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Guide to the Hale Zukas Papers, 1971-1998
BANC MSS 99/150 c  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Collection Summary
  • Information for Researchers
  • Administrative Information
  • Biography
  • Scope and Content

  • Collection Summary

    Collection Title: Hale Zukas Papers,
    Date (inclusive): 1971-1998
    Collection Number: BANC MSS 99/150 c
    Creator: Zukas, Hale
    Extent: Number of containers: 2 cartons, 1 box Linear feet: 3.1 94 digital objects
    Repository: The Bancroft Library.
    Berkeley, California 94720-6000
    Abstract: Consists of materials reflecting Zukas's leading role as a founder and activist for the disability rights and independent living movements. The collection includes his papers from the Center for Independent Living, the Disabled Students Program at U.C. Berkeley and other organizations in which he was active, as well as records documenting his advocacy work, and a very small amount of personalia
    Physical Location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.
    Languages Represented: English

    Information for Researchers


    Collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to The Bancroft Library. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Head of Public Services. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Bancroft Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Hale Zukas Papers, BANC MSS 99/150 c, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

    Related Collections

    Related collections may be found by searching the corporate author/name "Disabled Persons' Independence Movement" in U.C. Berkeley's online catalog, GLADIS, or by using Pathfinder through the Web interface.

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
    Center for Independent Living.
    University of California, Berkeley. Physically Disabled Students Program.
    Rolling Quads.
    People with disabilities--Legal status, laws, etc.--California.
    College students with disabilities--California--Berkeley.
    Discrimination against people with disabilities--Law and legislation.
    People with disabilities--Services for--California.
    Disability Rights and Independent Living Movement collection.

    Administrative Information


    The Hale Zukas Papers were given to The Bancroft Library by Hale Zukas on August 1, 1997. Additions were made on April 21, 1998.


    Funding provided by a research grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitative Research.


    Hale J. Zukas was born on May 31, 1943 in Los Angeles, California. While attending UC Berkeley in the mid-1960s, he joined the Rolling Quads, a group of severely disabled students in the Cowell Residence Program who had organized themselves to advocate for the rights of students with disabilities. Zukas became one of the founders of the Physically Disabled Students Program (PDSP) on the Berkeley campus, and in 1971, he graduated with a B.A. in mathematics.
    In 1972, Zukas and others founded the Center for Independent Living (CIL) in Berkeley. He was CIL's first coordinator of community affairs and remained in that position until 1982. During this time, he became an expert on benefit programs for disabled and elderly people, particularly Supplemental Security Income and In-Home Supportive Services. Zukas also became a leading advocate for the elimination of architectural and transportation barriers, especially on the Bay Area Rapid Transit system in the San Francisco Bay area.
    In 1983, Zukas joined the World Institute on Disability (WID) in Oakland, California, as a public policy analyst, later becoming WID's Director of Research. Through his work at WID, Zukas has become an internationally recognized expert on such issues as personal assistance services, accessible mass transportation, the elimination of architectural barriers, and disability- related statistics. Zukas became the vice chair of the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board in 1983, where he had been a member of the Standards, Research, and Technical Assistance Committee since 1979.
    Zukas consults for several agencies and organizations, including the National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration. He is the author of Attending to America: Report of the National Survey of Attendant Services Programs in the United States(1987), CIL History (1976), and various reports and articles.
    Source: The ABC-CLIO Companion to The Disability Rights Movement by Fred Pelka, ABC-CLIO Inc.: Santa Barbara, California, 1997, p. 340.

    Scope and Content

    The Hale Zukas Papers, 1971-1998, consist of materials reflecting Zukas's leading role as a founder and activist for the disability rights and independent living movements. The collection includes his papers from the Center for Independent Living, the Disabled Students Program at U.C. Berkeley and other organizations in which he was active, records documenting his advocacy work, and a very small amount of personalia.
    Zukas was a founding member of the Center for Independent Living (CIL), the world's first community-based independent living center, established in Berkeley, California in 1972. Especially noteworthy are Zukas's writings about the history of CIL and his working papers, which reflect his influence in shaping many of CIL's programs. Zukas served on CIL's Board of Directors for many years, and his papers include a run of meeting minutes and other information from 1972 to 1987. Zukas's records regarding the Disabled Students Program at U.C. Berkeley are not as extensive, but do include some of its funding proposals and reports. His work in the larger community is reflected in his papers from other organizations ranging from the Bay Area Coalition of the Disabled and Elderly to the White House Conference on Handicapped Individuals.
    Some of Zukas's advocacy work is reflected in his papers, including transportation for the disabled and legislative tracking and analysis of HR-1, the Social Security Amendment of 1972.
    This collection does not include many records of a personal nature, although it does contain a very small amount of personal correspondence and Zukas's resumés from early and more recently in his career.
    Zukas's papers do not reflect all of his work at the Center for Independent Living, the Disabled Students Program, or some of the other organizations in which he was involved. These papers do not contain documentation of Zukas's work at the World Institute on Disability. They do, however, provide a rare and coherent glimpse into the activism that would create a revolution, and reflect the many levels on which the movement for disability rights has occurred. From the national level to the local level, from transportation barriers to social security income to student services, the organizations and issues represented in these papers record the enormous effort that it has taken in order for people with disabilities to assert their legal and human rights.