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Guide to the Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND) Records, 1985-1996
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  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • History
  • Scope and Content

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND) Records,
    Date (inclusive): 1985-1996
    Creator: Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense
    Extent: 2.5 linear feet and audiovisual material
    Photographs: In boxes 1 and 3.
    Audiovisual: Eleven audiocassettes in boxes 2 and 3.
    Repository: Henry Madden Library (California State University, Fresno).

    Sanoian Special Collections Library.
    Fresno, California
    Language: English.

    Administrative Information


    The records were donated by Werner Lipton in 1997.

    Access Restrictions

    The collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has been transferred to California State University, Fresno.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND) Records, Sanoian Special Collections Library, California State University, Fresno.


    The Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND), a grass-roots organization formed out of opposition to the construction of Freeway 168, began in November 1988. The STAND committee was composed of Werner Lipton, Coordinator; John Gamboa, Treasurer; Susan Escobar; Jeanne Larson; Beki Moody and Scott Werner. They, along with volunteers, banded together to collect over 1,200 signatures to prevent construction of the proposed freeway. STAND's opposition to the freeway was based on several factors, one of which was the destruction of more than 800 houses that lay in the freeway's path. The neighborhood in the area of construction was primarily made up of middle-income, racially diverse residents who suddenly found themselves displaced, looking for homes in an inflated market. STAND's concerns included, but were not limited to, the environmental impact of another freeway in the Fresno area, the effect the proposed freeway would have on local businesses and the effectiveness Freeway 168 would have in alleviating traffic congestion. The efforts of STAND and other organizations were ultimately unsuccessful; Freeway 168 will be built.
    Plans for Freeway 168 began in 1955 when the City of Fresno and California State University, Fresno arranged for the freeway to run through the campus. In 1963 the California Highway Commission agreed that Freeway 168 would run between Lewis Avenue and Shaw Avenue. Plans for the highway were dropped due to lack of funds. The passing of Measure C in 1986, a ½% sales tax collected to improve road conditions as well as transportation in Fresno County, revitalized plans for the freeway.

    Scope and Content

    The STAND records measure 2.5 linear feet and date from 1985 to 1996. The collection is arranged in twelve series: Background information, Contacts, Displacement, Environmental issues, Freeway 168, Funding, Legal issues, Members of STAND, Other grass-roots effort, Publicity, Related organization, and Supporting material.
    The Background information series (1991-1993) contains two position papers, one published in 1991 and one from 1992. The position papers give a brief overview of STAND's arguments and alternatives to Freeway 168, as well as the background on Freeway 168. Information on the funding for the project as well as a map of the freeway are also included.
    The Contacts series (1989-1995) depicts STAND's efforts to win support for their cause through correspondence with the local City Council, State Assembly as well as various local organizations. The City Council folder covers the 1994 and 1993 elections. The 1993 election contains surveys distributed by STAND to City Council members as well as those running the Board of Supervisors to ascertain their position on the proposed freeway.
    The Displacement series (1989-1996) predominantly covers the Caltran organization, (California State Department of Transportation) which bought the homes along the freeway construction area. An article in the file written by Werner Lipton entitled "The 'Scudding' of Fresno," which appeared in Moving People,expresses Lipton's indignation over the lack of concern by the Fresno City Council and Caltrans for the people living in the neighborhood. Also included is correspondence with Caltrans concerning the lack of maintenance of the homes purchased by Caltrans which were to be destroyed. The correspondence between the two organizations depicts the sometimes frustrating communication with an organization as big as Caltrans.
    An array of information on the quality of the air in the San Joaquin Valley and the Sierra is contained in the Environmental issues series (1989-1995). The series offers some information on the possible University of California (UC) site in Fresno County. The construction of Freeway 168 played a part in the consideration of Fresno as the site of the tenth UC campus. STAND's opposition focused on the negative environmental impact the freeway would have not only on Fresno but on the surrounding area of the proposed UC campus. According to a letter written by Lipton dated March 2, 1994, "The Academy site is particularly susceptible to air pollution due to inversion, so that the air quality there is substantially worse than in Fresno" (Box 2, Environmental issues, University of California site, Correspondence, 1992-1995).
    Correspondence between STAND and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be found in this series as well. Included is a report that outlines the inconsistent and incorrect information in the Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement according to the STAND committee.
    Proposed alternatives to Freeway 168 as well as the petition presented to the Fresno County Transportation Authority can be found in this series (1989-1995). One proposed alternative was a light rail system in Fresno. STAND joined the Fresno-Clovis Beltway Committee to promote the idea as a feasible alternative.
    The Funding series (1989-1996) includes the annual reports of the Fresno County Transportation Authority (FCTA). The series also includes an almost complete set of the meeting minutes for the same time span. The FCTA, a seven-member committee, is responsible for collecting the money from Measure C and determines how the funds should be spent and which projects should be allotted funding according to the terms of Measure C. Much of the material shows how dedicated STAND was in being well informed about the decisions being made on Freeway 168. STAND members expressed their opposition to the money being spent on the freeway at numerous FCTA meetings. Werner Lipton's handwritten notes on the agendas are extensive.
    STAND sought legal council in their pursuit in stopping the building of Freeway 168. The Legal issues series contains their records with two attorneys, Richard Harriman and Robert Wright, dating from 1991 to 1993.
    The records contain the folders of two Members of STAND(1985-1996), Beki Moody and Jeanne Larson. The folders contain information on how they worked together with Werner Lipton as well as their personal roles in the organization.
    Werner Lipton worked with Joanne Nuckols, the leader of the opposition to Freeway 710 in South Pasadena, as they pursued their parallel efforts. Their correspondence as well as an article written about Nuckols's fight against the freeway is located in the Other grass-roots effort series (1994).
    The Publicity series (1989-1995) covers STAND's efforts to launch their cause into the media. Several press releases as well as numerous editorials written by STAND members and their supporters are located in this series. A few photographs of their campaign movement as well as photographs of television interviews are available for viewing. An audiocassette of an interview with Werner Lipton on KMJ news radio is also available.
    Related organization series (1991-1996) includes information on the unmet transit needs in Fresno County. The series includes the Council of Fresno County Governments (COG) meeting minutes.
    STAND's research as well as presentation material (1986-1996) is located in the Supporting material series. STAND researched different laws pertaining to freeways. There are also newspaper clipping on the effects freeways are having in bigger cities such as Boston.