The Anderson family, descendants of American Revolutionary War officer Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, was one of the most
prominent families of Ohio and Kentucky.During the Revolutionary War, Richard Clough Anderson (1750-1826) took part in the battles of Assunpink Bridge, Brandywine,
Germantown, and Savannah, and as aide-de-camp to General Lafayette,
Anderson attended to the surrender of Cornwallis. On December 17, 1783, the Society of Cincinnati appointed Richard Clough
Anderson surveyor general in Virginia Military District, (the land between Scioto and Little Miami rivers),
which had been granted to Virginia by Congress in 1784 to be distributed as wartime to Virginia soldiers. Richard C. Anderson's
first wife, Elizabeth Clark, was the sister of Generals George Rogers and William Clark.
In 1797, Richard Clough Anderson married Sarah Marshall (1779-1854), first cousin of Chief Justice John Marshall and a
relative of the Clarks. They had seven sons and five daughters some of whom played an important role in state and national
political and cultural life.
Richard Clough Anderson, Jr. (1788-1826), a son of Elizabeth and Richard Clough Anderson, graduated from William and Mary,
became a representative in the Kentucky legislature from 1815 to 1817, a member of Congress
from 1817 to 1821, speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1822, and from 1823 to 1826 minister to Colombia, where
he negotiated the first treaty between the United States and a South American country.
He died of yellow fever to Cartagena en route to the Congress of Panama of 1826. Larz Anderson (1803-1878), a son of Sarah and Richard Clough Anderson, graduated from Harvard Law School and moved to Cincinnati,
Ohio, when he married into the family of Nicholas Longworth, noted
horticulturist of Cincinnati, and became one of the wealthiest men in the state, Director of the Citizens' National Bank,
known for involvement in various charities. Larz Anderson died in June 1878.Robert Anderson (1805-1871), a son of Sarah and Richard Clough Anderson, graduated from West Point in 1825, and was appointed
second lieutenant in the 3rd artillery.
He served in the Black Hawk war of 1832 as colonel of the Illinois volunteers. From 1835 to 1837, he was instructor of artillery
at West Point, and in 1837 and 1838 served in the Florida war,
and was brevetted captain. Subsequently, he was attached to the staff of Winfield Scott as assistant adjutant-general, and
was promoted to captain in 1841. He served in the Mexican War, and was
severely wounded at Molino del Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the 1st artillery, and on November 20, 1860,
he assumed command of the troops in Charlestown harbor, with headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owning to threatened assaults,
he withdrew his command, on the night of December 26th to Fort Sumter,
and on April 13 surrendered the fort. In recognition of his services, he was appointed brigadier-general in the U.S. Army
and was assigned to the command of the department of Kentucky, and subsequently to
that of the Cumberland. He was relieved from the duty due to his failing health, and in October 1863 retired from active service.
He died in Nice, France in 1871. He was one of the principal founders of the Soldiers' Home in Washington.William Marshall Anderson (1807-1880), a son of Sarah and Richard Clough Anderson, studied at Chillicothe Academy and Transylvania
Academy in Lexington, Kentucky. In October 1826, following death of his father,
he returned home and was appointed executor of the estate. For the next three years he was involved in the management of the
farm. Having sold the farm, W. Marshall Anderson
studied law in the office of his brother Larz in Louisville. In May 1832, he received his law license. Having been stricken
with yellow fever, he decided to take a trip West
in order to improve his health, and joined the fur-trading party being taken to the Rocky Mountains by the Kentucky-born William
L. Sublette. His health restored, Anderson
returned home in the fall of 1834. In 1839, he replaced his brother-in-law Allen Latham as the permanent Surveyor General
of the Virginia Military Land District in Ohio. In May 1839,
Governor McArthur died leaving a will that resulted in one of the most notorious lawsuits in U.S. history. As McArthur's last
attorney, Anderson became involved in the intricate litigation.
In 1839, Anderson bought a small place near Chillicothe called Glen Mary. In 1853 Anderson moved from Chillicothe to Circleville,
Ohio and settled at Seven Oaks Farm in Pickaway County. In 1865-1866 he traveled to Mexico,
in order to establish a Confederate colony. William Marshall Anderson died of double pneumonia in Circleville in 1881.Charles Anderson (1814-1895), a son of Sarah and Richard Clough Anderson, graduated at Miami University Oxford, Ohio (1833),
practiced law in Louisville, Kentucky,
and in 1835 moved to Dayton, Oh. In 1844 he was elected to the Ohio senate, where his efforts in behalf of the repeal of the
"Black Laws" made him
unpopular with his constituency. He then made a tour in Europe and returning opened his law office in Cincinnati with Rufus
King. In 1859 he settled in Texas, and at
the outbreak of the rebellion was driven out the state for his unionism, and narrowly escaped with his life. He returned to
Ohio and was made colonel of the 93th Ohio Volunteer infantry,
and was severely wounded at the battle of Stone River. In he was governor of Ohio. He moved from Ohio to Kentucky in 1887
and purchased property in Kuttawa, Kentucky.Thomas McArthur Anderson (1836-1917), a son of Eliza and William Marshall Anderson, abandoned the bar in 1861 to enlist as
a Private in the 65th Ohio Volunteers.
Through the influence of his uncle, Robert Anderson, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant of the 5th US Cavalry. He was soon
promoted to Captain, and served through the Civil War with
the 12th US infantry, being twice wounded and twice brevetted — to Major for conduct in Wilderness and Lieutenant and to Lieutenant
Colonel for Spotsylvania Court House. After
the war he remained in the Army, rising to Colonel, commanding the 14th Infantry. In 1898, with the temporary rank of Brigadier
General, he commanded the first troops to reach the Philippines after George Dewey's
victory in Manila Bay. Mary Anderson (born 1846), a daughter of Eliza and William Marshall Anderson, married Judge Joseph Olds (born 1832) of Columbus,
Ohio, in 1866.Robert Marshall Anderson (1862-1939), son of Ellen and William Marshall Anderson, graduated from Notre Dame University in
1883. An expert civil engineer, he taught at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N.J. and served as
vice-president of a New York engineering company. In 1831, he retired and moved to Circleville, Ohio. He inherited his father's
archeological and manuscript collections. The archaeological
collection was curated by Mrs. A. R. Van Cleaf, and then loaned to the Department of Archeology of Ohio State University.
In 1938 he, in cooperation with Robert Spurrier Ellison, an
Oklahoma oil producer and collector of Western Americana, attempted to publish the Rocky Mountain journals. With Ellison's
death, however, this project was brought to an end.