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Finding aid for the Romeyn de Hooghe etchings, 1667-ca.1700
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Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Biographical/Historical Note
  • Administrative Information
  • Scope and Content of Collection
  • Indexing Terms
  • To request an item:
  • Bibliography

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Romeyn de Hooghe etchings
    Date (inclusive): 1667-ca.1700
    Number: P850001
    Creator/Collector: Hooghe, Romeyn de, 1645-1708
    Physical Description: 59.0 prints (67 sheets)
    The Getty Research Institute
    Special Collections
    1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100
    Los Angeles, California, 90049-1688
    (310) 440-7390
    Abstract: Collection contains 59 prints on 67 sheets. Some are signed by Romeyn de Hooghe, some are attributed to him, and several are in his style or copied after him. Most relate to contemporary political, historical events and figures in Europe, and depict elaborate scenes with many details of costume, settings and objects.
    Request Materials: Request access to the physical materials described in this inventory through the catalog record  for this collection. Click here for the access policy .
    Language: Collection material is in Dutch; Flemish

    Biographical/Historical Note

    Romeyn de Hooghe was born in Amsterdam in 1645 and worked there until c.1680-1682, when he moved to Haarlem, where he died in 1708. For several Netherlandish provinces, he created interior architectural paintings and other works. In 1662 De Hooghe was invited by Adam Frans van der Meulen (1632-1690) to Paris, where he etched the baptism of the Dauphin in 1668. There he met King Jan III Sobieski of Poland and was knighted by him in 1675.
    De Hooghe painted, engraved, sculpted, designed medals, enameled, taught drawing school, and bought and sold art as a dealer. During the 1690s he made sculptures for the palace of Het Loo (1689-1692), designed and etched triumphal arches and medals for William III's entry into the Hague (1691), and designed the Haarlem market festival decorations for the peace celebration after the capture of Naumur (1695). His political, legal, and economic interests are evident in his writings: Schouburgh der Nederlandsche Veranderingen (1674), Æsopus in Europa (1701), Spiegel van Staat des Vereenigde Nederlanden (1706), and Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren (1735), all of which he also illustrated. He was well-educated and may have attended law classes at a university in Harderwijk or Leiden.
    De Hooghe's earliest print, after Nicolas Berchem, was made around 1662. He created about 3500 images, most after his own designs, some after other artists, for himself and other authors, publishers, and printers. His plates were often retouched and adapted for later events, sometimes by De Hooghe, sometimes by others. He etched allegories and mythological scenes, portraits, caricatures, political satires, historical subjects, landscapes, topographical views (especially of Netherlandish cities), battle scenes, genre scenes, title pages, and book illustrations. From 1667-1691 he illustrated various newspapers: Hollandsche Mercurius, Princelycke almanach, Orangien Wonderspiegel. The first political iconographer of the Netherlands and its first great caricaturist, De Hooghe was closely associated with William of Orange. He repeatedly caricatured James II and Louis XIV, sometimes using pseudonyms on his most audacious images. He was an expressive master of physiognomy; and his original, lively style displayed the baroque fashion for spectacular and allegorical fantasy. Romeyn de Hooghe was the most significant and prolific Netherlandish engraver in the second half of the seventeenth century.

    Administrative Information


    Open for use by qualified researchers.

    Publication Rights

    Preferred Citation

    Romeyn de Hooghe etchings, 1667-ca.1700, Getty Research Institute, Research Library, Accession no. P850001.

    Acquisition Information

    Acquired 1985.

    Processing History

    This collection was reorganized and cataloged by Anne-Marie Schaaf in April, May, and July 1996. The finding aid was completed in July 1996.

    Scope and Content of Collection

    This collection contains prints signed by Romeyn de Hooghe, prints attributed to him, and several in his style or copied after him. There are a total of 59 pieces on 67 sheets (one piece was subdivided into 9 sheets). They represent the various genres of De Hooghe's work, but they only constitute a small fraction of his oeuvre. Most relate to contemporary political events and figures. They usually depict elaborate scenes, with many details of costume, settings, and objects.
    The seven allegories were mostly created as title pages or frontispieces; they depict exploration, ship building, and mythology. The two formal portraits depict John III of Poland and Servatius Galleus. Six Old Testament scenes depicting the tabernacle in the desert and parts of the Temple in Jerusalem may have served as book illustrations.
    The remaining forty-four scenes deal with contemporary history related to the Netherlands, England, and France, some allegorically, some satirically, and some in a straightforward fashion. The eight general scenes include festival scenes--the funerals of Queen Mary and Fieldmarshal Paulus Wirtz, peace negotiations, and an allegory of the marriage of William and Mary. Others depict the political murder of Cornelis and Jan de Wit, the persecution of Protestants in France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), and William leaving for and arriving in England. Nine prints depict contemporary battle or war scenes: Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma taking Valenciennes; the seige of Leiden in 1574; English fortresses and bases; the war in Macassar (1666-1669); France terrorizing Dutch villages; Christian IV's conquest of Wismar; and the battle of Drogheda. As with the general histories and satires, the battle scenes are often marked with letters or numbers corresponding to a key provided alone or within a longer letterpress text.
    The twenty-seven satirical scenes most often retain verses or other explanatory letterpress text beneath the image. Dom Johan Van de Velde's funeral, the murder of the brothers de Wit, Dutch cities, Dutch dealings and wars with Louis XIV, and the Catholic Church are all satirized in these prints. De Hooghe was well-known for his support of William of Orange, and most of these prints consequently attack James II and Louis XIV. The greater number of them were created in 1689-1690 and relate to the events of those years: the birth of the Prince of Wales ("the Old Pretender," son of James II and Mary of Modena), William's invasion of England, James II's flight to a refuge with Louis XIV in France, and William and Mary's assumption of power in England's Glorious Revolution.

    Arrangement note

    The etchings are arranged in 6 series: Series I: Allegories; Series II: Portraits; Series III: History: Old Testament Scenes; Series IV: History: Contemporary scenes; Series V: History: Battles and War; Series VI: Satire.

    Indexing Terms

    Subjects - Names

    James II, King of England, 1633-1701
    Louis XIV, King of France, 1638-1715
    William III, King of England, 1650-1702

    Subjects - Topics

    Battles--Pictorial works
    Political satire, Dutch--Pictorial works

    Subjects - Places

    Temple of Jerusalem (Jerusalem)--Pictorial works

    Genres and Forms of Material

    Broadsides--Netherlands--17th century
    Etchings--Netherlands--17th century
    Prints--Netherlands--17th century

    To request an item:

    Title of print

    Designer/Etcher. Place, date: Publisher.

    State of print. Measurements.

    Bibliographic reference(s).


    Former number from arrangement in dealer's list.
    Titles are listed exactly as they are rendered on the prints or in the letterpress beneath the image. Supplied titles are in brackets. All entries are etchings unless otherwise specified.
    Designer/etcher's names and publication information are taken from the prints. Information from other sources is in brackets. Bibliographic references differ on some attributions. s.l. = sine loco (without place). s.d. = sine datum (without date). s.n. = sine nomine (without name).
    All measurements are in centimeters. Pl. = platemark; Sh. = sheet. Al. = album page.
    H = F. W. H. Hollstein. Dutch and Flemish etchings, engravings, and woodcuts, ca. 1450-1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949-. Volume 9. Numbers refer to the listing under Romeyn de Hooghe, pp.118-132.
    Koeman = Cornelis Koeman, ed. Atlantes Neerlandici. Bibliography of terrestrial, maritime and celestial atlases and pilot books, published in the Netherlands up to 1880 . Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1967-1985. Vol. 4, pp. 227-228.
    LBI = John Landwehr. Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) as book illustrator: a bibliography. Amsterdam: VanGendt; New York: A. Schram, 1970. Numbers refer to the book numbers at the top right of the pages.
    LE = John Landwehr. Romeyn de Hooghe, the etcher: contemporary portrayal of Europe, 1662-1707. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff; Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1973. Numbers refer to pages.
    M = Frederik Muller. De Nederlandsche geschiedenis in platen. Beredeneerde beschrijving van Nederlandsche historieplaten, zinneprenten en historische kaarten. Amsterdam: Frederick Muller, 1863-82. 4 volumes. Numbers refer to entries in volume I.
    VS = Abraham van Stolk Cz. Atlas van Stolk: katalogus der historie-, spot-en zinnerprenten betrekkelijk de geschiedenis van Nederland gerangschikt en beschreven door G. van Rijn . Amsterdam: F. Muller & Co., 1895-1931. 10 volumes. Most numbers refer to entries in volume III.


    Hollstein, F. W. H. Dutch and Flemish etchings, engravings, and woodcuts, ca. 1450-1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, [1949- . volume 9.
    Landwehr, John. Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) as book illustrator: a bibliography. Amsterdam: VanGendt ; New York: A. Schram, 1970.
    Landwehr, John. Romeyn de Hooghe, the etcher: contemporary portrayal of Europe, 1662-1707. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff; Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1973.
    Maccubbin, Robert P., and Martha Hamilton-Phillips, eds. The Age of William III & Mary II : power, politics, and patronage 1688-1702. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, 1989.
    van Stolk, Abraham Cz. Atlas van Stolk: katalogus der historie-, spot- en zinnerprenten betrekkelijk de geschiedenis van Nederland. Amsterdam: F. Muller & Co., 1895-1931.
    Wilson, William Harry. The Art of Romeyn de Hooghe: An atlas of European late baroque culture. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1974.