoii disciple Issaak Moiseevich Kaufman to the Lev's Tolstoii's previous secretary Valentina Bulgakova re publication of his book O Tolstom (About Tolstoii) in the USSR


Letters of Tolstoii disciple Priakhin to different people, in 1960s


Letter of Olga Biriukova daughter of Tolstoii's publisher, from Geneva to Syberia to Petr Alekseev 1960 June 22


N. I. Priakhin to Olga Biriukova (from Moscow to Geneva) 1960 January 7


Olga Biriukova to Petr Alekseev 1960 July 5


N. I. Priakhin to Boris Mazurin


L. Tolstoii's secretary N. N. Gusev to Boris Mazurin in Siberia, ? 25 1962 September


Tolstoii disciple from Lithuania E. M. Levinskas to Boris Mazurin


Writer-scholar Leonid Leonov to Boris Mazurin


Boris Mazurin to philosopher B. S. Meilakh 1961 December 20


Boris Mazurin to Meilakh, 1962 February 14 re Meilakhov's book Ukhod i Smert' L'va Tolstogo (Departure and Death of Lev Tolstoii)


Boris Mazurin to Leonid Leonov


Autobiography of Ukrainian Christian Tolstoii disciple Andrei Mozgovoi (born 50 pages 1960),


Letter from A. Mozgovoi to writer M. A. Popovskii


Review of the M. Popovskii manuscript " Kyda Devalis' Tolstovtzy" (Where Did Tolstoii Disciples Go) by the Moscow dissident Viktor Sokirko (1977)


Notes of Elena Fedorovna Shershenieva about her husband Vas. Shershenev (1900-1956); Years from 35 pages 1941 to 1946 May,

reel 4 (340 pages)

Ilia Iarkov: manuscript of his book Moia Zhyzn' (My Life)


Part four, pages 260 to 306 - the history of arresting Tolstoii disciple Iarkov in for refusal of serving in the Soviet army. Trial, sentence: "to be shot." The cell for prisoners sentenced to death. Liberalization 1941


Part U. Skitania 5), pages 1 to 102 - arrest in 1951 and placing in a special psychiatric hospital NKVD-NKGB. Description of 3 years stay in the hospital (1951-19


Notes about life of Vasilii Vasilevich Shersheniev written by his wife (154 pages)


Part one - In the New-Jerusalem L. N. Tolstoii Commune, 39 pages


Part two - Notes about events, 36 pages 1941-1946 May


Part three - Notes about the events from (Shersheniev was arrested for "being a Tolstoii disciple," found guilty for creation of armed Tolstoii center and sentenced for 25 years in camps. History of his friends and wife's fight to rescue him), 79 pages 1951 November 29-1956 October 23


Mark Popovskii's handwritten note on the 3-page story about the meeting of a Tolstoii disciple Iliia Iarkov in recent times with the son of his investigator Podol'skii


Page from the Lithuanian Tolstoii disciple Levinskas' memoirs (accidentally placed on the reel)


Original note issued in to a Tolstoii disciple S. M. Belen'kii informing that his arrest in 1937 was unlawful. Belen'kii (born in 1877) was the personal copyist of Lev Tolstoii's manuscripts 1939


Tolstoii disciple S. M. Belen'kii's memoirs about camps, stages, and camp meetings from pages 1935 to 1939, 68


Poems of Anna Stepanovna Malorod, Tolstoii disciple, teacher in a Tolstoii school, member of a Tolstoii Commune "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work), 36 pages (1895-1971),

reel 5

Autobiography of a Christian Tolstoii disciple Dmitrii Morgachev born in Orlovskaia Oblast', member of a Commune "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work) (1892-1978)


Iliia Iarkov journalist from Samara (Kuibyshev), manuscript "Moia Zhyzn'" (My Life) (1892-198?),


Chapter 1 - Childhood 90 pages (1892-1908),


Chapter 2 - Youth 66 pages (1905-1908),


Part two of the book "Moia Zhyzn'" (My Life), from page 264 - the history of Iarkov's refusal to serve in a Tzarist army Trial, sentence-8 years of hard labor. "Katorga" (Hard Labor) in prison. Meetings with Tolstoii disciples and sectarians. Feliks Dzerzhynskii in prison, 78 pages (1915-1916).


Part three - Revolution Marriage of a hero. Meetings with the sectarians and Tolstoii disciples. Al. Dobroliubov. Perception of the best of bolshevism 1917.


Brochure of Vl. Chertkov - "Tzer'kov i Politika" (Church and Politics), Moscow 1919


Letter from the wife of F. Dzerzhynskii to Iarkov (1964)

reel 6 (more than 213 pages)

Boris Mazurin "Istoriia i Razduma ob Odnoii Tolstovskoii Kommunie" (The History and Thoughts about One Tolstoii Commune), Part II-131 pages, duplicate


Boris Mazurin "Odin God Iz Desiati" (One of Ten Years). Letter - reminiscences about a year when Tolstii disciples Mazurin and Morgachev spent in soviet camps as a punishment for being Tolstoii disciples, 18 pages


Boris Mazurin "Nemnogo o Elenie Ievgen'evne Gorbunovoi" (Little about Elena Ievgen'evna Gorbunova) - Story about prominent activist of Tolstoii movement, wife of L. N. Tolstii's friend Gorbunov-Posadov


Letters of E. Gorbunova to Boris Mazurin (1953)


Boris Mazurin "O Vanie Bautinie" (About Vania Bautin). Ivan Bautin - young Moscowite, Secretary of Tolstoii Society (Vegetarian Tolstoii Society). He was arrested in the beginning of the with four comrades and was killed in Solovki. Article written based on memoirs of contemporaries and Bautin's own letters 1930s


Poems of Christian - Tolstoii disciples. Collected by Dmitrii Morgachev, 44 pages

reel 7 (188 pages)

Part of a manuscript of Mark Popovskii "Eto Tvoi Deti, Lev Tolstoii" (These Are Your Children, Lev Tolstoii), first version of a book written in USSR, pages 0, 100 pages 89 to 19


Boris Mazurin "Odin God Iz Desiati" (One of Ten Years), duplicate, 30 pages


Andrei Mozgovoi, Christian from Chernigovskaia Oblast', Ukrainskaia SSR, "Avtobiografia" (Autobiography) compiled in ? Korop, Chernigovskaia Oblast', pereulok Krasina 17, 13 pages typed 1977 March 2


Andrei Mozgovoi "Sushchnost' Istinnogo Prosveshchenia" (The Essence of True Enlightenment), treatise, 16 pages


End of Mark Popovskii's manuscript "Eto Tvoi Deti, Lev Tolstoii" (These Are Your Children, Lev Tolstoii) - pages 190 to 213, 23 pages

reel 8 (about 140 pages of text)

Diaries of Anna Malorod, member of the Commune "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work), teacher, director of Tolstoii school in commune, 85 pages


Letter from Tolstoii disciple Iulii Iegudin to sympathizers on the account of Anna Malorod's death


Letter from Tolstoii disciple Dmitrii Morgachev to General Prosecutor of USSR with demands to rehabilitate him and his friends trailed 40 years ago for being Tolstoii disciples


Answer from USSR Prosecutor to Morgachev


Boris Mazurin "O Vanie Bautinie" (About Vania Bautin), duplicate - memoirs about young Tolstoii disciple from Moscow, tortured to death in Solovki in the 1930s


Documents and letters handwritten by Christian Andrei Morgachev


Letters from Boris Mazurin to writer Leonid Leonov about Leonov's lecture on Tolstoii, "Slovo o Tolstom," (Word About Tolstoii) 1960


Letter from Mozgovoi to writer Leonov


Letters from Mozgovoi to A. B. Khrabrovicki - Lev Tolstoii's secretary assistant. Mozgovoi describes the reaction in Tolstoii disciples circle to Leonov's speech, 35 pages


Mozgovoi about his convictions


Mozgovoi, handwritten - letter to government and party leaders re ban to publish philosophical works of Lev Tolstoii


Mozgovoi, letter to the editor of Sel'skaia Zhyzn' (Country Life), re libelous article about (?)

reel 9 (about 200 pages of text)

From private memoirs of Christian Tolstoii disciple Ivan Dragunovskii about crushing defeat of "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work) Commune 13 pages (1940),


Christian Iakov Dragunovskii - defensive speech re arresting ten leaders of "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work) Commune 30 pages (1936 May),


Letter from Ivan Dragunovskii to writer Mark Popovskii (197? April 5)


Correspondence between Boris Mazurin and Ivan Dragunovskii re preservation of Christian archives


Andrei Mozgoii's responding letter written after reading the manuscript "Biografiia Iakova Dragunovskogo" (Biography of Iakov Dragunovskii) by son Ivan Dragunovskii (1975, January 25)


Contents of the book Biografiia Iakova Dragunovskogo (Biography of Ivan Dragunovskii)


Text from the book by Ivan Dragunovskii about his father, page 342 to 436


Book by Iliia Iarkov about Tolstoii disciple A. Dobroliubov. Part 1-48 pages

reel 10 (about 270 pages of text)

Memoirs by Tolstoii School teacher Anna Malorod about stay in corrective-working camp (1935), 91 pages (1895-1971)


Tolstoii disciple Christian Iulii Iegudin's letter about Anna Malorod (1971)


"Kratkii Ocherk Moieii Zhyzni" (Short Story of My Life), by Eduard Levinskas, Lithuanian Tolstoii disciple written in Lithuania, 62 pages, typed (1961-1963),


Letter from E. Levinskas to N. N. Gusev - former secretary of Lev Tolstoii, 14 pages


"Rasskaz i Razduma Ob Odnoii Tolstovskoii Kommunie" (Story and Thoughts About One Tolstoii Commune), by Boris Mazurin. Duplicate, 100 pages

reel 11 (153 pages of text)

"Kratkii Ocherk Moieii Zhyzni" (Short Story of My Life) by Eduard Levinskas, Tolstoii disciple. Duplicate, second format, 108 pages


Memoirs about Tolstoii commune "Vsemirnoie Bratstvo" (World-wide Brotherhood) located by Volga River near Stalingrad. Handwritten, unknown author, 15 pages


Several issues of Biulletin Moskovskogo Vegetarianskogo Obshchestva (Bulletin of Moscow Vegetarian Society), pages 1926-1928, 30

reel 12 (about 500 pages of text)

Book by Iliia Iarkov about Tolstoii disciple Aleksandr Dobroliubov and his circle, 350 pages


Poems by Tolstoii disciple Aleksandr Dobroliubov Stikhi Napisannyie Dla Naroda i Nigdie Nie Napiechatannyie (Poems Written For People and Not Published Anywhere). Collected and commented by Iliia Iarkov, Kuibyshev, pages 1970, 60


Diaries by Anna Malorod, member of Tolstoii commune "Zhyzn' i Trud" (Life and Work), pages 1950s, 48


Collection of poems by Christians - Tolstoii disciples. Collected and commented by Dmitrii Morgachev, 197?. 36 pages


Article by P. N. Malov, clerk from Canada in clerical journal Iskra (Spark) about trip to USSR and meetings with Tolstoii disciples 1970

reel 13 (about 350 pages of text)

Diaries and poems by Anna Malorod, teacher in Tolstoii School, 0 pages 1960s, 22


Moscow dissident Viktor Sokirko's review of a first version of a book by M. Popovskii about Christians - Tolstoii discples - Eto Tvoi Detii, Lev Tolstoii (These Are Your Children, Lev Tolstoii)


Correspondence of Tolstoii disciples of USSR (1960s)


Autobiography of a Ukrainian Tolstoii disciple Andrei Mozgovoi (duplicate)


Andrei Mozgovoi Sushchnost' Istinnogo Prosveshchenia (The Essence of True Enlightenment) 1977


Diaries by Mark Popovskii for Description of certain meetings with Tolstoii disciples (request to make a copy and return to author) 1977.


Boris Mazurin "Odin God Iz Desiati" (One of Ten Years). Story about stay in camp

reel 14 (484 pages of text)

Beginning of the book by Iliia Iarkov Kakimi Ia Ikh Znaiu (The Way I Know Them). Stories about "brother Aleksander Dobroliubov his friends and followers," Kuibyshev, 1973, 80 pages (1876-1944),


Reminiscent notes of Christian-Tolstoii disciple V. V. Ianov (died in Siberia in Written by Boris Mazurin, Page nr. 61 1971).


Additional 160 pages from the book by Iarkov about Dobroliubov


Iliia Iarkov, part of the book Moia Zhyzn' (My Life). Part dedicated to the events ?. Iarkov arrested in and located in secret psychiatric NKVD hospital, where he spent 3 years until Stalin's death. Description of the hospital and it's inhabitants, 90 pages 1951


Several pages of memoirs by Belenko, secretary and typist of Lev Tolstoii


Poems by Christians-Tolstoii disciples, 10 pages


Beginning of V. V. Ianov's memoirs, 24 pages


Part of the book by Iarkov about Dobroliubov, 57 pages

reel 15 (790 pages of text)

Book (typewritten) by Iliia Iarkov about Aleksandr Dobroliubov and other Tolstoii disciples before and after the Revolution, 620 pages


"Biografiia Iarkova Demient'evicha Dragunovskogo" (Biography of Iarkov Demient'evich Dragunovskii), by Ivan Dragunovskii. Very valuable manuscript full of facts and documents about the life of Tolstoii disciples from 1918 to the beginning of the 1970s. Dedicatory inscription from the author dated 0 pages 1977 April, 17

reel 16

Moiia Zhyzn' (My Life) by Iliia Iarkov Frequent arrests and deportations, author's meetings with imprisoned intellectuals, church figures, Tolstoii disciples and OGPUD NKVD figures, 152 pages (1928-1935).


Several pages about Iarkov's stay in secret NKVD psychiatric hospital (1951-1954)


Moiia Zhyzn' (My Life) by Iliia Iarkov


Youth 46 pages (1909-1917),


First World War, 30 pages


Kuibyshev 106 pages (1935-1938),


2 handwritten pages, list of sources about Tolstoii disciples in USSR (M. Popovskii)


Poems by a poet Vitalii Medvedkov Some poems dedicated to Tolstoii commune located in Kaukas by Zmieika River in 1920s (1892-1940).