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Finding aid for the Heinrich Schwarz papers, 1928-1988
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Collection Details
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  • Descriptive Summary
  • Biographical/Historical Note
  • Administrative Information
  • Scope and Content of Collection
  • Indexing Terms
  • Bibliography

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Heinrich Schwarz papers
    Date (inclusive): 1894-1974
    Number: 920033
    Creator/Collector: Schwarz, Heinrich, 1894-1974
    Physical Description: 15.0 linear feet
    The Getty Research Institute
    Special Collections
    1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100
    Los Angeles, California, 90049-1688
    (310) 440-7390
    Abstract: Art historian, born in Prague. Manuscripts, correspondence, and printed materials related to Schwarz's research, writings, curatorial work, and teaching about photography, photography's relationship to art, the iconology of the mirror and the owl, and Austrian art, as well as optical phenomenon. Much material relates to Schwarz's popular work, D. O. Hill: Master of Photography.
    Request Materials: Request access to the physical materials described in this inventory through the catalog record  for this collection. Click here for the access policy .
    Language: Collection material is in English, and German.

    Biographical/Historical Note

    Born in Prague in 1894, Heinrich Schwarz began his studies in Classical Archaeology and Philosophy at the University of Vienna in 1913. When the war began in 1914, Schwarz interrupted his studies for four years while he served in the Austro-Hungarian military service for which he received several decorations for bravery. In 1918, he resumed his training at the University of Vienna, receiving a Ph.D. in 1921 for his doctoral work, Der Anfänge der Lithographie in Wien (published posthumously by Böhlau Verlag in 1988).
    Dr. Schwarz began his curatorial training in 1921 at the Albertina Print Room, Vienna, and was appointed Curator of the Austrian State Gallery, Belvedere Palace, in 1923. Schwarz collaborated in the creation of this new museum, which consisted of the Barockmuseum, the Gallery of the Nineteenth Century, and the Modern Gallery. In 1926, he published Salzburg und das Salzkammergut: Eine künstlerische Entdeckung, which appeared most recently in a fourth edition in 1977. Dr. Schwarz' publications in the fields of both Austrian art and the treasures of his new museum are many, including journals, "Amicis" editions, Galerie des 19.Jahrhunderts and Moderne Galerie.
    In addition to his research in Austrian art, Schwarz also published, in his early years at the Austrian State Gallery, the results of his research into the art and technology of early photography, which focused on the work of David Octavius Hill. David Octavius Hill: Der Meister der Photographie, first published in 1930 in German and translated to English in 1931 and 1932, is considered to be the first true monograph of a photographer ever written. Dr. Schwarz' contributions in the field of early photography and the evolution of photography continued throughout his career.
    In 1938, Dr. Schwarz emigrated to the United States, where by 1941 he had settled as a research scholar at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. From the Albright, Dr. Schwarz moved in 1943 to the Museum of the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Providence, R.I., as Curator of Paintings, Drawings, and Prints. In 1954, Dr. Schwarz finally settled at Wesleyan University in Middletown, CT, in the position of Professor of the History of Art and Curator of the Davison Art Collection, where he remained until his retirement in 1972. During his time at Wesleyan, Dr. Schwarz corresponded widely with his colleagues, including Beaumont Newhall, Erwin Panofsky, and many others at museums and libraries in the U.S. and Europe. He also served as a Visiting Professor at Wellesley (1953-4), Mt. Holyoke (1954), and Columbia (1966-8). Throughout this period Dr. Schwarz wrote and lectured primarily on the machine's interjection into art through the centuries, early photography, and iconography, including most specifically the symbolism of the owl and the mirror in art.
    Dr. Schwarz also involved himself in the development of exhibitions, and was also the curator/donor of his own rich collection of early calotypes, many by D. O. Hill and Robert Adamson. This collection was exhibited a MoMA (1941 and 1949), RISD, and Yale. In 1964, Schwarz was awarded the Cross of Honour, First Class, "Litteribus et Artibus" by the Austrian Government for his learned contributions.
    Heinrich Schwarz died in 1974. His wife, Elisabeth Schwarz, and colleagues continued efforts to publish the large quantity of extant, unpublished research material collected by Dr. Schwarz. Mrs. Schwarz succeeded in overseeing a number of publications: a fourth edition of Salzburg und das Salzkammergut (1977); in cooperation with the Österreichische Galerie and in commemoration of Nestroy's 175th birthday, Johann Nestroy im Bild: eine Ikonographie (1979); a collection of Dr. Schwarz' essays and lectures, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences (1985); and the first published edition of Dr. Schwarz' dissertation (1921), Die Anfänge der Lithographie in Österreich (1988).

    Administrative Information


    Open for use by qualified researchers.

    Publication Rights

    Preferred Citation

    Heinrich Schwarz papers, 1894-1974, Getty Research Institute, Research Library, Accession no. 920033.

    Acquisition Information

    Acquired in 1992.

    Processing History

    The collection was partly organized and processed in 1993. Vanessa Walker-Oakes completed the physical processing and wrote the first draft of the finding aid in 1995. Jocelyn Gibbs and Annette Leddy edited and rewrote portions in 1996. Annette Leddy produced the final version.

    Scope and Content of Collection

    The papers of Heinrich Schwarz consist primarily of manuscripts, research material, correspondence, and photoprints from the 1940's to 1972, the period during which Dr. Schwarz was most active in the United States. Little remains of his early work in Austria, although some early records of his research into photography and lithography appear in the form of handwritten notes, an early edition of D.O. Hill with comments and corrections, and a handful of early letters pertaining to this material. Nor are there consistent documents of a personal nature from either Europe or America, although scattered personal insights emerge in correspondence with colleagues and friends throughout the collection. The abundance of the material relates to his professional career and contacts made as a professor, author, and lecturer at RISD and at Wesleyan, from 1943-1972.
    Further, files containing the correspondence of Elisabeth Schwarz (1973-85) document her efforts to publish her husband's research material after his death in 1974. These letters, corrected manuscripts, publication contracts and revenues offer insight into the posthumous reception and continuing impact of Dr. Schwarz' research.

    Arrangement note

    The collection is organized in five series: Series I: Research Files; Series II: Bibliographic Files; Series III: Publishing and Lectures; Series IV: Heinrich Schwarz Correspondence; Series V: Elisabeth Schwarz Correspondence.

    Indexing Terms

    Subjects - Names

    Hill, David Octavius, 1802-1870
    Newhall, Beaumont, 1908-1993
    Schwarz, Elisabeth
    Schwarz, Heinrich, 1894-1974

    Subjects - Topics

    Art and photography
    Camera lucidas--History
    Camera obscuras
    Optics and art
    Peep shows--History
    Photomechanical processes

    Genres and Forms of Material

    Lantern slides
    Photographic prints
    Photographs, Original


    Schwarz, Heinrich. "Eine Handzeichnung von Abraham Bloomaert," Mittelungen der Gesellschaft für vervierfältinge Kunst, Heft 2/3 (1919), pp. 36-38.
    Die Anfänge der Lithographie in Wien, 1921 (Ms.).
    "Unbekannte französische und italienische Lithographie-Inkunabeln in Wiener Sammlungen," Mitteilungen der Geselschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst, Wien (1921), pp. 34 ff.
    "Nachträge zu Andresens Deutschen Malerradierern," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst, Wien (1924), pp. 411 ff.
    "Renoirs Baigneuses," Belvedere, Heft 32-33 (März 1925), pp. 65-69.
    "Die Lithographien J.A.D. Ingres," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfaltigende Kunst, Wien (1926), pp. 74 ff.
    "Eine unbekannte Mailänder Lithographie-Inkunabeln," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst, Wien (1928), pp. 11 ff.
    "Ein Relief Johann Georg Dorfmeisters," Magyar Müvészet, (Ungarishe Kunst), Heft 9 (1927), pp. 567-569.
    "Heinrich Reinholds Bericht über seine Reise nach Salzburg, Tirol und Oberösterreich im Sommer 1818," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde, Salzburg 1927.
    "August Heinrich und die geistigen Voraussetzungen seiner Malerei," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 9-16.
    "Ein unbekannter Brief Franz Pforrs und Friedrich Overbecks," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 28-32.
    "Zwei Landschaften von Heinrich Reinhold," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 61-65.
    "Dorfmeisters Türkische Figurine," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 69-71.
    "Anna Dorothea Therbuschs Bildnis des Landschaftsmalers Jacob Philipp Hackert," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 86-87.
    "Zu Carl Georg Heise, Museumsbilder auf Reisen," Amicis, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Galerie 1926, Wien (1927), pp. 99-100.
    "Der Almanach für Damen auf das Jahr 1809. Das erste Buch mit lithographischen Illustrationen," Zeitschrift für Bücherfreunde, Neue Folge 20. Jahrgang, Heft 3 (1928), pp. 44-49.
    "Eine unbekannte Mailander Lithographie-Inkunabel," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für vervielfältingende Kunst, Band 51 (1928), pp. 11-12.
    Katalog einer Sammlung zur Geschichte der Entwicklung und Blüte der Künstler-Lithographie 1800-1860, Kunstantiquariat Artaria (1928).
    "Bildnisse Zacharias Werners," Hochland, Monatschrift für alle Gebiete des Wissens, der Literatur und Kunst, Heft 4 (1929/30), pp. 354-359.
    "Neuerwerbungen der Galerie des 19.Jahrhundert," Österreichische Kunst, (January 1930).
    "L'Oeuvre de Renger-Patzsch," Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Photographie et de Cinématographie, Tome XVII, No.5. (Mai 1930), pp. 149-152.
    David Octavius Hill: der Meister der Photographie. Leipzig: Insel, 1931.
    Beiträge zum Werke von Carl Schindler," Die Graphische Künste, with Franz Martin Haberditzl, Heft 2/3 (1931).
    David Octavius Hill: Master of Photography. Translated by Helen E. Fraenkel. London: George C. Harrap & Co., 1932.
    "A Conversation with the Editor," The Gallery, A Monthly Review of International Pictorial Photography, Vol. 1, No. 5 (15 July 1933), pp. 60ff.
    "Uber Photographie," Die Galerie (Vienna), Heft 1 (März 1933), pp. I-IV.
    "Om Fotografi," Foto Tidskrift for International Fotografi (Copenhagen), (Marts 1933), pp. 4-5.
    "The Camera Obscura," The Gallery (London), Vol. 1, No. 9 (Nov. 1933), pp. 111 ff.
    "Zur Geschichte der Camera Obscura," Die Galerie (Vienna), Heft 11 (Januar 1934), pp. LXXIX-LXXXIV.
    "Hugo Erfurth," Photographik (Berlin), Heft 2 (Februar 1934), pp. 1-5.
    "Austria," L'Illustrazione Italiana, Anno LXI, no. 19 (maggio 1934), p.714.
    "Eine Zeichnung Paul Trogers zum Fresko der Melker Studentenkapelle," Kirchenkunst, VI (1934/35), pp. 36-39.
    "Maria Pauli-Rottler," Die Pause, 1. Jahrgang, Heft 7, pp. 29-30.
    "Regesten zum Leben und Werk des Malers Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer," Kirchenkunst, Heft 3/4 (1935), p. 89ff.
    Kaiser Franz Joseph Austellung: Secession Wien. Wien: Verein der Museumsfreunde in Wien.
    "Neue Nachträge zu Andresens Deutschen Malerradierern," Die Graphischen Künste, N.F. I (1936), pp. 142 ff.
    "Die künstlerische Entdeckung Salzburg und des Salzkammerguts," Die Pause, 2. Jahrgang, Heft 2, pp. 23ff.
    "Salzburg im Jahre 1815. Nach den Reisebriefen des Arztes Ludwig Hermann Friedländer," Salzburger Museumsblätter, Herausgegeben vom Salzburger Museums Verein, Nos. 1-3 (1936), Spalte 1-12.
    "Notizen zu Salzburger Künstlern," Salzburger Museumsblätter, Herausgegeben vom Salzburger Museums Verein, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1936), pp. 1-6.
    "Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld und Julius Schoppe in Salzburg (1817)," Salzburger Museumsblätter, Nos. 1-2 (Jan.-Apr. 1937), pp. 1-8.
    "Anton Franz Maulbertsch," Beaux-Arts (May-June 1937), pp. 16.
    "Eine unbekannte Lithographie von Andrea Appiani," Die Graphischen Künste, N.F. II (1937), pp. 109 ff.
    "David Octavius Hill," The Complete Photographer, Vol. 6, Issue 31 (1941), pp. 1974-1978.
    "Julia Margaret Cameron," Ibid., Vol. 2, Issue 10 (1941), pp. 593-595.
    "Nadar," Ibid., Vol. 7, Issue 41 (1941), pp. 2665-2667.
    "David Octavius Hill," Minicam Photography, c. 1943.
    "American Folk Painting," Museum Notes, Museum of Art R.I.S.D., Vol. 2, no. 1 (Jan. 1944), pp. 2-3.
    "New Acquisitions of Pre-Columbian Art: Peru and Venezuela," Museum Notes, Museum of Art R.I.S.D., Vol. 2, no. 4 (Apr. 1944), pp. 1-2.
    "Utrillo's Château Blanc," Museum Notes, Museum of Art R.I.S.D., Vol. 2, no. 6 (Sept.-Oct. 1944), pp. 1-2.
    "Calotypes by D.O. Hill and R. Adamson," Museum Notes R.I.S.D., Vol. 2, No. 8 (Dec. 1944), pp. 1-2.
    "Daumier," Museum Notes R.I.S.D., Vol. 3, no. 8 (Nov. 1945)
    "An Unnoticed Drawing by Van Gogh," Museum Notes R.I.S.D., Vol. 4, no. 4 (April 1946) pp. 2-3.
    "A Landscape by Gustave Courbet," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 4, no. 5 (May 1946), pp. 2-3.
    "Two Mexican Sculptures," Studies: Museum of Art (Rhode Island School of Design), 1947.
    "An Exhibition of Recent Acquisitions of the Print Room," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 5, no. 5 (October 1947) pp. 2-3.
    "A Rare Engraving," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 6, no. 6 (November 1948), p. 4.
    "Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences," Magazine of Art, Vol. 42, No. 11 (November 1949).
    "A Drawing by Rembrandt," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 7, no. 2 (November 1949) pp. 1-4.
    "A Landscape by Sébastien Bourdon," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 9, no. 2 (January 1952) pp. 1-3. (Reprinted in The Art Quarterly, Spring 1952)
    "The Mirror in Art," Art Quarterly, Vol. XV, No. 2 (Summer 1952), pp. 96-118.
    "A Painting by Francesco Guardi," Museum Notes, R.I.S.D., Vol. 10, no. 4 (May 1953) pp. 1-3.
    "A Water-colour attributed to Dürer," The Burlington Magazine, Vol. XCV, no. 602 (May 1953) pp. 148-150.
    "Jan Gossaert's Adam and Eve Drawings," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Series VI, Vol. XLII (October 1953) pp. 145-168. Reprinted in Essays in Honor of Hans Tietze, 1880-1954, New York (1958) pp. 171-194.
    "Two Drawings attributed to Domenico Passignano," Art Quarterly, XVI, no. 4 (Winter 1953) pp. 337-340.
    "The Workshop of an XVII Century Goldsmith. An Unrecorded French Print," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Series VI, vol. XLIII (April 1954) pp. 231-242.
    "A Portrait Drawing by Edme Bouchardon," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Series VI, Vol. XLIV (September 1954) pp. 123-6.
    "Johann Adam Klein in Salzburg (1818)," Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde, Bd. 96 (1956) pp. 217-222.
    "Daumier, Gill, and Nadar," Gazette de Beaux-Arts, Series VI (1957).
    Salzburg und das Salzkammergut: Die künstlerische Entdeckung der Stadt und der Landschaft im 19.Jahrhundert, 3rd Ed. Vienna: Anton Schroll, 1957.
    "Goya's Portrait of Gaulon," College Art Journal (Fall 1957).
    "Two Unrecorded Engravings by Master S," Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts bulletin, Bruxelles, VI, No. 1 (March 1957) pp. 39-42.
    "Zum Werke von Carl Schindler," Studien aus Wien, Herausgegeben vom Historischenb Museum der Stadt Wien, Heft 5 (1957) pp. 257-265.
    "An Exhibition of Victorian Calotypes," Victorian Studies: A Quarterly Journal of the Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 4 (1958), pp. 354-356.
    "The Mirror of the Artist and the Mirror of the Devout," Suida Festschrift. London: Phaidon Verlag, 1958, pp. 90-106.
    "William Etty's 'Self-Portrait' in the London National Portrait Gallery," Art Quarterly, Vol. XXI, No. 4 (Winter 1958), pp. 391-396.
    "Two Unknown Portraits of Manet," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Vol. LIII (April 1959) pp. 247-254.
    "Ingres Graveur," Gazette des Beaux Arts, Decembre 1959. (Reprint of 1926 article)
    "Franz Anton Maulbertsch in American Museums," The Baltimore Museum of Art News, VO. XXIII, no. 1 (Fall 1959) pp. 9-15.
    "August Heinrich und die geistigen Voraussetzungen seiner Malerei," Mittelungen der Österreichischen Galerie 1960. Previously published in Amicis, Wien, 1926.
    "Die Graphischen Werke von Egon Schiele," Philobiblion, Vol. 1/1 (1961).
    "Die Graphischen Werke von Egon Schiele: Nachtrag," Philobiblion, Vol. 1/2 (1962). (Together, Dr. Schwarz' Philobiblion Vol. 1 and 2 articles comprise a Catalogue Raisonné of Egon Schiele's graphic works.)
    "Franz Anton Palko als Bildnismaler," Mitteilungen der Österreichischer Galerie, No. 50 (1962). Paper presented at the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, Inc. On September 3 1966, Columbia University.
    "Ferdinand Oliviers `St. Carls Kirche in Wien,'" Festschrift Otto Erich Deutsch, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1963.
    "Art and Photography," Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society (1963) pp. 599-600.
    "Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld in Salzburg and Berchtesgaden 1817," Kunstjahrbuch der Stadt Linz, 1963.
    "Carl Maria von Weber as a lithographer," (1961).
    "Before 1839: Forerunners and Influences," Paper presented at the College Art Association Meeting, Baltimore (1963) and the Symposium at the International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House (1964); published posthumously in Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences (1985). Much of this paper is a revision of his earlier article for the Magazine of Art (1949).
    "A Unique Woodcut by Hans Lautensach," Pantheon, 1964.
    Honoré Daumier: Drawings, Lithographs, Sculptures, Books, Autumn 1965 (Exhibition Catalogue).
    "Palma Giovane and his Family: Observations on Some Portrait Drawings," Master Drawings, Vol. III (1965), No. 2.
    "Heinrich Reinhold in Italien," Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, Vol. 10 (1965), p. 96.
    Kirchbaum. Lexicon der Christlichen Iconographie. Heinrich Schwarz, Mitarbeiter. Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 1965.
    Schwarz, Heinrich. "Louis Dorigny in Wien," Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Galerie, 1966.
    "After 1839: Effects and Examples of a New Vision," lecture given at Worcester Museum of Art (10 March 1966), Temple University (11 March 1968), and the Philadelphia Museum of Art (20 April 1970). Also known by the title, "Art and Photography: Symptoms and Trends".
    "Vermeer and the Camera Obscura," Pantheon: Internationale Zeitschrift fur Kunst, Mai/Juni 1966.
    "Schiele, Dürer, and the Mirror," Art Quarterly, Vol. XXX (1967), Nos. 3-4.
    "Joseph Rosa und das Museé Napoleon," Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Galerie, 1968.
    "J. August Heinrich," Neue Deutsche Biographie 8 (1969).
    "Eule," Reallexicon zur Deutsche Kunstgeschichte, Herausgeber: Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, München, Band VII (1981). Ms. completed in 1970.
    "Hill-Adamson Calotypes," The Scottish Art Review, Vol. XII, No. 4 (1970), pp. 1-5, 33.
    "The Calotypes of D.O. Hill and Robert Adamson: Some Contemporary Judgements," Apollo, Vol. XCV (Feb. 1972), No. 120, pp. 123-128.
    "German Artists in Austria in the First Quarter of the Nineteenth Century," Correlations Between German and Non-German Art in the Nineteenth Century (Seminar at Yale University on the theme "Deutsche Romantik"), Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 3 (1974).
    Article in Festscrift for Beaumont Newhall (1975)
    Nestroy im Bild: eine Ikonographie. Wien, München: Verlag Jugend und Volk, 1977.
    Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences. William Parker, ed. Layton, UT and Rochester, NY: Gibbs M. Smith, Inc., Peregrine Smith Books in association with Visual Studies Workshop Press, 1985.
    Die Anfänge der Lithographie in Österreich. Bearbeitet von Elisabeth Hermann-Fichtenau. Wien: Böhlau, 1988.