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Inventory of the Gustav Schultz Sanctuary Collection, 1971-72, 1981-90
GTU 90-5-01  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • Access Points
  • Biographical Description
  • Scope and Content
  • Recommended Background Reading

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Gustav Schultz Sanctuary Collection,
    Date (inclusive): 1971-72, 1981-90
    Accession number: GTU 90-5-01
    Shelf location: 2/G/3 - 4
    Creator: Schultz, Gustav H., 1935-
    Size: 3 boxes, 1 folio

    3 1/2 ft.
    Type of material: Correspondence; working, events, and task files; published material
    Repository: The Graduate Theological Union
    Berkeley, California
    Language: English.

    Administrative Information

    Source and Date

    Gustav Schultz, 1990


    Collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to The Graduate Theological Union. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Archivist. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Graduate Theological Union as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Gustav Schultz Sanctuary Collection, GTU 90-5-01, The Graduate Theological Union Archives, Berkeley, CA.

    Access Points


    Sanctuary Movement --United States
    Refugees, political --Central America
    Church work with refugees --United States
    Christianity and justice --United States
    Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 --Moral and ethical aspects
    Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 --Religious aspects
    Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 --Desertions --United States

    Names as Subjects

    Schultz, Gustav H., 1935-

    Biographical Description

    Gustav H. Schultz was born 1935 in Foley, Alabama, receiving his education at Concordia Theological Seminary and Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. He served pastorates in Georgia and Illinois before becoming pastor of the University Lutheran Chapel, Berkeley, California in 1969. This period saw a growing movement against participation in the Vietnam Conflict as an immoral, illegal, and undeclared war, and the increasing identity of the church with the moral and ethical issues of choice within the individual conscience. Responding to this, the University Lutheran Chapel, under Schultz's leadership, with the support of other churches in the area and the city of Berkeley, declared a formal resolution of sanctuary. Sanctuary offered "the availability of shelter and sustenance to military personnel who are conscientiously unable to continue their participation in the armed forces or in combat duties." (Resolution, Nov. 7, 1971: See, Box 1 ff 9)
    A similar movement for sanctuary emerged a decade later due to the civil and economic instability in Central America, particularly El Salvador, exacerbated in part by historic and current U.S. policies in the area. In the early 1980's there was a large displacement of peoples from civil war, military aggression and terror, and subsequent personal and economic hardship. Refugees began to travel north to camps, and further through Mexico to the United States. The U.S., due to its policies in Central America and concerning asylum, did not recognize Central Americans, or El Salvadorans, as qualifying for refugee status. Those caught were deported and returned to their countries. Becoming aware of the complexities of the situation, churches began to respond to the needs of the refugees. Again, the idea and use of the concept of sanctuary became the impetus for a movement among churches in the United States.
    While work was being done and the movement taking form in the Tucson area, Gus Schultz had helped form the East Bay Sanctuary Covenant from among the Sather Gate Churches in Berkeley. March 24, 1982 was the second anniversary of the assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero, a key figure in El Salvador murdered by the military as he was saying mass. That day, reminded "of our obligation to our religious heritage, to each other, and to you", formal sanctuary was declared by the University Lutheran Chapel giving "support, protection and advocacy for undocumented Central American refugees who were fleeing for their lives." (Reaffirmation, March 24, 1988: See, Box 1 ff 9)
    Schultz worked in many capacities within the Sanctuary Movement, making trips to Central America, assisting with sanctuary for refugees in the Bay Area, and helping to found, or being a member of, several sanctuary-related organizations including the National Sanctuary Defense Fund, SHARE, Salvadoran Humanitarian Aid, Research and Education, and others.
    The Sanctuary Movement included those who sought to offer humanitarian aid seeing this as a part of one's religious sensibilities. The Movement also included those who perceived this as a political opportunity to expose and work against U.S. policies in Central America, a position also informed by religious sensibilities. No matter the emphases of the Movement, the U.S. government saw it as subversive and illegal. The government carried out surveillance of involved persons, churches, and organizations resulting in indictments, trials, and convictions in 1985-86.

    Scope and Content

    The majority of the collection concerns the sanctuary movement for Central American refugees. Sanctuary for military personnel is a small, though significant, part of the collection. This collection was obtained from the donor's office. Material was received in 3-ring binders, file folders, and loose. See container listing for arrangement notations.

    Recommended Background Reading

    • God and Caesar at the Rio Grande: Sanctuary and the Politics of Religion, Hilary Cunningham (Univ. of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1995). BV4466.C86 1995
    • Sanctuary: A Story of American Conscience and the Law in Collision, Ann Crittenden (Weidenfeld & Nicolson: NY, 1988). HV645.C75 1988
    • Women in the Sanctuary Movement, Robin Lorentzen (Temple Univ. Press: Philadelphia, 1991). BV4466.L67 1991