Information for Researchers
Scope and Content
Collection Title: State Land Settlement, Durham, California
Date (inclusive): 1918-1919
Collection Number: BANC PIC 1966.034--fALB
Mead, Elwood, 1858-1936
4 albums (267 photographic prints) and 6 boxes of glass negatives ; various sizes
267 digital objects
The Bancroft Library.
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
Phone: (510) 642-6481
Fax: (510) 642-7589
Abstract: The collection consists of three albums and an accopress binder of photographs documenting the development of the State Land
Settlement Project at Durham, California, from 1918-1919.
Languages Represented: Collection materials are in English
Information for Researchers
Photograph albums are available for use. Glass negatives are unarranged and not available for use.
Materials in this collection may be protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.). In addition, the reproduction
of some materials may be restricted by terms of University of California gift or purchase agreements, donor restrictions,
privacy and publicity rights, licensing and trademarks. Transmission or reproduction of materials protected by copyright beyond
that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of the copyright owners. Works not in the public domain cannot be
commercially exploited without permission of the copyright owner. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user.
All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the
Head of Public Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720-6000. See:
[Identification of item], State Land Settlement, Durham, California, BANC PIC 1966.034--fALB, The Bancroft Library, University
of California, Berkeley
Digital Representations Available
Digital representations of selected original pictorial materials are available in the list of materials below. Digital image
files were prepared from selected Library originals by the Library Photographic Service. Library originals were copied onto
35mm color transparency film; the film was scanned and transferred to Kodak Photo CD (by Custom Process); and the Photo CD
files were color-corrected and saved in JFIF (JPEG) format for use as viewing files.
Title: Elwood Mead papers,
Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS C-B 1041
Title: State Land Settlement, Delhi, California, 1920-1922 / Elwood Mead,
Identifier/Call Number: BANC PIC 1966.033--fALB
The Durham photographs were transferred from the Elwood Mead papers (BANC MSS C-B 1041).
Scope and Content
The collection consists of three albums and an accopress binder of photographs documenting the development of the State Land
Settlement Project at Durham, California, from 1918-1919. Included are views of houses and floor plans, agricultural buildings
and machinery, crops, and livestock. The photographer or photographers are unknown. The three albums include captions printed
on photographs or typewritten captions pasted below photographs, and the accopress binder has handwritten captions below each
photograph - all captions are reprinted in the container listing.
The collection also contains six boxes of glass negatives which are unarranged and not available for use.
The State Land Settlements at Durham and Delhi were begun in 1918 and 1919, respectively. The Durham settlement was located
near Chico in Butte County, California. The settlements were based on a 1917 land settlement program initiated by the state
of California to encourage and improve land development methods. Durham settlement had about 130 settlers who owned the segment
of land on which they worked. Previously, agriculture in California had been in the hands of individuals whose efforts were
not always good for the land. The program was a means by which to educate large groups of people on better farming techniques.
The settlement, in which settlers shared land, supplies, and workflow, was intended to demonstrate desirable land settlement
methods in a communal setting and encourage cooperation and social organization. Settlers were chosen by the California State
Land Settlement Board (chaired by Dr. Elwood Mead) based on their capital, experience, and attitude towards cooperative effort.
Each prospective settler had to appear before the Board for questioning, and was watched carefully even after being accepted
into the program. Two basic aims of the program were to improve the living conditions of the settlers and to increase the
number of people on the farms.
The Durham settlement was divided into land allotments for purchase, most varying in size from 20 to 80 acres. The settlement
was furnished with a somewhat complex irrigation system, which was one of the most expensive elements of the program. Initially,
the Durham settlement fared quite well, attracting many potential buyers and selling all of its laborers' allotments. The
settlement included a community park and meeting place as well as administrative buildings.
A first, the settlers were enthusiastic about the program. Early attempts at cooperation included group purchasing of dairy
cows and a group milk-selling association. However, disputes soon made these ventures unsuccessful, and even community social
activities began to disappear. Agriculture was initially fairly successful, the only major production problem being the adobe
soil, which was difficult to irrigate. After the first few years, however, satisfactory crops were few and far between. The
settlers needed more land than they could afford in order to make a living from the low-income crops they were trying to grow.
The Board's need to keep land under contract often harmed the ideals of the settlement, in that settlers who put forth little
or no effort into farming were allowed to remain on the land. The Durham settlement was plagued with poor drainage and the
loss of profitable alfalfa and prune crops to disease. The need to reinvest initial profits from the first few years of harvests
was unattractive to most settlers. In retrospect, the causes of failure of the settlement as a whole were seen to be crop
failures, expensive but poor land, higher-than-anticipated expenses in general, and economic conditions at the time which
were unfavorable to this type of land development.
(Source: Smith, Roy James.
The California State Land Settlements at Durham and Delhi. Berkeley: University of California, 1943.)