Scope and Content
Title: CSU Public Affairs Photo Collection
California State University. Office of Public Affairs
Extent: 1.5 linear feet
Department of Archives and Special Collections.
California State Library, Dominguez Hills.
All materials are open to the public unless specific restrictions are imposed.
It is the responsibility of the user to obtain copyright authorization.
[Identification of item], CSU Public Affairs Photo Collection, Courtesy of the Department of Archives and Special Collections.
University Library. California State University, Dominguez Hills.
"Don't ever dare to take your college as a matter of course--because, as with freedom and democracy, many people you'll never
know...have broken their hearts to give it to you."
In the 1959 session of the California legislature, twenty-three bills, three resolutions, and two constitutional amendments
were introduced calling for changes in the structure of public higher education. The public document embodying this structure
was called the California Master Plan.
California Assemblywoman Dorothy Donahoe, chair of the Assembly Education Committee, passed away on April 4, 1960 after sponsoring
the resolution (ACR 88) calling for the creation of the Master Plan and lobbying tirelessly for its adoption. The California
Legislature honored her memory by renaming the Master Plan legislation the Donahoe Higher Education Act. With this act, the
California State college system--which would later evolve into the California State University (CSU) system--was established
on July 1, 1961 under an independent Board of Trustees.
The Donahoe Higher Education Act clearly defined the roles and functions among the three segments of California's public higher
education: the University of California, the state colleges, and the community colleges. A Coordinating Council for Higher
Education as a voluntary organizing body composed of segmental and public representatives to advise the governor, legislature
and segments was created. The functions of the California state colleges were defined to include undergraduate and graduate
programs in the liberal arts and sciences and applied fields and professions leading to baccalaureate and master's degrees
and to joint doctoral degrees with the University of California. The selection of students for the California state colleges
was redefined to set eligibility for freshmen at the top third of secondary school graduates and lower division enrollment
to 40% of undergraduate enrollment (the University of California accepting the top eighth), thus diverting substantial number
of lower division students to community colleges.
The implementation of the act was not simple. The history of state colleges in California at that point went back over one
hundred years beginning with the founding of the first State Normal School founded in 1857. Like other state colleges at that
time, California's first state college began with a mandate as a teacher training institution. This campus was originally
located in San Francisco then transferred to the city of San Jose in 1870. Over the next 70 years, population growth in California
brought the need for various branches of the school to open throughout the state: Los Angeles, in 1882 (transferred to the
UC system in 1919); Chico in 1889; San Diego in 1897; San Francisco (re-established) in 1899; the California State Polytechnic
Institute at San Luis Obispo, in 1903; Santa Barbara in 1909 (transferred to the UC system in 1944); Fresno in 1911; and Humboldt
in 1913. As these institutions were created, administrative reorganization was taking place at the state government level.
In 1921, the legislature reorganized policymaking structures for education. A system of dual or shared authority between the
State Department of Education and the State Board of Education was created to administer the state schools whose role was
redefined as constituting the first two years of college or university instruction. By 1935 the state teachers colleges enrolled
more than 7,000 students and were gradually independently evolving into serving the diverse needs of their regional districts
as well as responding to local labor needs and desires of Californians for post secondary education. At this time, the legislature
again changed both names (each was named for its location) and functions (offering undergraduate liberal arts majors in major
teaching fields for secondary schools) of these institutions.
After World War II, enrollment expansion continued in California, many new students being veterans paying tuition using the
GI Bill. In 1946, the programs leading to a liberal arts degree, without reference to teacher education were authorized by
the legislature. In 1947, a master of art degree in teaching was authorized and by 1955 the master of sciences degrees in
vocational fields. New campuses were established between 1947-1949 in Sacramento, (re-established) in Los Angeles, and Long
Beach. By the late 1950s, the state colleges had experienced substantial uncoordinated growth and expected explosive expansion
in the 1960s because of the coming tidal wave of students; their programs were developing in a way that officials at the University
of California found threatening. This was the background for the Donahoe Education Act. Under this act, new institutions of
higher learning in California would be systematically planned and then opened.
Between 1957-60 new Cal State campuses were planned at Fullerton, Hayward, Stanislaus, San Fernando Valley (later "Northridge"),
Sonoma, San Bernardino and Dominguez Hills, and it was decided that these new schools would be subject to the Master Plan
and the newly formed CSU System. Other CSU campuses later opened in Bakersfield in 1967, San Marcos in 1989, and Monterey
Bay in 1995. A Board of Trustees took the responsibility for the newly created California State System in 1961, and their
first task was to create a chancellor's office and staff. The board located the first office in the Los Angeles.
In the mid-1970s, a new CSU headquarters would be erected in Long Beach. Buell Gallagher, formerly president of City College
of New York, was selected by the trustees to be the first chancellor. Attacked by right-wing critics as being "soft" on communism,
and urged by family members unhappy in California, Gallagher returned to his old job after only serving eight months. The
Trustees then turned to Glen Dumke, who had been Gallagher's vice chancellor for academic affairs and, before that, president
of San Francisco State. Dumke was an published historian before becoming an administrator, and had been part of the joint
team that drafted the original Master Plan. During his 20-year tenure, the chancellor survived campus riots, budget cuts that
followed Ronald Reagan's election as governor in 1966 and at least one attempt by board members to oust him. However, during
the Dumke years, the CSU system grew, both in size and academic reputation.
In 1971, Dumke won an important political victory in Sacramento, when Governor Reagan signed a bill changing the system's
name to the California State University and Colleges. (Later, "colleges" was dropped.) Dumke and the Board of Trustees thought
this was important because the term "university" officially recognized that state faculty members were capable of doing research
and teaching advanced graduate students.
As the civil rights movement of the 1960s evolved into the Vietnam War protests of the early 1970s, civil unrest erupted nationwide.
On Cal State campuses, administrative offices were burned at CSU, Northridge, computer facilities were destroyed at Fresno
State, and at San Francisco State, minority student protests led to violent clashes with the San Francisco police. Dumke's
20-year run as chancellor was astonishing, coming at a time when campus presidents and system heads all over the country were
resigning, or being asked to resign, after five years or less. Even Dumke's harshest opponents among the faculty marveled
at his tenacity. Dumke eventually stepped down and was replaced in 1982 by Wynetka Ann Reynolds, the former provost at Ohio
State University--characterized as an brilliant, dynamic, enterprising woman with an fiery temper and a manner that many people
Reynolds' appointment was narrowly confirmed after a tumultuous selection process, a disheartening beginning, some of her
supporters believe, she never quite overcame. Nevertheless, the new chancellor had vision for the Cal State system and made
considerable progress during her eight years in office. CSU admissions standards were raised. Teacher preparation was improved
in a system that produces about 60 percent of the California's primary and secondary teachers. "Magnet" high schools were
opened on Cal State campuses, in collaboration with the Los Angeles public schools--performing arts at Cal State Los Angeles,
science and mathematics at Cal State Dominguez Hills. Reynolds encouraged minority recruiting efforts and provided strong
system-wide support for both fine arts and performing arts, areas that had been neglected on many Cal State campuses. She
pushed for higher salaries for campus presidents while, at the same time, started a formal process of evaluating the performance
of the campus chiefs. However, her accomplishments were overshadowed by a personal style that many on her staff and on the
campuses found boldly offensive. Some think Reynolds' problems with others were caused by her inability to grasp that the
Cal State System was federation. Key trustees were convinced that Reynolds was trying to concentrate power in the central
office and that too much of the board's business was being conducted in secret. In her defense, others stated that Reynolds
problems with others were due to sexism. "A woman can do the same things a man can do but she will be seen differently," said
Trustee Blanche C. Bersch of Reynolds in a 1996 interview, recalling the Reynolds chancellorship.
By 1987, general trustee opinion was shifting against Reynolds and she left three years later.
In April 1990, Ellis McCune left the presidency of Cal State Hayward to be interim chancellor until the arrival of Barry Munitz
in August 1991. McCune, who was reluctant to keep the job permanently, nevertheless provided a calming influence on the CSU
system by smoothing relations with most CSU trustees contrasting to their relationship with his predecessor. He also shortened
the amount of reporting from individual campuses to the central office, a burden that McCune and other presidents had been
complaining about for some time. Munitz brought a varied background to his new post. He had been chancellor of the University
of Houston's main campus from 1977 to 1982, but then resigned to became vice chairman of Maxxam Inc., a large Houston-based
conglomerate before returning to academic leadership at CSU. The chancellor's corporate past was the target of protests by
environmental groups because of Maxxam's takeover of Pacific Lumber Co. in Humboldt County, and the clear cutting of old growth
redwood trees that followed. However, Munitz defended himself by stating that his former job largely involved dealing with
governmental agencies and other external relations and that he had little to do with making company policy. The trustee committee
recruiting the chancellor found nothing to persuade them against hiring a chancellor with both higher education and corporate
As chancellor, Munitz immediately set about rebuilding Cal State's reputation Sacramento. He established good relations with
Governor Pete Wilson and he managed to stay on reasonably good terms with both parties in the Legislature. His dedication
to decentralizing the 22-campuses and promoting "charter campuses" that would be free from many system-wide regulations deliberations
was popular; although his introduction of "merit pay" for the Cal State's faculty salary was not popular with the faculty
union. During his chancellorship, the opening the new Cal State Monterey Bay campus, the acquiring of the California Maritime
Academy, and the planning a 23rd campus in Ventura County occurred. In 1988 he resigned to head the J. Paul Getty Trust.
Dr. Charles B. Reed, former chancellor of the State University System in Florida, took over in 1988 and is the current Chancellor
for the California State University System. He heads a system that has grown to be the largest university system in the nation
and has over 40,000 faculty and staff and almost 360,000 students on 23 campuses and five off-campus centers. The CSU annual
budget is approximately $5.5 billion; it administers approximately 1,000 bachelor's degree programs, 600 master's programs,
and 16 joint doctoral programs in 240 areas. Each of the colleges has a separate history, operates more independently than
the branches of its counterpart in the University of California system, and considers itself part of a greater federation.
The CSU system produces more college graduates in California than all other universities and colleges in the state combined,
and its endurance is a testament to foresighted, higher education planning embodied in Donahoe Act and the strength and will
of key individuals that created the system and maintained it.
*Background information on the four chancellors was complied from this source: Trombley, William. "CAL STATE TRUSTEES: A new
"corporate" style" in The California Higher Education Policy Center Newsletter, 1996.
Scope and Content
The CSU Public Affairs Photo Collection (1.5 linear ft.) encompasses photographic material from the late 1800s to the early
1990s. The bulk of the photos contained here date from the 1960s-to the 1980s. The photos in this collection were created
or gathered by the CSU Public Affairs Office, which provides consultation and advice to the Trustees, Chancellor, and other
staff. The Public Affairs Offices oversees publications and reproduction Centers, responds to press and other media inquiries
as well as to information requests by the general public, and works cooperatively with campus public affairs offices on areas
of mutual interest. Many of the photos here were previously published as part of informative brochures, fact sheets, and other
publications relevant to the public about the CSU. Unprocessed, this collection was approximately 3 liner feet. However, due
to the limited space in the CSU Archives and professional archival judgment based on standard appraisal procedures, duplicate
photos, non-photographic material, and items not relevant to the mission of the CSU archive's mission--that is, having no
CSU system-wide significance--were removed. (Please see further comments in the individual series descriptions.) The collection
is divided into two series correlating to the CSU system as a whole and to individual campuses.