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Box 196

d. Cohesion, cleavage, and morale

Scope and Contents note

Unity in planning and agreement on common action among Russian revolutionaries abroad as well as between various parties were generally elusive or of temporary character. The fact that all revolutionary groups were against the Tsarist government did not carry enough weight to prevail over diversified methods with which they endeavored to attain their only goal the revolution in Russia.
Inside each revolutionary party there were differences of opinion, clashes between individuals, invariably interfering with the ultimate, purpose. The struggle between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, out of which of characteristic of Lenin came victorious, is characteristic to almost all revolutionary groups. Congresses and conferences served more often as battlegrounds for ambitious leaders than as forums for coordinated action.
This unity in purpose and disharmony in action created a gap deepened by the war to; the point of making any span impossible.
The collection in Folder 1 contains drafts and reports describing or revealing the cleavage and action for unification of revolutionary groups abroad between 1894 and 1917. Among the intercepted letters in Folders 3 and 4, there are several from or addressed to Lenin and other important revolutionaries, discussing frictions between and within their groups.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 355-356
Index XVId, Folder 1

Drafts and reports on cleavage and action for unification among revolutionary groups abroad, 1894-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVId, Folder 2

Reports on the attitude of revolutionary organizations toward war and divided opinions on its outcome, 1914-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVId, Folder 3

Intercepted letters mailed from Russia abroad, 1902-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reels 355-356
Index XVId, Folder 4

Intercepted letters mailed to Russia from abroad, 1901-1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 356
Index XVId, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Boxes 196-205, 242

XVII. Revolutionary leaders

Boxes 196-197

a. Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya

Scope and Contents note

The earliest document in Lenin's file, dated June 6, 1895, is a dispatch from St. Petersburg, advising that Lenin had departed from Russia. There is also a dispatch dated September. 7, 1900, regarding Lenin's second departure abroad, where he published for a while the newspaper Iskra with Martov (Tsederbaum), Potresov, and Plekhanov.
Folder 1 contains copies of a number of intercepted letters between various individuals, mostly revolutionaries, discussing Lenin and his views. This file further contains a lengthy report on the 1903 Social Democratic Congress in Brussels, prepared by Chief Rataev of the Paris Okhrana Office (Outgoing Dispatch #168/1903).
The inventory sheets for Folders 2-5 are prepared in considerable detail, listing individual letters written by Lenin and Krupskaya or received by them. The letters are copies rendered verbatim by the Okhrana's offices from intercepted mail. Since it was the practice of Okhrana offices to return to the post offices the mail for delivery to addressees, it is possible that much of the original mail was thus lost, while the Okhrana's copies remained.
Since copies of intercepted correspondence that became subjects of dispatches were kept at Petersburg Headquarters, they came into Bolshevik hands like most all of the other Okhrana documents. As Lenin's Polnoe sobranie sochinenii compilation reveals, many of these copies were preserved. Most of those included in the printed collection are verbatim reproductions, while some of them differ in small details from the samples in this collection. The letters of Lenin's wife, Krupskaya, included in this collection are not printed in the Sochineniaa.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 356-358
Index XVIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches and letters pertaining to Lenin and Krupskaya; intercepted correspondence between revolutionaries referring to Lenin or Krupskaya, 1900-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reels 356-357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2a

Memorandum from Headquarters advising that Ulianov departed from Russia for abroad, 1895

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2b

Letter from Nizhnii Novgorod to Liege discussing disagreements between the Lenin and Martov factions, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2c

Report on the split among the "Iskrovtsy," 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2d

Excerpt from a letter from Lenin in Geneva to his mother in Kiev, 1904

Scope and Contents note

Includes an English translation

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2e

Report on "Katia" Krupsakaya as an important member of Iskra, 1904

Scope and Contents note

Includes an English translation

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2f

Letter from Lenin, Zverev, and Glebov in Darmstadt to Dauge in Moscow, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2g

Letter from Lenin in Nuremberg to Dr. Aleksandrov in Gomel, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2h

Letter from Krupskaya in Nuremberg to Shpolianskaia in Moscow, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2i

Letter from Lenin to Anton Peres in Moscow, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2j

Letter from Lenin in Nuremberg to Sokolovskii in Odessa, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2k

Dispatch from Headquarters advising that Bogdanov is giving financial help to Lenin, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2l

Report on the 3rd London RSDWP Congress and Lenin's role, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2m

Letter from Krupskaya in Leipzig to Vera Mikler in Moscow, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2n

Letter from Lenin in Munich to Pushenskii, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2o

Letter from Lenin in Munich to Pushenskii in Kherson (with English translation), 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2p

Report on the Social Democratic Conference in Vyborg and Lenin's role, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2q

Letter from Krupskaya to Lenin

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2r

Report on the All-Russian Conference of the Social Democratic Party in Paris, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2s

Roster of the members of the RSDWP-Bolshevik faction abroad, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2t

Letter from Moscow to Krupskaya containing the texts of agitation pamphlets, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2u

Letter from Lenin in Paris to his sister in Russia discussing peace with the Mensheviks, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2v

Report on the composition of the RSDWP Central Committee including Lenin, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2w

Letter from Lenin in Paris to I. K. Frim in Bucharest, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2x

Letter from Krupskaya in Paris to Iukevich in St. Petersburg, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2y

Report on Lenin's attempts to sue Tsetkina for 80,000 francs, an inheritance left by Schmidt, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2z

Memorandum from Headquarters reporting on a conference of Lenin's political partisans, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3a

Report on Lenin and Zinovyev (Grigorii Radomysl'skii) moving to Krakow to be closer to Russia during the Duma elections, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3b-3e

Letters from Lenin in Krakow to the Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3f

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Nazarov in St. Petersburg, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3g

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to the editorial office of Sovremennyi mir in St. Petersberg, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3h-3k

Letter from Krupskaya to Akselrod in St. Petersburg, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3l-3m

Letter from Krupskaya to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3n-3o

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to the Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3p

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Lazurkin in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3q

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Bel'skii in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3r-3u

Letters from Krupskaya in Krakow to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3v

Letters from Lenin in Krakow to his sister Mariia in Saratov, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3w

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Kvaleva in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3x

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3y

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Knipovich in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3z

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Rymash in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4a

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Kvaleva in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4b

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4b

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4c

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Kolkov in St. Petersburg

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4d

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4e

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4f

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Sekorskii in Tiflis, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4g

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Kavtaradze in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4h

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Za pravdu in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4i

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Samolei in St. Petersburg reporting on the strike movement, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4j

Report on the 2nd Regular Conference of the RSDWP and Lenin's role, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4k

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Antoshevskaia in Viatka, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4l

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Elizarova in St. Petersburg, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4m

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Anton Samolei in St. Petersburg, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4n

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Nina Krug in St. Petersburg, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4o

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Voitsekhovskii in St. Petersburg, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4p

Letter from Krupskaya in Vienna to Sikorskii in Tiflis regarding preparations for a congress, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4q

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Proveshchenie in St. Petersburg on the 2rd International Conference of Women Socialists and Female Workers' Organizations, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4r

Letter from Krupskaya in Rabka to Ivan Samovarov, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4s

Letter from Krupskaya in Poronin to Enukidze in St. Petersburg asking for information on Georgian and Armenian newspapers published in the Caucasus, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4t

Letter from Krupskaya in Austria to Ivan Samovarov in Kremlevo Station, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4u

Report advising that Lenin is not in prison in Krakow, but is living in Berlin, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4v

Letter from Lenin's sister Mariia in Petrograd to Lenin in Bern containing family news, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357

Scope and Contents note

Includes English translation.
Index XVIIa, Folder 4w

Report on Lenin's attitude towards terrorism, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4x

Briefs on Safarov, relative of Krupskaya, Ludmila Stiglis and Selikmann, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4y

Report on Lenin's defeatist views regarding Russia's participation in the war, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4z

Letters in French by or about Lenin, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 5a

Lenin's letter to Safarov in French, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5b

Chronological review of Lenin's activities from February 1904-April 1916, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5c

Surveillance reports on Lenin by agent Bint, 1915-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5d

Report on Lenin's lecture, "Conditions of Peace and the National Question," 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5e

Resume of Lenin's report in Zurich entitled "The War and Two Internationals," 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5f

Statements by Lenin to Safarov on French revolutionaries, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5g

Resume of a lecture delivered by Lenin in Geneva entitled "Two Currents in the International Workers' Movement," 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5h

Report on the Geneva Conference of émigré Treasuries, with Krupskaya as secretary, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5i

Cable about Lenin receiving the protection of Germany, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5j

Report on Lenin's participation in the Bern Conference of International Socialist Commissions, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5k

Draft of a declaration to be published by the RSDWP Central Committee (represented by Lenin) on the conference of socialists of the "concordat" countries, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5l

Report on existing opinion on Lenin's attitude towards terror, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5m

Report concerning Lenin's mistress Inessa Armand, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5n

Okhrana circular on Nadezhda Krupskaya

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5o

Safarov's letters to Krupskaya, 1915-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5p

English translations of Lenin's correspondence

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIa, Folder 7

Reference: For agent Zhitomirskii's (Daudet) reports on Lenin and his group from 1911-1913, see IIIf, folder 36

Index XVIIa, Folder 8

Reference: See agent Bint's 1917 report on Inessa Armand in VIk, folder 5

Index XVIIa, Folder 9

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 61, 1903, on Anichkin, a student in St. Petersburg, involved in a plot with Lenin in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIIa, Folder 10

Reference: See outgoing telegram no. 224, January 9, 1916, advising that Lenin's courier "Liza" is departing Switzerland for Russia, in XIIIb(2), folder 8

Box 197

b. Georgii Valentinovich Plekhanov

Scope and Contents note

The collection of papers on this Marxist theoretician, founder of the Russian Social Democratic Party, and comrade and opponent of Lenin, dates from 1891 to 19l6. Folder 1 contains an assortment of various dispatches, while the documents in Folder 2, individually described, refer to his various activities, organizational work, funding, extraditions, and differences with the Bolshevik faction of the Party. Of considerable interest are the intercepted letters. As later with Lenin, Plekhanov had troubles with P. Lavrov, the anarchist leader in London. Also includes Headquarters circulars giving Plekhanov's physical description and photograph.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 1

Various dispatches referring to Plekhanov, 1894-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2a

French surveillance agent reports on Plekhanov, 1891

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2b

Letters on Plekhanov and his work, 1892

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2c

Plans of the French government to deport Plekhanov and Selikrevskii, 1894

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2d

Report that Plekhanov still visits Geneva, 1894

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2e

Plekhanov's intention to withdraw from the Party, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2f

Views of the Kostroma Committee regarding Plekhanov's desire to represent the Party at the International Socialist Bureau, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2g

Letter from Smirnov to Plekhanov in Geneva about Deutsch and Zasulich, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2h

Letter regarding a financial contribution for Plekhanov, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2i

Okhrana's circular on Plekhanov with his photograph, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2j

Physical description of Plekhanov, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2k

Report that Burtsev and Plekhanov are planning to go to Russia, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2l

Plekhanov's letter on preparations for the Duma elections, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2m

Plekhanov's letter on non-recognition of Lenin's Central Committee as the central organization of the Party, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2n

Report that Plekhanov enrolled in electricians' school in Paris, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2o

Report that Plekhanov arrived in Paris to organize a meeting of the conciliatory faction, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2p

Letter to Plekhanov concerning the "liquidation" theory and other party theories, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2q

Lecture delivered by Plekhanov on "The National Question and the Social Democrats," 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2r

Lecture entitled "War and the Social Democracy" delivered by Plekhanov in Lausanne, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2s

Report on the publication Edinstvo by Plekhanov, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2t

Dispatches concerning the whereabouts of Plekhanov, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2u

Background and activities report on Plekhanov

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box 197

c. Leon Trotsky

Scope and Contents note

The collection in Folder 1 covers the period from 1901 to 1917. The intercepted letters of Natalia and Lev Bronstein and those of Trotsky's wife are of particular interest, pertaining mostly to Party matters. Differences and reconciliations with Lenin are referred to in this as well as in individually inventoried documents in the second folder. Correspondence with the Socialists in the Duma, Trotsky's stay in the United States, his travels, and editorial work, particularly on Nashe Slovo are covered. Several Okhrana intercepts and copies include Trotsky's letters.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 1

Various dispatches and letters pertaining to Trotsky, 1901-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2a

Report on RSDWP member Bronstein in Geneva and his relations with Helfand, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2b

Letters from "Sasha" in St. Petersburg to her husband Trotsky in Vienna, 1908-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2c

Letter from Trotsky in Kiev to de Montbrand in Lausanne, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2d

Data on Trotsky's wife, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2e

Letter from Trotsky in Vienna to Duma deputy Pokrovskii, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2f

Report of the Nikolaevsk Okhrana chief on Trotsky, his wife, and other revolutionaries, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2g

Report of the Odessa Okhrana chief on Trotsky and his wife, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2h

Letters from an unidentified writer to Akselrod in Zurich and Trotsky in Vienna on the German Social Democratic Party conference, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2i

Letter from Trotsky in Vienna to the editor of Luch, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2j

Trotsky's letter to Duma member Chkheidze praising his speeches and commenting on Leninism, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2k

Report that Trotsky arrived in Paris, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2l

Trotsky's speech in Paris on "The Defense of the Homeland," 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2m

Trotsky's speech in a workers' club in Paris, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2n

Bint's report on Trotsky's activities, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2o

Report on Chernov and Trotsky touring Switzerland and agitating for the cessation of the war, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2p

Report on the pro-German stance of Trotsky's newspaper Nashe slovo, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2q

Bint's report revealing Trotsky as an Austrian agent, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2r

Meeting of the Committee for the Resumption of International Relations and Trotsky's role in it, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2s

Documents pertaining to the deportation of Trotsky from France, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2t

Documents pertaining to Trotsky's efforts to obtain a Swiss visa, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2u

Moscow millionaire Shakhov's offer of financial assistance to Trotsky, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2v

Agent Bint's reports on Trotsky, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2w

Letter from Trotsky to his friends in New York, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2x

Arrival of Trotsky and his family in New York, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2y

Report on Trotsky as the editor of Nashe slovo

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2z

Official Okhrana circulars on Trotsky

Access

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIc, Folder 4

Reference: See reports on Trotsky's daily newspaper Nashe slovo and on the polemics of its banning, in XVIIr(1)

Index XVIIc, Folder 5

Reference: See report on Nashe slovo for 1916, banned as being pro-German, in VIIIb, folder 3

Boxes 197-198

d. Vladimir L'vovich Burtsev

Scope and Contents note

This extensive collection is the most telling proof that Vladimir Burtsev and his work represented a continuous and important target for the Okhrana in Paris. A competent writer, propagandist, and advocate of terror and assassination as a means leading to revolution, he developed also an active revolutionary counter-intelligence with the purpose of exposing Okhrana agents and discrediting the Okhrana as an establishment in European countries. In this connection, many of the documents concerning Burtsev are also located under XXIVa and XXIVb, since the bulk of revolutionary intelligence and propaganda was either directed by Burtsev or closely affiliated with his functions.
Folder 1, in two sections, contains general materials of Burtsev, dispatches on him and his writings, copies of intercepted letters, various agent reports, etc. His functions and the contributions of Okhrana defector Mikhail Bakai in exposing Evno Azef are well covered, as is also Burtsev's exposure of Okhrana Chief Garting.
Folders 2 to 5 have documents concentrating on certain periods and events, as for instance, Folder 5, with papers on Burtsev's stay in Rumania and England, his imprisonments in London, and the case of agent Bullier. Folder 3, in two sections, for the period from 1899 to 1917 concentrates on Burtsev's work in Paris, revealing the nature of the revolutionary police and Burtsev's methods of intelligence operations and press campaigns. Surveillance reports on him and his intelligence service are dated from 1906 to 1914.
Folder 4 covers the Okhrana's attempts to have Burtsev and his group deported from France, while the last folder (No. 5) contains information on his return to Russia, official trial records, intercepted correspondence from the jail, disposal of his archive and personal effects in Paris, etc.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 359-361
Index XVIId, Folder 1

Miscellaneous documents including intercepted letters, dispatches, and agent reports pertaining to Burtsev and the defector Mikhail Bakai, 1890-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 359
Index XVIId, Folder 2

Documents on Burtsev's stay in Romania and England, his arrest and imprisonment in London, and the case against agent Charlotte Bullier, 1890-1899

Access

Available on microfilm reel 360
Index XVIId, Folder 3

Collection of papers pertaining to Burtsev's work in Paris; Burtsev's revolutionary police; publication of Budushchee; detailed Okhrana report on his mode of operation; his press campaign against Garting and the Paris Okhrana; collections of surveillance reports on Burtsev; Burtsev's trip to the United States, 1899-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reels 360-361
Index XVIId, Folder 4

Dispatches and reports concerning the Okhrana's attempts to have Burtsev deported from France, 1904, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIId, Folder 5

Documents pertaining to Burtsev's imprisonment in Russia: official trial records, intercepted correspondence between the imprisoned Burtsev and Paris concerning the disposition of his personal affairs in Paris, 1914-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIId, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIId, Folder 7

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 17, January 24, 1903, regarding Burtsev and Krakov in the Socialist Revolutionary Fighting Unit, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 8

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 42, July 16, 1903, on Burtsev's role in the plot to assassinate the Minister of the Interior, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 9

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 62, December 4, 1903, on Burtsev in England and Switzerland, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 10

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 94, July 15, 1905, concerning Burtsev and Krakov, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIId, Folder 11

Reference: For letters addressed to Burtsev and reports on his accusations against Okhrana censorship and perlustration, see Xc

Index XVIId, Folder 12

Reference: For reports on Jollivet's assignments on Burtsev and Leroy, 1914-1915, see VIk, folder 33

Index XVIId, Folder 13

Reference: See Charlotte Bullier's personnel file for reports on her contacts with Burtsev, in IIIe, folder 3

Index XVIId, Folder 14

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 166, January 21, 1903, for instructions concerning surveillance over Krakov between Bern and the Russian border, in XIIIc(3), folder 14

Index XVIId, Folder 15

Reference: See outgoing telegram, June 2, 1903, informing of a secret courier en route from Burtsev to St. Petersburg, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 16

Reference: See outgoing telegram, November 12, 1903, advising that Burtsev is about to publish the fifth issue of Narodovolets, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 17

Reference: See outgoing telegram, March 23, 1904, advising that Burtsev and Krakov left Paris secretly for an unknown destination, in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Index XVIId, Folder 18

Reference: See outgoing telegram, June 15, 1904, advising that Burtsev is expecting an event of grave consequences to take place in Russia, in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Box 198

e. Grigory Yevseyevich Zinovyev

Scope and Contents note

A large number of documents pertain to this important Bolshevik leader, closest associate of Lenin, writer, and orator. However, most of the Okhrana dispatches pertaining to his work and activities deal also with other top revolutionaries and have therefore been placed under various other index numbers. (See the cross-reference sheet in Folder 6. )

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 1

Letter from Zinovyev in Paris to Mlle. Levin in St. Petersburg about the publication of a magazine, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 2

Letter from Zinovyev in Paris to Duma member Poletaiev regarding the placement of a newspaper announcement, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 3

Zinovyev's brochure "Elections to the Fourth Duma and Our Tasks," 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 4

Report that Zinovyev is in St. Petersburg, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 5

Okhrana circular on the background of Zinovyev ("Radomyslskii")

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Box 198

f. Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov and Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky

Scope and Contents note

The file on Miliukov consists of dispatches sent by Headquarters to the Paris Office, dating back to 1897 and giving his background and his contacts with Russian revolutionaries abroad. The Paris Office reported twice to Headquarters on Miliukov's comments on conditions which would assure the revolutionaries victory (May 1916) and on his meeting with Bulgarian minister Todorov (December 1916) in Lausanne. Miliukov was representing the Cadet Party in the Third and Fourth Dumas.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1a

Background information on Miliukov, 1897

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1b

Letters from Soskis in Paris to Miliukov transmitting a manuscript for publication, 1898

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1c

Dispatch giving background information on Miliukov, 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1d

Letter from Miliukov in London on his plans for a lecture tour of America, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1e

Memo advising that Miliukov left Russia again, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1f

Letter from "Shklovskaia" in London to Miliukov in St. Petersburg, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1g

Newspaper item titled "Les atrocitiés bulgares" on the role of Miliukov, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1h

Copy of La Courier Européen, co-published by Miliukov, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1i

On O. Masarik's correspondence with Miliukov, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1j

Clipping from L'Oeuvre with Miliukov's article, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1k

Report on Miliukov's meeting with Todorov, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1l

Letter from Chaikovskii in London to Miliukov in Sofia requesting participation in a revolutionary publication

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2a

Political background of Kerensky, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2b

Letter to Kerensky asking for legal advice, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2c

Official Okhrana circulars on Kerensky, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2d

Report on the activities of the "Russian Maritime Union" in London, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box 198

g. Viktor Mikhailovich Chernov

Scope and Contents note

Viktor M. Chernov, a prolific writer, was one of the most militant revolutionaries advocating terrorism. At the age of 24 he was in exile and at the head of the Socialist Revolutionary Central Committee in Paris, where he was constantly followed at close quarters by local Okhrana agents.
Arrested in October 1905 in Russia, which he entered illegally to edit a clandestine publication, Mysl, he fled abroad to become again a subject of surveillance. He maintained contacts with Gorky, Savinkov, Aleksinskii, and attended the Socialist Revolutionary Congress in London in 1908.
It was during the War that Chernov attained the peak of his importance as a revolutionary. A Paris report of November 1914 underlines his extremely energetic action among the revolutionaries in Paris, who felt caught between party allegiance and patriotic feelings, for serving purely revolutionary aims.
The Paris Office reported in 1915 that, in his anti-tsarism and anti-militarism, Chernov went so far as to merit the label of a Germanophile. Supported by Martov, he advocated the defeat of Russia and preached alliance with the German socialists.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 361-362
Index XVIIg, Folder 1

Intercepted letters to and from Chernov and his wife; Okhrana dispatches on Chernov and his group; agent surveillance reports, 1903-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIg, Folder 2a

Surveillance reports on Chernov by agent Fehrenbach, 1900

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2b

Letter to Chernov from Goldstein containing Shimel' Sikorskii's biography, one of Pleve's assassins, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2c

Letters from Kropotkin and other individuals, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2d

Chernov reports on a Petersburg meeting which included the participation of the Socialist Revolutionaries and Kadets, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2e

Plans to assassinate the Tsar, prepared by the Fighting Unit and involving Chernov, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2f

Chernov's reports on Iudelevskii's theories and the London Conference, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2g

Arrival of Chernov's wife in St. Petersburg, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2h

Circular on Chernov with photograph, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2i

Chernov's comments on the booklet "Conclusions of the Azef Affair Investigation Commission," 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2j

Drafts of Savinkov's letters to Chernov, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2k

Arrival of Chernov in Paris from Italy to participate in discussions of a split in the Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2l

Report that Chernov does not belong to the extreme left wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2m

Lecture delivered by Chernov in Paris on "The Moral Problem in Ropshin's [Savinkov's] Novels," 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2n

Lecture delivered by Chernov in Paris on the "Current Political Situation in Russia," 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2o

Letters to and from Chernov and his wife, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2p

Report on Chernov's mother, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2q

Report that Chernov is in Italy, not engaged in revolutionary work, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2r

Dispatches and drafts for reports on Chernov's activities during the war, his propaganda to defeat Russia, editorial work, lectures, etc., 1914-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2s

Lecture on "Evaluation of the Zimmerwald Conference," 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2t

Official Okhrana circular on Chernov, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2u

Report on Chernov and Martov in a Germanophile, anti-militarist campaign, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIg, Folder 4

Reference: See outgoing telegram, April 15, 1904, advising that Sazonov had spent two months with Chernov in Geneva in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Box 198

h. Mikhail Rafailovich Gots

Scope and Contents note

Gots emigrated from Russia in 1900 with an impressive political record as a terrorist and devoted member of the Socialist Revolutionary party. Upon his arrival in Paris in early 1901, he established close contacts with Chernov, Rubanovich, Rappoport, and Gavronsky and became the subject of surveillance by the Paris Okhrana, who followed him to Nice, Rome (where he was arrested), and Geneva, where he settled in 1903. Soon all activities of the Socialist Revolutionary party abroad centered around Gots's home. After his death in Berlin in 1906, his wife Vera continued to be active in the Socialist Revolutionary ranks until 1916.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Mikhail Gots and his wife, 1902-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2a

Reports on Gots and agents Fehrenbach and Bint, 1901

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2b

Draft of a report to Headquarters, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2c

Report on Gots's arrest in Italy, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2d

Report on Gots in Geneva, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2e

Clippings on Gots's particular view of terrorism, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2f

Report on Gots's illness, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2g

Terrorist Ivanov summoned by Gots to Geneva to plan an act of terror, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2h

Perlustrated correspondence of Gots and his wife Vera, 1905-1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2i

Funeral arrangements for Mikhail Gots, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2j

Gots's funeral in Geneva, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2k

Circular on Vera Gots, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2l

Vera Gots's plans to go to Russia, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2m

Agent Durin's reports on Vera Gots, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2n

Agent Bint's reports on Vera Gots, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2o

Perlustrated letter from Vera Gots, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIh, Folder 4

Reference: See outgoing telegram, March 16, 1903, on attempts to arrest Gots in Italy, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIIh, Folder 5

Reference: See outgoing telegram, September 11, 1906, report that Gots is dead, in XIIIb(2), folder 4

Box 199

i. Boris Viktorovich Savinkov

Scope and Contents note

Boris Savinkov, Socialist Revolutionary terrorist, was a key figure plotting the assassination of Minister of the Interior Pleve in 1904 and of the Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich in 1905, thereby gaining the attention of the Okhrana, which continued throughout his revolutionary career abroad, despite the fact that his importance as a revolutionary terrorist dwindled considerably after the two assassinations mentioned above.
The dispatches in the last folder of this series give accounts of the changes that took place in this Savinkov. Once a ruthless schemer of assassinations, he first lost his fervor in drinking and reckless living. When sobering up, he became opposed to terror as a revolutionary method and when the war came he practically broke away from revolutionary activities by engaging in war correspondence.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 362-365
Index XVIIi, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes, and reports on Savinkov, 1904-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIi, Folder 2a

Okhrana circular on Savinkov's background

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2b

Agent Fehrenbach's report on Savinkov, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2c

Savinkov's police record, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2d

Savinkov working in Tiflis, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2e

Savinkov located in Tiflis, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2f

Report in German on the arrival of Savinkov in Copenhagen from Finland, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2g

Report on Savinkov in Paris, perlustrated letters, including letter from his mistress breaking off their relationship, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2h

Agent Durin's surveillance reports on Savinkov from Paris, Villefranche, and Genoa, 1908-1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2i

Savinkov and his mistress, Evgeniia Somova, in Paris, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2j

Savinkov's withdrawal from revolutionary work, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2k

Savinkov's trip to Brussels, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2l

Report on difficulties maintaining surveillance over Savinkov, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2m

Incident between Savinkov and Okhrana surveillance agent, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2n

Official Okhrana circulars on Savinkov, one with a photograph, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2o

Okhrana's interest in Savinkov's mother, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2p

Physical description of Savinkov, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2q

Savinkov's suspicions of provocation in the Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2r

Incident involving false information on Savinkov's presence in Frankfurt, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2s

Savinkov's trip to Berlin and re-entry into the Fighting Unit, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2t

Letter from Savinkov to his wife Vera in St. Petersburg, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2u

Savinkov's sudden departure from Paris, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2v

Revolutionaries collecting money to organize the assassination of the Tsar and Stolypin, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2w

Agent Andre's surveillance reports on Savinkov in Monte-Carlo, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2x

Agent Pouchot's surveillance reports on Savinkov, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2y

Agent Robail's surveillance reports on Savinkov

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2z

Agent Lecointe's surveillance reports on Boris and Sofiia Savinkov

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 3a

Report on Savinkov and other top terrorists, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 3b

Surveillance reports by Vogt and Lecointe on Sofiia Savinkov at Menton, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 364
Index XVIIi, Folder 3c

Okhrana circular with Savinkov's physical description, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 364
Index XVIIi, Folder 3d

Agent Bittard-Monin's reports on Savinkov, 1910-1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3e

Agent Aubert's surveillance of Savinkov, 1910-1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3f

Savinkov and entourage at Monte-Carlo, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3g

Savinkov's contacts and activities, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3h

Savinkov's withdrawal from the Fighting Unit, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3i

Report on preparations to keep Savinkov under constant surveillance, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3j

Letter from Savinkov to his wife in Paris about family matters, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3k

Correspondence between Savinkov in Théoule and Kolosov in Cavi di Lavagna, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3l

Note and drafts in Savinkov's handwriting, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3m

Draft letter in Savinkov's handwriting to Fundaminskii, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3n

Savinkov's stay in Paris, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3o

Mme. Richard's surveillance reports on Savinkov, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3p-q

Agent Fontaine's reports on Savinkov, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3r

Agent Vogt's reports from Cannes and San Remo, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3s

Agent Sauvard's reports on Savinkov and Somova in Paris and Cannes, 1910-1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3t

Savinkov-Malmberg's salvaged correspondence, 1911-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3u

Natanson as Savinkov's adversary, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3v

Agent Barthes's surveillance reports from San Remo, 1912-1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3w

Savinkov's opposition to terrorism, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3x

Report on the techniques used to maintain surveillance over Savinkov, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3y

Two samples of Savinkov's handwriting, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3z

Two personal letters, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4a

Agent Delangle's surveillance reports from Nice, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4b

Dispatch and three letters by Savinkov, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4c

Agent Bint's surveillance reports from Paris, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4d

Reports on Savinkov's activities, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4e

Savinkov as a war correspondent, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIi, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 85, May 13, 1904, in which Savinkov is reported in Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIIi, Folder 7

Reference: See circulars on Savinkov's fellow conspirators, 1909-1912, in XVIb(4), folder 4

Index XVIIi, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 294, March 20, 1909, with instructions for strict surveillance of Savinkov, in XIIIc(3), folder 28

Box 200

j. Roman Malinovskii

Scope and Contents note

Roman Malinovskii was a Tsarist police agent and a Bolshevik representative in the Duma who subsequently resigned from the Duma and went to Germany in 1914. The documents yielded by the Okhrana Archives on Malinovskii cover the period from December 1913 to August 1914 and consist of copies of two intercepted letters to Malinovskii, one intercepted letter mentioning him, and a number of dispatches on his resignation from the Duma and presence in Paris and on the accusations of provocation leveled against him by the Social Democratic faction.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIj, Folder 1

Dispatches and Malinovskii's intercepted correspondence, 1913-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIj, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box 200

k. Aleksandr Antonovich Troianovskii

Scope and Contents note

Aleksandr Troianovskii joined the revolutionary movement in 1902 and the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1904. He was exiled to Siberia in 1909, escaping abroad in 1910. He joined the RSDWP Central Committee and attended the 1912 congress in Basel as a delegate. The documents on Troianovskii consist of copies of intercepted letters to Troianovskii along with dispatches on his background and activities.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIk, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning Troianovskii and intercepted letters addressed to him, 1913-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIk, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box 200

l. Meer Wallach (Maksim Litvinov)

Scope and Contents note

Maksim Litvinov (Wallach, "Papasha," "Feliks") became a member of the Social Democratic Party in 1898. He traveled throughout Europe and was a key figure in the attempts by the revolutionaries to change 500 ruble bank notes obtained in the Tiflis holdup. Litvinov was also very active in smuggling operations of the revolutionaries supplying revolutionaries in Russia with weapons.
The documents on Litvinov are arranged in chronological order in both folders and consist of outgoing and incoming dispatches as well as raw reports from agents in the field. They cover Litvinov's gunrunning activities, his attempts to exchange 500 ruble bank notes stolen in Tiflis, and his involvement in a bomb-making workshop. Also included are several copies of intercepted letters from Litvinov. On Litvinov's participation in arms smuggling and "expropriation" banditries, also see XXIVh and XXVc.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes and telegrams pertaining to Wallach (Litvinov)

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2a

Wallach (Litvinov) in Russia, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2b

Methods of transferring money to Wallach (Litvinov) in Berlin for the purchase of weapons, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2c

Letters from Wallach (Litvinov) concerning money for arms purchases, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2d

Perlustrated and transcribed letters, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2e

Letters from Wallach (Litvinov) in Brussels on arms smuggling, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2f

Letters from Litvinov on the purchase of arms to smuggle into Russia, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2g

Departure for St. Petersburg to raise 30,000 marks for arms, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2h

Case of security violation in handling information about Litvinov, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2i

Litvinov's activities in Vienna and Bulgaria, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2j

Report of the Berlin police chief on Wallach (Litvinov), 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2k

Plans to go to St. Petersburg and Moscow, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2l

Wallach's (Litvinov's) role in changing 500 ruble bank notes stolen in the Tiflis robbery and attempts by the Russian government to extradite him to France, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2m

Deportation of Wallach (Litvinov) from France to England, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2n

Reports from London Okhrana agents on Litvinov as a German spy, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2o

Litvinov's wartime activities in London, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2p

Draft report on Litvinov as a German spy, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIl, Folder 4

Reference: For a report on Litvinov's talks with Krassin on counterfeiting bank notes, 1907, see XXVc, folder 2L

Box 200

m. Leonid Borisovich Krasin

Scope and Contents note

This collection includes three circulars issued by Headquarters, with photographs, personal data and the revolutionary record of Leonid Krasin ("Nikitich"), dispatches, and a note in German with his address in Zellendorf, near Berlin.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 1

Okhrana circulars on Krasin ("Nikitich") with photograph, report on general background, and request for surveillance, 1909, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 2

Krasin's address in Berlin

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 3

Request to interrogate "Nikitich," arrested in Moscow, but not to expose secret agentura abroad, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 4

Identification of Social Democrat "Vadim" (Postalovskii) as equal in importance to Nikitich, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 5

Report on Krasin in Paris, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIm, Folder 7

Reference: For reprot on Litvinov's talks with Krasin on counterfeiting bank notes, 1907, see XXVc, folder 2L

Boxes 200-201

n. Other important revolutionaries

Scope and Contents note

This collection is a continuation of the separate file kept by the Okhrana on revolutionaries whose activities warranted, at one time or another, special watchfulness. Of significance in this collection are the mimeographed Headquarters circulars giving a biographic account of these individuals and their political and police records. Many of the circulars also attach photographs. Two bound collections of the circulars are enclosed in Folder 8, together with indices of names. The entire set in Folders 1 to 6 is arranged in alphabetical order, with the names listed in the inventory of contents.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 366-368
 

Circulars and reports in alphabetical order

Index XVIIn, Folder 1

A-F

Access

Available on microfilm reel 366

Scope and Contents note

Includes Agabekov, Akselrod, Akshtein, Akulov, Aleksinskii, Andrikanis, Argunov, Avksentiev, Babaev, von Bach, Balivich, Bartenev, Berdo, Bernstein, Birzhishko, Borisov, Braginskii, Breshkovskaia, Buchholtz, Butkevich, Bychkovskii, Cherevanin, Chernenkov, Cherniavskii, Chernov (Vladimir), Chicherin, Chichinadze, Chkheidze, Deich (Deutsch), Dekabrev, Denisenko, Denisov, Dombrovskii, Donskoi, Dubrovinskii, Durko, Elanchik, Fabrikant, Fedorov, Feit, Figner,Frolenko, and Fundaminskii.
Index XVIIn, Folder 2

G-K

Access

Available on microfilm reel 366

Scope and Contents note

Includes Gavronskaia, Galkin, Galperin, Gedeonovskii, Gershuni, Glotov, Goguelia, Goldsmith, Gonecki, Gurvich, Igaev, Il'in, Iogikhes, Ionov, Izbitskii, Karskii, Karpovich, Khovrin, Klimova, Kochetkova, Koigen, Kollontai, Komorskii, Kopel'zon, Kovalenko, Kozlova, Kropotkin, Kudriavstev, and Kukhranov.
Index XVIIn, Folder 3

L

Access

Available on microfilm reel 367

Scope and Contents note

Includes Lagunov, Lanne, Lazarev, Lebedev, Lechenev, Leder, Levin, Listov, Liubin, Lopatin, Lorinskii, Lukanov (see also Lechenev), Lunacharskii (Lunacharsky), and Lunkevich.
Index XVIIn, Folder 4

M-P

Access

Available on microfilm reel 367

Scope and Contents note

Includes Maksimov, Malantovich, Malinovskii, Malstev, Mandelstam, Mankovskii, Martov, Maslov, Mdivani, Medem, Meerovich, Meisner, Menkes, Medvednikov, Mikelson, Mikhalkovskii, Minor, Moiseenko, Mokhov, Molochnikov, Mrost, Nakhamkis, Natanson, Naumov, Nesterovskii, Nikol'skaia, Nosar', Nudel'man, Ovsiannikov, Ozol', Pelipeiko, Piker, Podwicki, Poletaev, Popov, Portnov, Potapov, Potresov, and Povilus.
Index XVIIn, Folder 5

R-S

Access

Available on microfilm reel 368

Scope and Contents note

Includes Rabinovich, Rakhmilevich, Rakitnikov, Ramishvili, Rikhter, Rosenblum, Rozenfeld, Rubanovich, Sasha(?), Seiliger, Seliuk, Sereda, Serezhnikov, Shantser, Shapiro, Shestakov, Shishkin, Shishko, Shliapnikov, Shtammer, Shuliatikov, Shweidt, Sissoev (Sysoev), Skipotis, Skrypnik, Sklowski, Sladkopevtsev, Slepov, Sletov, Sokolov, Solomonovich, Soskis, Speranskii, Starynkevich, Starosel'skii, and Stiglis.
Index XVIIn, Folder 6

T-Z

Access

Available on microfilm reel 368

Scope and Contents note

Includes Teplov, Tkachenko, Todorov, Troitskii, Ulianov (Aleksandr), Vedeniapin, Viazmenskii, Vichenko, Vladimirov, Vnorovskii, Volkhovskoi, Yanulaitis (Janulaitis), Yudelevskii (Iudelevskii), Zagorskii, Zamiatin, Zasulich, Zenzinov, and Zhitomirskii.
Index XVIIn, Folder 7

Dispatches pertaining to important revolutionaries

Access

Available on microfilm reel 368

Scope and Contents note

Each document refers to two or more persons.
Index XVIIn, Folder 8

Biographic briefs on important revolutionaries

Access

Available on microfilm reel 368

Scope and Contents note

In two bound volumes, these briefs are mainly duplicates of circulars found in XVIIn, folders 1-6, although some do not appear in other collections. Each volume includes an index.
Index XVIIn, Folder 9

Lists of revolutionaries marked for intense surveillance, 1909-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 368
Index XVIIn, Folder 10

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIn, Folder 11

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 34, 1903, on Gershuni's arrest in Kiev, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIIn, Folder 12

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 81, 1905, on Breshkovskaia's arrival in Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIIn, Folder 13

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 103, 1905, reporting that Sletov was arrested attempting to go to Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIIn, Folder 14

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 147, 1905, on terrorist Goguelia in Geneva, in XIIIc(2), folder 6

Box 201

o. Counter-intelligence of the revolutionaries (to penetrate the Okhrana)

Scope and Contents note

This folder contains documents (intercepted letters and dispatches) on suspected revolutionary counter-intelligence agents Trushkovskii, Zaleski, Sychev, and Bessel. However, the bulk of material on revolutionary penetration of the Okhrana is located in XXIVc.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIo, Folder 1

Dispatches, intercepted letters, and photographs, 1895-1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Topics include the Trushkovskii case, false information on plans to assassinate the Tsar by Zalesskii, movement of vessels in European ports, rumors that Burtsev's archives were stolen, and associates of agent Permiak.
Box 201

p. Preparation for staging the revolution

Scope and Contents note

This subject file contains incoming and outgoing dispatches pertaining to revolutionary maneuvers in preparation for the revolution in Russia, covering the period from 1902-1916. The file also includes a printed Okhrana circular on revolutionary preparations in St. Petersburg (April 1916).

Access

Available on microfilm reels 369-370
Index XVIIp, Folder 1a

Exposure of Weise, consular employee, as a revolutionary collaborator, 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1b

Report of a Russian battleship commander about suspicious vessels encountered near Skagen, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1c

Letter from a Bund representative in Berlin with a telegram from Durnovo to the Kiev police chief ordering the execution of revolutionaries, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1d

Dispatch containing an intercepted revolutionary telegram giving new orders, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1e

On Lopukhin's whereabouts in Europe, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1f

Note that three fighting detachments were kept from leaving Russia because Burtsev knew of plans to arrest them, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1g

Revolutionary police in Paris, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1h

Propaganda for touring teachers from Russia, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1i

Revolutionary plans to kidnap Okhrana Chief Garting

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1j

Reports about Burtsev's operations, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1k

On "Ivanov," who exposed 40 Okhrana provocateurs in Europe, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1l

Secret agent Simanov to be exposed in Russia, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1m

Burtsev's attempts to reveal the composition of the Paris Okhrana staff and agents, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1n

Bureau of Prisoners of War in Lausanne, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1o

Dissemination of communist propaganda among prisoners of war, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1p

Preparations for an uprising in the army, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 1q

Situation report on revolutionary preparations in St. Petersburg, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369
Index XVIIp, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Boxes 201-205, 242

r. Revolutionary press

Scope and Contents note

The extensive collection on the revolutionary press abroad contains no full collection of any of the periodical publications but a good sampling of all. It was a standard intelligence collection requirement to dispatch to Headquarters, in multiple copies, all hostile publications; and the copies of the weekly letters of transmittal of printed matter would indicate that the emphasis was on supplying the home office rather than retaining all the samples in Paris.
Folders 5 and 7 under this index contain numerous dispatches on the revolutionary press in general, reviews of its growth and extent of influence, friction caused by editorial policies, shifting political influences, endless revolutionary polemics, and the like. Many of these papers deal with individual publications, political controls, and the development of Marxist editors. Ilia Erenburg is first mentioned among these in a dispatch of 1910. The dispatches are arranged in a chronological order, while the printed materials are listed individually as to the numbers or dates of the issues included.
Boxes 201-205, 242

(1) Abroad

Access

Available on microfilm reels 369-374
 

Newspapers

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1a

Budushchee, 1912-1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains issues no. 40 and 44.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1b

Darkest Russia, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains vol. II, no. 77.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1c

Dimineata, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains no. 3763.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1d

Free Russia, 1898, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains vol. 9, no. 2 and an incomplete copy of October 1909.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1e

Golos, 1914-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 6-32, 35, 37-39, 43, 71-86, 91, 93-100, and 108.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 1f

Golos sotsialdemokrata (edition for smuggling), 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Nos. 1-2 and 4-5.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 2a

Golos truda, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 1-17.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 2b

Golos truda (cont'd.), 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 369

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 21, 24, 29-31, 33, 38, 40, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 55, and 59-61.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3a

Il libertario, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 491-492 and 494.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3b

Listok, 1913 May

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3c

Mysl', 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains no. 13.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3d

Nachalo, 1916-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 14-15, 95, and 117.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3e

Nash golos, 1914-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 1-5 and 87.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3f

Parizhskii vestnik, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3g

Prizyv, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 27, 32-33, 47, and 50.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3h

Proletarii, 1908-1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 36, 42-44, and 50. Some issues are printed on tissue paper suitable for smuggling.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3i

Russkii vestnik, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains no. 126.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3j

Sila i pravo, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains no. 1.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 3k

Zagranichnie otkliki , 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains no. 22.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4a

Zhizn' (Paris), 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 1, 2, 4-38, and 41-62.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4b

Zhizn' (Geneva), 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 370

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 3-7 and 26.
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4c

Znamia truda (Geneva), 1909-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371

Scope and Contents note

Contains nos. 1909-1914.
 

Pamphlets, leaflets, and other materials

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4d

Doloi tsaria, by Vladimir Burtsev, published in London, 1901

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4e

Batumskaia Boinia by the Socialist Revolutionaries, 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4f

Graf L.N. Tolstoi i rabochii narod , 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4g

Reprints from Byloe in pamphlet form, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4h

Krest'ianskoe zemlirasstroistvo , 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4i

Appeal of the Socialist Revolutionary and Social Democratic parties to Russian workers, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 4j

Clipping from the newspaper Russkie vedomosti containing a review of a book about Rasputin, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5a

Leaflets issued by anti-defeatists and monarchists, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5b

Appeal to the Russian proletariat by the Geneva Socialist Group marking the anniversary of January 9, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5c

Pour la Paix des Peuples

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5d

Revoliutsionnie dni v Petrograde , by V. Chernov

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5e

Russian Free Press Fund pamphlets from London, 1894

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5f

Vsem pnoteanym russkago tsaria , 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5g

Editorial policy of Free Russia in English and Russian, 1890

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5h

Russian Free Press Fund leaflets from London, 1894

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5i

Report on plans to publish Russian revolutionary propaganda in German in Russische Zustaénde , 1895

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5j

Report on the organization of a "flying squad" to deliver revolutionary propaganda to Russia, 1899

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5k

Headquarters request for more vigilance in intercepting and reporting shipments of revolutionary propaganda, 1900

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5l

Bulletins of various revolutionary groups, 1901-1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5m

Sionizm i interesy evreiskago proletariata (Zionism and Interests of the Hebrew Proletariat), 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5n

Booklets and pamphlets in Yiddish published by Abraham Nathanson in London, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5o

Iskra, vol. III, no. 54

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5p

Report on anarchist plans to publish an "Anarchist Almanac" in Geneva, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 5q

Various dispatches concerning publications and editors, 1907-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 371
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6a

Dispatches on the revolutionary periodicals Golos, Mysl', and Nashe slovo , 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6b

Roster of members of the editorial board of the Paris newspaper Mysl'

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6c

Dispatches on the publication and closing of the Paris newspaper Mysl', 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6d

Report on the newspapers Nashe slovo and Zhizn', published in the place of Golos and Mysl', 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6e

Report on the Paris newspaper Nashe ekho, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6f

Report on the Paris newspaper L'Echo de Russie, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6g

Report on the newspaper Zhizn', 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6h

French translation of Martov's article in Le noveau monde, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6i

Survey of contents of the revolutionary press, 1915-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6j

Headquarters survey of revolutionary publications abroad, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6k

Report on the closing of the New York newspaper Volia, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6l

Report explaining the closure of the New York newspaper Golos truda , 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6m

History of the newspapers Nashe slovo , Golos, and other émigré newspapers in French, 1915-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6n

Brief on the Russian revolutionary press in Paris, 1915-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6o

Report on Nashe slovo , 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6p

Report in French on the revolutionary press abroad to the Army General Staff, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6q

On the banning of the revolutionary daily Nashe slovo as a pro-German newspaper, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6r

Nachalo (Paris daily), vol. 1, no. 69, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6s

Reports from Nashe slovo , edited by Trotsky, proving that the paper is pro-German, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6t

List of the collaborators of the newspaper Golos in Paris, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6u

Lists of revolutionary publications up to 1913, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6v

Leaflet, Chto delaietsia v Sibiri?

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 6w

List of Social Democratic publications until 1900

Access

Available on microfilm reel 372
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 7

Dispatches, notes, and reports pertaining to the revolutionary press abroad, 1886-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reels 372-374
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 8

List of revolutionary publications, 1912-1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 374
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 9

V pomoshch, 1910-1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 374

Scope and Contents note

Includes nos. 1 (in Yiddish) and 3-5 (in Russian).
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 10

The Worker's Friend, 1915 March-July

Access

Available on microfilm reel 374
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 11

Materialy dlia istorii russkogo Sotsial'no Revolutiutsionnogo dvizheniia , Geneva, 1896

Access

Available on microfilm reel 374
Index XVIIr(1), Folder 12

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 13

Reference: See the operational card index file for a list of revolutionary and other publications

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 14

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 15

Reference: See letters from London with French translations from Free Russia, The Anglo-Russian, and other pro-revolutionary newspapers, 1891-1902, in XIIIa

Index XVIIr(1), Folder 16

Reference: See agent Farce's reports from London, 1901-1906, for French translations of articles in Free Russia and other publications, in VIk, folder 23

Box 242

Various oversize material

Box 205

(2) In Russia

Scope and Contents note

The batch of dispatches in this folder relates mostly to intercepted letters of the revolutionaries, discussing the underground press in various parts of Russia. No examples of clandestine publications are included. The collection of printed materials at the end of the folder carries dates after the termination of the Okhrana. These posters and leaflets with Lenin's and Trotsky's proclamations must have been added to the files by the Investigation Commission of 1917-1918.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1a

Documents (mostly dispatches on intercepted letters) pertaining to the revolutionary press in Russia, 1899-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1b

Letter from Kiev to Switzerland describing a primitive mimeographing method, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1c

Clandestine printing shop in Warsaw, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1d

Letter from Kiev to Elsa Beer in Vienna on the effect of Social Democratic propaganda on industrial workers in Russia, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1e

Publication of the Moscow Social Democratic periodical Proletariat, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1f

Plans of Bilit, Argunov, Voronov, and others to publish revolutionary periodical in Baku, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1g

Irkutsk Social Democratic organ Sibir', 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1h

Poster titled "Land Law" signed by the Chairman of the Council of Peoples' Commissars Vladimir, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1i

Poster issued by the Military-Revolutionary Committee concerning supplies for front-line troops, 1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1j

"Down with the Bolsheviks," an article published by the Petersburg Regional Committee of Bolsheviks condemning their opposition

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1k

"An die deutschen Soldaten," a leaflet signed by Ulianov (Lenin) and Trotsky

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1l

"Decree for Peace," a leaflet in Belorussian (Belarusian) adopted at a session of the All-Russia Meeting of Workers, Peasants, and Soldiers Deputies Council, 1917 October 26

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1m

Tolstoy's short play Ot nei vse kachestva

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1n

Political cartoon

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 1o

Mir narodov in German

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375

Scope and Contents note

Nos. 1 and 3 of the periodical published by the Council of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants' Deputies in St. Petersburg for distribution among German troops.
Index XVIIr(2), Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIr(2), Folder 3

Reference: See the operational card index file for a list of revolutionary and other publications in Russia and abroad

Index XVIIr(2), Folder 4

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 113, November 25, 1904, on the organization of a large underground printing plant by the Russian Socialist Democratic Workers Party in Odessa, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Box 205

s. Liaison with European and American revolutionaries

Scope and Contents note

The earliest documents in these folders date back to 1893. It is evident, however, that liaison of Russians with various Western revolutionaries had existed for many preceding years. The philosophic and ideological background for the movement was Western; and the contacts furnished considerable material and political support. All this concerned the Okhrana abroad. In addition to engaging the leftist press of France and all other European countries, the Russian revolutionaries also succeeded in gaining support from the liberal and leftist parliamentarians of France, Italy, another countries. Added to the attacks in the press, propaganda was channeled through parliamentary interpellations to the general public.
These papers give also the proceedings of the various international conferences of the Socialists, Russian attendance and liaison, a report on the French "Confédération générale du travail," and a review, in long-hand, of George Kennan's association with the Russian revolutionaries.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 376
Index XVIIs, Folder 1

Documents pertaining to Russian revolutionary liaison with European revolutionaries, 1903-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIs, Folder 2

Specific cases involving liaison with British and French revolutionaries; record of the French socialist defense of Rips, 1893-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 376
Index XVIIs, Folder 3

Liaison with Swiss and Belgian revolutionaries; Bittard-Monin's report on the connection between Russian revolutionaries and the French press; reports on Russian socialists in America; on Bulgarian revolutionaries; the Internationale Sozialistische Kommission zu Bern, 1911-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 376
Index XVIIs, Folder 4

Report in French on the Confédération générale du travail; pacifist movements among European socialists and Social Democrats, 1903-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 376
Index XVIIs, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box 205

t. Access to the foreign press

Scope and Contents note

The file contains documents covering the period from 1894 to 1917. On the whole, the Russian revolutionaries abroad had comparatively easy access to the foreign press through some of their most articulate representatives such as Burtsev, Gorky, Bakai, Agafonov, Savinkov, and Viktor Chernov. The bulk of material planted by Russian revolutionaries in the foreign periodical press dealt with sensational exposes of conditions in Russia. Burtsev utilized the foreign press for the purpose of rousing public opinion and governmental interest in the existence of Russian secret police in France, the background of Okhrana Chief Garting, and the famous leader of a revolutionary fighting organization, Evno Azef. The foreign press was also used to arouse public opinion during the Rips and Beilis trials. It is also revealed that the revolutionaries used such newspapers as the New York Times and the New York American in their propaganda campaigns in this country. The press in Italy, Britain, America, Germany, and Switzerland was exploited for revolutionary purposes. The documents found in the Okhrana archives on the revolutionary access to the foreign press indicate that this was a source of perpetual concern and harassment to the Okhrana. (Also see Index Numbers XXIVe, XXVIIa, and XXVIIb for information on this subject.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIt, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning revolutionary use of the foreign press; Russian translations of Burtsev's articles in the French press; report on Burtsev's plan for a press campaign against the Russian police; press used by French socialists during the Rips trial; list of newspaper clippings in the Okhrana archives, 1894-1917

Index XVIIt, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box 205

u. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Joseph Stalin)

Scope and Contents note

The documents on Dzhugashvili (Chapur, Koba, Soso, Stalin) found in the Okhrana archives cover the period from 1911-1912 and consist of four official Okhrana reports on Dzhugashvili, an Okhrana circular on that individual, and a copy of an intercepted letter from Stalin in exile to Moscow.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIu, Folder 1

Four Okhrana background reports on Dzhugashvili (Stalin), one circular, and a copy of an intercepted letter from Dzhugashvili (Stalin), in exile, to Moscow, 1911-1912

Index XVIIu, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Boxes 205-207

XVIII. Revolutionary groups of national minorities of the Russian Empire

Boxes 205-206

a. The Jewish Bund

Scope and Contents note

The Russian Jewish leftist party, the Bund, was both Marxist and nationalist, hence popular among the Jewish working class. Its close ties with Jewish workers in Western Europe, the United States, and Canada brought the activities of this party under constant surveillance by the Paris Okhrana.
Folders 1 and 2 contain 317 dispatches exchanged between Headquarters and the Paris Office intelligence on the Bund leaders, their movements and activities, and intercepted letters, which gave the Okhrana inside information on the Bund's growing popularity. The flow of intercepted mail ebbed to a trickle in 1905 and the Paris Office had to intensify surveillance, including the penetration of the Bund. There are numerous documents pertaining to the Bund's publications ( Bund, Arbeiterstimme, Jewish Worker) in Yiddish and Polish until 1906, when the Central Committee resolved to issue only one daily newspaper.
Folders 3 and 4 include for the most part Paris reports on meetings, conventions and contacts with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. After the 4th Congress of the Jewish Workers' Union, the Jewish proletariat and many students were under the ideological influence of the Bund. The Zionist movement was not only opposed but even attacked by the Bund as the "reaction of the bourgeoisie." The liquidation of the Bund Central Committee in Russia in 1913 put the onus of surveillance of the Central Bureau and the Party's Committee Abroad on the Paris Office. Hence numerous detailed reports on meetings and all activities of the Bund were dispatched to Headquarters after that date.
There is also a translation of John Radcliffe's publication, in which he quotes a homily delivered by a "prominent rabbi" in 1916. A report discusses the strongly pro-German speech made in January 1916 by V. Kossovskii in the larger cities of Switzerland.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 375, 377-378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches on the activities of the Bund and its leaders in general and intercepted mail, 1902-1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 375
Index XVIIIa, Folder 2

Dispatches on the activities of the Bund and its leaders in general and intercepted mail (cont'd.), 1913-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3a

Resolutions of the 4th General Jewish Trade Union in Russia and Poland, 1901

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3b

Intelligence summary giving the organization principles of the Bund, 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3c

Transfer of the Bund's printing shop from London to Geneva, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3d

Report on Kokochinskii, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3e

International society of Bund representatives in Basel engaged in purchasing landowners' estates in Russia, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3f

Activities of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3g

Circular letter no. 111 of the Central Bureau of Workers' "Ferein" groups, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3h

Circular letter of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3i

Okhrana chart of the structure of the Bund, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3j

Roster of members of the Bund Central Committee, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3k

Report on a Bund conference in Lemberg, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3l

Eighth Conference of the Bund (RSDWP), 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3m

Report of the Warsaw Committee of the Bund to the Central and Foreign Committees, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3n

Review of revolutionary activities in Switzerland, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3o

Roster of members of the Foreign Committee of the Bund in Geneva, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3p

Expanded meeting of the Bund Central Committee in Warsaw, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3q

Report on the current state of affairs of the Bund, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3r

Bund in New York: committee for a fund-raising drive, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3s

Report on current activities of the Bund, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3t

Bund activity in various cities in the Russian empire, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3u

Resolution of the Bund Central Committee Abroad, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3v

Vienna Conference of the Central and Foreign Committees, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3w

Ninth Bund Conference in Vienna, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3x

Operations of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3y

Circular letter no. 145 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 3z

Circular letter no. 147 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins"

Access

Available on microfilm reel 377
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4a

Circular letter no. 148 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins"

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4b

Expanded conference of the Central and Foreign Committees in Vienna, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4c

Current political activities of the Bund, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4d

Circular letter no. 150 of the Amalgamated Workers' "Fereins," 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4e

Circular letter of the Amalgamated Workers' "Fereins," 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4f

Geneva conference of the Central Bureau of the Amalgamated Workers' "Fereins," 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4g

Circular letter no. 152 of the Amalgamated Workers' "Fereins," 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4h

Bund on the Beilis trial, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4i

Circular letter no. 155 of the Amalgamated Workers' "Fereins," 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4j

Revolutionaries in Belgium, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4k

Ninth Conference of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins" in Geneva, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4l

Circular letter no. 156 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4m

Conference of United Jewish Unions abroad, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4n

Circular letter no. 157 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins"

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4o

Circular letter no. 159 of the Amalgamated Organization of Workers' "Fereins," 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4p

Bund organizations in Russia, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4q

Boston conference of the Jewish Socialist Federation, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4r

Formation of the Jewish-Socialist Agitation Committee in New York, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4s

Socialist Revolutionary P. Rutenberg sent to America to convene a Jewish congress, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4t

Geneva Conference of the Bund Foreign Committee, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4u

Text of a sermon allegedly delivered by a rabbi on the destiny of the Jews, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4v

Current activities of the Bund, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4w

Bund Committee Abroad's report at the 2nd International Socialist Congress at Kienthal, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 4x

Bund organizations abroad, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 5

Pamphlets, newspaper clippings, agent reports, and mail referring to Bund publications and activities

Access

Available on microfilm reel 378
Index XVIIIa, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIIa, Folder 7

Reference: See operational card index file for references to the Bund

Index XVIIIa, Folder 8

Reference: See "Review of Parties Affiliated with the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party" in XVIb(60, folder 1

Index XVIIIa, Folder 9

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 8, 1902, on resolutions of the 5th Bund Conference, in XIIIc(2), folder 1

Box 206

b. The Zionist movement

Scope and Contents note

The Zionist movement started in Poland in 1897 and spread rapidly throughout the world. Its prime aim being the awakening of national pride among Jews and its final goal the regaining of Palestine by the Jews, the movement gained the support of wealthy Jews of Western European countries and the United States. The Paris Okhrana surveiled at close quarters the activities of Zionists outside Russia, their meetings, publications, and leaders.
The documents in Folder 1 include a report on the formation in London of a progressive group called the Zionist-Socialists (1901), which cooperated with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party; a report on currents existing within the Zionist organization; a report in August 1913 on the formation of the "World Union of Jews," initiated at Frankfurt-am-Main and recruiting members from among wealthy Jews and intellectuals; a report on the Poale Zion Congress in Cracow in October 1913; and a lengthy dispatch to Headquarters in January 1915 informing on Germans seeking contacts with Zionist leaders in Berlin and Cologne, promising the liberation of Jews in Russia and Poland and help for Palestine by a victorious Germany against Jewish cooperation in defeating the Allies; reports on the activities of the Zionists in the international field, especially in the United States; report on the Zionist student organisation Gehaver; and numerous circulars issued by Headquarters.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning the Zionist movement and its leaders, conferences, Zionist Socialists, Po'alei Zion, Agudos Israel, etc., 1901-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2a

Miscellaneous papers, circulars, and reports on the Zionist movement, 1897-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2b

Zionism and the Jewish labor movement, an Okhrana brief for the use of its officers and agents, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2c

Basel conference of Zionist delegates from Russia prior to the opening of the 10th Zionist Congress, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2d

Report on the 10th Zionist Congress in Basel, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2e

Circular report on the 11th Congress in Vienna, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2f

Report on the pro-German tendency in Zionism, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2g

Circular on the Zionist organization Gehaver, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2h

Circular on the All-Russian Zionist Congress in Moscow, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2i

Proposed congress of Zionists in New York, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 2j

Zionist organization Gehaver, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIIb, Folder 4

Reference: See the operational card index file for references to Zionist organizations

Box 206

c. Jewish émigré problems for Russian security abroad

Scope and Contents note

All Jewish organizations, whether at home or abroad, created problems for the Russian authorities, due to the vast contacts they had with the world's Jewish circles. The pogroms and deportations of Jews and the much publicized Beilis case had caused reaction abroad supported by many Jewish revolutionaries emigrating from Russia. All this was placing the Russian government under constant fire of criticism and demanded a keen vigilance from the Paris Okhrana. The file consists of four folders containing dispatches exchanged between Okhrana Headquarters and the Paris Office, miscellaneous documents, copies of The Worker's Friend and copies of V Pomoshch.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIc, Folder 1

Incoming and outgoing dispatches, 1898-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIc, Folder 2

Jewish propaganda pamphlets and statutes of Jewish student associations, 1889-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIc, Folder 3

Newspaper clippings on the Beilis trial

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIc, Folder 4

Issues of The Workers' Friend, published in London, and V pomoshch , 1905-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 379
Index XVIIIc, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIIc, Folder 6

Reference: See Agent Farce's reports from London, 1902-1906, in VIK, folder 23

Index XVIIIc, Folder 7

Reference: See booklets and pamphlets in Yiddish, London, 1903, in XVIIr(1)

Box 207

d. Activities in America: finances for Jewish movements

Scope and Contents note

Jewish immigrants from Russia, especially those of leftist affiliations, organized the Russian-Jewish Revolutionary Union in New York as early as 1899. They sought both moral and financial support for the similar movement in their former homeland. Bund activities in the United States preceded other Jewish activities, and in April 1914 the Federation of Jewish Socialist Workers, organized by emissaries of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, counted 92,000 members.
Conditions created by World War I permitted the Jewish groups of all political orientations to intensify their activities, and Okhrana agents, supplied detailed information on movements of Jewish leaders and publica- tions and the work of their organizations. Among numerous reports, there are references to money received by two Jewish editors from the Germans for an anti-Russian propaganda campaign (April 1915), plans for the formation of a Jewish Legion for the occupation of Palestine (August 1915) and a congress of American Zionists in Boston (August 1916).

Access

Available on microfilm reels 379-380
Index XVIIId, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes, and intercepted mail, 1899-1916

Index XVIIId, Folder 2a

Jewish Socialist Labor Federation in New York, 1914

Index XVIIId, Folder 2b

Agent Bint's report on the foundation of a National Jewish League in New York, 1915

Index XVIIId, Folder 2c

Philadelphia conference of the Jewish Socialist Federation in America, 1915

Index XVIIId, Folder 2d

National Workers Conference in New York, 1915

Index XVIIId, Folder 2e

Bund conference in honor of A. Litvin, 1915

Index XVIIId, Folder 2f

New York Bund meeting in memory of "Bloody Sunday," 1915

Index XVIIId, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIId, Folder 4

Reference: See the operational card index file for references to Jewish organizations in America and Europe

Boxes 207-209

XIX. Polish revolutionaries

Scope and Contents note

The Polish revolutionaries were organized mainly in the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, which cooperated closely with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. Until their center of activities was transferred from the Kingdom of Poland to Galicia, the P.S.P. activities were under the surveillance of the Warsaw Okhrana. As the leaders fled abroad (London, 1895), they became targets of the Paris Okhrana.
Prior to World War I, there were no important centers of Polish revolutionary activities outside of Russian Poland and Austrian Galicia, although Polish delegates attended conventions of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party abroad. It is the reports on these instances that make the Polish file of the Paris Okhrana. During the war, the activities of Polish leftist and conservative leaders were concentrated in Switzerland.
This collection is grouped roughly on early insurgents, the revolutionary underground, and leaders. However, no clear-cut separation by topics is possible, and the researcher in any phase of the Polish revolutionary movement may find it necessary to consult all the folders under this index.
The materials on early Polish revolutionaries are assembled mostly in Folders Nos. 1 to 4, the first one presenting a comprehensive coverage of the Padlewski case (the murder of General Seliverstov), and the subsequent ones on Polish revolutionaries in London and Paris, including much confiscated materials, letters and codes of 1890, and the reports of Polish agents of the Okhrana.
The documents on Joézef Pilsudski and other important revolutionary leaders are in Folders 5, 6, and 11. More material on the leaders can be culled from Folders 10, 12, and 13, containing dispatches, circulars, and other memoranda on Polish youth activities, student groups revolutionary and terrorist organizations, etc.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 380-384
Index XIX, Folder 1

The Padlewski case (murder of General Seliverstov), 1890-1893

Access

Available on microfilm reel 380

Scope and Contents note

Includes newspaper clippings and a bound collection of documents concerning the assassin and fellow conspirators.
Index XIX, Folder 2

Miscellaneous reports, 1889-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 380

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: individuals active in the Polish Socialist Party; Polish émigrés in Paris; Polish revolutionaries in exile; revolutionary codes confiscated from Rapaport's apartment; letters and code in Polish found in Mendelsohn's apartment; notes on Petrova confiscated from Polish revolutionaries; confiscated Reinstein papers; Stepanov's notes; notes and code confiscated at Sawitski's arrest. Also includes a code book.
Index XIX, Folder 3

Letters in Polish, 1887-1890

Access

Available on microfilm reel 380

Scope and Contents note

Includes those confiscated from Mendelsohn's apartment.
Index XIX, Folder 4

Reports of Polish agents to the Okhrana in Paris, 1892-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 380

Scope and Contents note

Reports by Wietrzyk and Bilewicz from London; Malankiewicz (Wierzbicki) and Rzondtza (Gruszewski) from Paris; M. Rakowski ("Polish Azef"); and an anonymous informer.
Index XIX, Folder 5

Circulars, dispatches and other materials on Pilsudski and other Polish leaders, 1893-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 381

Scope and Contents note

Includes correspondence of the Grabski brothers in 1893.
Index XIX, Folder 6

Dispatches and other notes on Polish leaders concerning their activities and contacts with Russian revolutionaries, 1891-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 381
Index XIX, Folder 7

Intercepted letters forward in dispatches to Headquarters, 1894-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 382
Index XIX, Folder 8

Dispatches concerning Polish revolutionary and patriotic publications, 1896-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 382
Index XIX, Folder 9

Polish issues in the foreign press: leaflets, clippings and galley proofs

Access

Available on microfilm reel 382
Index XIX, Folder 10

Dispatches and other materials on Polish youth activities, 1914-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 382

Scope and Contents note

Subjects include the Union of Polish Progressive Youth; Spojnia; Sokol and Strzelec; Zycie in Lvov; Concordia in Leipzig; the Polish Alliance of Revolutionary Youth; Independent Progressive Youth; Polonia in Munch; the Polish Catholic League; and Polish children in Paris.
Index XIX, Folder 11

Activities of Polish leaders in the international field for independent Poland, 1910-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 383

Scope and Contents note

Includes dispatches and circulars relating to political orientation of Polish leaders and their actions in Allied and Central Powers camps.
Index XIX, Folder 12

Dispatches on Polish revolutionary organizations and the independence movement, 1894-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reels 383-384

Scope and Contents note

Includes an 88-page summary prepared by Okhrana Headquarters in 1909.
Index XIX, Folder 13

Dispatches and notes on Polish terrorists, anarchists, and socialists, 1894-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 384

Scope and Contents note

Includes materials on contacts between the Polish Socialist Party and the Bund and a copy of Bulletin juif from January 1917.
Index XIX, Folder 14

Miscellaneous letters, books, and other materials, 1893-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 384

Scope and Contents note

Includes a drawing of a hand grenade, unidentified letters and notes, copy of the Illustrated Polish Weekly from 1915, stamps issued by the Polish Committee for Independence; and an appeal in Russian for support of the Social Democratic Party from 1893. Books include Russisch-polnische Beziehungen (1893), Czego chca? socyaliséci? (1902), Syberya (translation from Kennan); and Listy ulotne . Newspapers include Polonia (no. 10, 1917); Naprzód (nos. 31 and 51, 1904); and Robotnicza Solidarnosc.
Index XIX, Folder 15

Cross-reference sheet

Index XIX, Folder 16

Reference: See the operational index file for references to Polish national organizations

Index XIX, Folder 17

Reference: For a review of parties affiliated with the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, 1910, see XVIb(6)

Index XIX, Folder 18

Reference: For intelligence summary no. 63, December 11, 1903, for a survey of the Polish socialist movement in Galicia and elsewhere, in XIIIc(2), folder 3

Index XIX, Folder 19

Reference: For intelligence summary no. 81, December 11, 1904, on activities of the Polish organization Liga Narodowa, see XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XIX, Folder 20

Reference: For letters and raw reports from various agents in London in French, Polish, and Russian )and particularly letters on Dembski and others in the 1890s, see XIIIa

Index XIX, Folder 21

Reference: See Agent Farce's reports from London, 1902-1906, in VIk, folder 23

Box 209

XX. Armenian groups

Scope and Contents note

The first mention of Armenian activity abroad appears in the Paris Okhrana files in a draft report referring to "Young Armenia," a student organization dating back to 1894 and to the existence of an Armenian Social Democratic group in London. It underlines the characteristic feature of all Armenian organizations, namely their prevailing nationalism, which Russian leftist groups considered untimely and incongruous with the revolutionary cause. The report also gives data on Armenian revolutionary publications ( Gaapara, Gnchak, Mshak, Murcha), Armenian leaders active abroad and their contacts with leftist elements, of Western Europe. Prince Viktor I. Nakashidze, an anarchist, stands out as a strong supporter of the Armenian movement, as do Mikhail Tsereteli, Georgii Dekanozi, Viktor Gogeliani, etc. Agent reports of May 1907 give information on Georgians residing in Switzerland and Paris. Reports from Headquarters send data on one of the most important Armenian organizations -- the Dashnaktsutyun (Dashnakts'ut'iwn) -- and its leaders (November 1907) publications (March 1908), and activities. Other reports in this folder deal with the Droshakists, "Independent Georgia," Armenians in Turkey, the Party of Unity and Progress, the Dashnaktsutyun by countries, including America, Armenian student groups, terrorist plans, etc.
Folder 2 contains a collection of clippings on Turkish atrocities committed against the Armenians, an Okhrana Headquarters brief on the Caucasian revolutionary movement, a report on the Dashnaktsutyun congress in Constantinople, Armenian revolutionary publications, resolutions adopted by the Armenian Social Democratic Party "Gnchak," the student union of Dashnakists in Paris and Berlin, and the agenda of the Vlllth Dashnaktsutyun congress in Erzerum.
 

a. Organization and newspapers, nationalist and socialist

Scope and Contents note

The first mention of Armenian activity abroad appears in the Paris Okhrana files in a draft report referring to "Young Armenia," a student organization dating back to 1894 and to the existence of an Armenian Social Democratic group in London. It underlines the characteristic feature of all Armenian organizations, namely their prevailing nationalism, which Russian leftist groups considered untimely and incongruous with the revolutionary cause. The report also gives data on Armenian revolutionary publications ( Gaapara, Gnchak, Mshak, Murcha), Armenian leaders active abroad and their contacts with leftist elements, of Western Europe. Prince Viktor I. Nakashidze, an anarchist, stands out as a strong supporter of the Armenian movement, as do Mikhail Tsereteli, Georgii Dekanozi, Viktor Gogeliani, etc. Agent reports of May 1907 give information on Georgians residing in Switzerland and Paris. Reports from Headquarters send data on one of the most important Armenian organizations -- the Dashnaktsutyun (Dashnakts'ut'iwn) -- and its leaders (November 1907) publications (March 1908), and activities. Other reports in this folder deal with the Droshakists, "Independent Georgia," Armenians in Turkey, the Party of Unity and Progress, the Dashnaktsutyun by countries, including America, Armenian student groups, terrorist plans, etc.
Folder 2 contains a collection of clippings on Turkish atrocities committed against the Armenians, an Okhrana Headquarters brief on the Caucasian revolutionary movement, a report on the Dashnaktsutyun congress in Constantinople, Armenian revolutionary publications, resolutions adopted by the Armenian Social Democratic Party "Gnchak," the student union of Dashnakists in Paris and Berlin, and the agenda of the Vlllth Dashnaktsutyun congress in Erzerum.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 385-386
Index XXa, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Armenian revolutionary groups at home and abroad, 1894-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reels 385-386
Index XXa, Folder 2

Briefs, reviews, reports and circulars for briefing on Armenian revolutionary groups, 1909-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on revolutionary parties in Caucasus (1909); socialists in Georgia (1909); and Dashnak, Gnchak, and other groups in various countries abroad.
Index XXa, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXa, Folder 4

Reference: See operational card index file for references to the Dashnaktsutyun Party

Index XXa, Folder 5

Reference: For Agent Kaplun's reports on Georgians in Switzerland, see IIIf, folder 21

Index XXa, Folder 6

Reference: For Agent Farce's reports from London, 1902-1906, see VIk, folder 23

 

b. Intelligence in connection with Tiflis robbery

Scope and Contents note

The Tiflis robbery, a major, but only one of a series of revolutionary operations, was obviously instigated from abroad by Litvinov, Krasin, and other Leninists, while the attack itself was perpetrated by the local Armenian and Georgian revolutionary terrorists. The first 22 documents in this collection are general or minor reports on this act of "expropriation". The subsequent six reports relate to Litvinov's participation, the arrest of ringleader Kamo in Berlin, and the revolutionary attempts to place in circulation the 500 ruble bank notes from the Tiflis holdup.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386
Index XXb, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes relating to intelligence in connection with the robbery by revolutionaries in Tiflis, 1905-1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386
Index XXb, Folder 2

Reports on Litvinov's party of "expropriators," Kamo's arrest in Berlin, a list of Armenian "expropriators," and revolutionaries marketing stolen 500 ruble bank notes. Also includes clippings from Bulgarian newspapers, 1906-1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386
Index XXb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box 209

XXI. Finnish revolutionaries

Scope and Contents note

In 1899 Headquarters instructed the Paris Office to surveil in London the activity of the "Committee on Finland," presided over by Harold Perrot. From this date on, Finnish matters, especially smuggling arms and clandestine publications to Finland, continued to enter the agenda of the Paris Okhrana. Folder 1 contains a general collection of intelligence dispatches on the subject. The documents in Folder 2 deal with specific subjects: Konni Zilliacus and the northern route for arms smuggling to Finland and Russia, a brief on the political situation in Finland (1909), a circular about German support of the Finnish independence movement, etc.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386
Index XXI, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Finnish revolutionary activities, 1899-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386
Index XXI, Folder 2

Miscellaneous dispatches and reports, 1904-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 386

Scope and Contents note

Topics include surveillance of Zilliaeus, Finnish agitators, the Northern underground for arms smuggling, a brief on the political situation in Finland, agitation among university youth, and independence movements in Finland supported by Germany.
Index XXI, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXI, Folder 4

Reference: See VIIIc for reports on the Finnish movement (1916)

Box 210

XXII. Latvians and Lithuanians

Scope and Contents note

The main reason in placing Latvian and Lithuanian revolutionary groups in the same file was their regional affiliation. (They are referred to by the Russian authorities as the "Baltic Provinces". ) There are just a few direct references to Lithuanians (and Estonians) in the files of the Paris Okhrana, due to the fact that they did not form a separate national group within the broad scope of the revolutionary movement. While cooperating with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, they joined the Poles under the banner of the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. Another reason for the lack of documents referring to Lithuanians in the Paris Okhrana Office was that more prominent Lithuanian leaders were active within the political boundaries of Russia, thus being a target for local Okhrana networks.
The first mention of an organized Latvian group abroad dates to 1899, when a chapter of their Social Democratic Party was formed in London. From then on the activities of the Latvian Social Democratic Party in Russia had a strong reflection on its exponents abroad living in larger cities of Western Europe. Latvian revolutionaries established a close contact with all national groups cooperating with the Russian Social Democratic Party and kept it up to the outbreak of the October revolution. They attended all important meetings and conventions of the RSDWP, proving themselves as valuable planners and activists for the revolutionary cause. As terrorists, the Latvians made an impressive record. They also smuggled into Russia considerable quantities of clandestine publications and arms during the revolution of 1905.
Latvian emigres in the United States organized several groups of the Social Democratic Party, but only those active in San Francisco (1911) adhered to the home structure of the Party. Others acted independently. Folder 1 contains the agenda for the 4th Congress of the Latvian Social Democratic Party (March 1913), a trace of financial assistance from the German Social Democrats (July 1913), and evidence that a Latvian Social Democratic group in Boston, Massachusetts, built itself up to a membership of 370.
War conditions caused a cessation of activities of the Latvian Social Democratic Bureau Abroad, and attempts to revive it in Stockholm failed. Latvian contacts with Lithuanians during World War I became more lively and close. Folder 2 includes documents referring to cooperation between Latvian and Russian anarchists (Lapin and Teplov) for the purpose of smuggling arms to Russia (1909), the political platform of the Latvian Social Democratic Party, an Okhrana chart of the Latvian Social Democratic Party, a summary report on the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party and reports on its conventions, reports on resolutions and the organization of the Bureau of Latvian Social Democratic Groups Abroad, and data on Pietr Brede (Bredis, "Yeshka").
Index XXII, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Latvians and Lithuanians in anarchist groups in London, 1899-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reels 386-387
Index XXII, Folder 2

Dispatches and agent reports, 1909-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 387

Scope and Contents note

Includes Lopin's report on Latvian anarchists in London; the platform of the Latvian Social Democratic Party; Agent Pilenas's reports on anarchists in London; a brief on the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party; report on the convention of the Estonian Social Democratic Party in Finland; the case of Latvian communist Bredis-Brede, alias Yeshka (Eshka); and circulars on the Fourth Congress of the Latvian Social Democratic Party.
Index XXII, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXII, Folder 4

Reference: See operational card index file for references to the Latvian Social Democratic and Socialist Revolutionary groups

Index XXII, Folder 5

Reference: For a review of parties affiliated with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, 1910, see XVIb(6)

Index XXII, Folder 6

Reference: For letters and raw reports from various agents in London, in French, Polish, and Russian, from 1891-1902, see XIIIa

Index XXII, Folder 7

Reference: For documents on the Houndsditch murders and robbery, see XVIb(5)

Box 210

XXIII. Ukrainian revolutionaries

 

a. General

Scope and Contents note

After their arrest and Siberian deportation at the turn of the century, a few Ukrainian revolutionaries (Russov, Liakhotskii) fled abroad. In Galicia, however, the revolutionary movement grew unhampered by Austrian authorities and began to radiate across the border to Russian Ukraine. After the 1905 revolution, Ukrainian revolutionary activities became stronger, and all Russian leftist parties had their followers in the main cities of the Ukraine (1908). "Pravda," the organ of the Ukrainian Soiuz "Spilka," was published in Vienna, with Trotsky as its editor (1908). In March 1914 an all-Ukrainian convention was held in Lvov with representatives of Russian socialists.
The collection of dispatches in Folder 1 includes documents on how in December 1914 the Ukrainian Soiuz was accused of accepting financial aid from the Austrian government, yielding to it the control of all activities; on "Bor'ba," published in Geneva as the organ of Ukrainian Social Democrats following Lenin's political line; on the Berlin organization, "Soiuz Osvobozhdeniia Ukrainy," headed by Petr Bendzia, acting under the auspices of Germany; on Ukrainian national committees; etc
Folder 2 contains documents on the organization of the Ukrainian "Spilka" Party and "Pravda," members of the "Spilka" abroad, the "Ukrainskaia Gromada" in Paris, and a survey of the Ukrainian movement (1916).

Access

Available on microfilm reels 387-388, 170a
Index XXIIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to Ukrainian revolutionaries and activities, 1900-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 387
Index XXIIIa, Folder 2

Dispatches and circulars, 1908-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 388

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on the Social Democratic organ "Spilka," the "Ukrainska Gromada," and the "Russian Nationalist-Socialist Party." Also includes Zapiska ob ukrainskom dvizhenii, a brief for Okhrana personnel.
Index XXIIIa, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIIIa, Folder 4

Reference: See operational card index file for references to Ukrainian nationalist organizations

Index XXIIIa, Folder 5

Reference: For accounts of "Spilka" and by-laws of the Social Democratic Union of the Ukraine, see XVIb(6)

 

b. Financial and other support from America

Scope and Contents note

The collection of documents under this subject heading includes the manifesto of Ukrainians in Canada and reports "on their activities, 1915-1916 (the "Mazepa" group); data on M. Sichinskii, leader of a "Mazepa" group in the United States; a report on the 3rd Convention of the "Mazepa" organization in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1916; reports on the "Ukrainian Congress in Canada" (1916-1917) and a new organization, "Ukrainska Rada"; and a list of brochures published by "Ukrainska Rada" (1917).

Access

Available on microfilm reel 388
Index XXIIIb, Folder 1

Dispatches and drafts of reports pertaining to the support of Ukrainian immigrant activities in America and their support to the revolutionaries, 1912-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 388
Index XXIIIb, Folder 2

Dispatches on Ukrainians in Canada, the Mazepa group, and branches of the Russian National Union, 1914-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 388
Index XXIIIb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIIIb, Folder 4

Reference: See the operational card index file for references to Ukrainian national organizations

Boxes 210-215

XXIV. Revolutionary intelligence and propaganda techniques

Boxes 210-211

a. Intelligence structure and security problems

Scope and Contents note

Their conspiratorial nature made all revolutionaries, particularly the terrorist groups, smugglers of arms, "expropriators," and planners, security conscious. Revolutionary doctrines required clandestine activities, with every participant on constant alert and passing information to leaders and comrades for their protection and for a safe promotion of the cause. As the revolutionary campaigns increased in intensity, the planners of acts needed advance intelligence for carrying out operations; and with the realization of Okhrana penetrations and betrayals, they developed their own counter-intelligence.
The materials under this subject file contain ample information on the growth of the revolutionary counter-intelligence from, so to speak, the grass roots, an extremely informal flow of information among leading conspirators with the gradual emergence of Burtsev's and other revolutionary services. These, aiming principally against the Okhrana, also assumed executive and judicial powers to intimidate and liquidate the opponent. Thus, it may be said that the revolutionary service was the ideological forerunner of the Bolshevik Cheka and the OGPU. The period covered by the collection extends from 1897 to 1917. The documents consist of incoming and outgoing dispatches, telegrams, perlustrated letters, and copies of intercepted letters pertaining to Burtsev's revolutionary intelligence operations, the exposure of secret Okhrana agents such as Yost, Kensitskii, Batushanskii, Metal'nikov, Tsetlin, and others, the organization of revolutionary police in Paris to combat the Okhrana, revolutionary investigation of suspected Okhrana agents.
There are also official MVD circulars giving Socialist Revolutionary Party regulations pertaining to the security of party meetings, a report on Burtsev's sources on the Okhrana as well as his methods of operation -- surveillance, targets, agents, and his sources of information from within the Okhrana.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 388-390
Index XXIVa, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to revolutionary intelligence structure and security precautions, 1897-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reels 388-389
Index XXIVa, Folder 2a

Card notations from Okhrana operational files on agents investigated by Burtsev

Access

Available on microfilm reel 389
Index XXIVa, Folder 2b

Intercepted letters of revolutionaries (Fabrikant, Burtsev, etc.), 1886-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 389
Index XXIVa, Folder 3

Perlustrated mail addressed to Natanson, 1908-1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 389
Index XXIVa, Folder 4

Perlustrated mail addressed to Agafonov, 1908-1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5a

Circular on the activities of the All-Russian Peasant Union in Russia, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5b

Circular from Headquarters concerning Socialist Revolutionary Party regulations pertaining to security at meetings, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5c

Circular concerning a resolution by the St. Petersburg Socialist Revolutionary Party concerning armed uprisings, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5d

Burtsev's sources on the Okhrana, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5e

Early organization of revolutionary intelligence, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5f

Revolutionary surveillance, exposure, and trial of Okhrana Agent Tsetlin, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5g

Mirtov's offer to operate against Burtsev's intelligence network, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5h

Burtsev's methods of operation, surveillance, targets, and agents, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5i

Burtsev's efforts to place his agents in the Okhrana, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5j

Revolutionary investigation of agents Mass and Franck, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5k

Burtsev's attempts to discover the new structure of the Okhrana office in Paris, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5l

Agent Jollivet's ("Tourist") reports on Burtsev's intelligence activities in Italy, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5m

Burtsev's anti-Okhrana intelligence activity in Italy, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5n

Interest in Social Democratic circles in the arrest of Medem, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5o

Documents on the Antonov-Aleksinskii case, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5p

Burtsev's sources of information from within the Okhrana, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 5q

Documents and references to individual revolutionaries, without Okhrana connections, who were suspected, investigated, or tried as provocateurs, 1907-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVa, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVa, Folder 7

Reference: See day by day reports, from August 19-November 6, 1909, on the surveillance of Burtsev and his revolutionary intelligence agents, in XVIId, folder 3

Index XXIVa, Folder 8

Reference: See reports on surveillance difficulties after the defection of Okhrana agent M. Leroy and the creation of the "revolutionary police," in IIIe, folder 6

Index XXIVa, Folder 9

Reference: See the personal folder on Agent Serose on the position of Leroy in Burtsev's revolutionary police, in IIIe, folder 3

Index XXIVa, Folder 10

Reference: See Agent Richard's ("Jane") reports on Burtsev's office, March-August 1914, in XIa, folder 2a

Index XXIVa, Folder 11

Reference: See the assignments and reports from Mme. Jollivet and her son Raoul regarding Burtsev and Leroy, 1914-1915, in VIk, folder 33

Box 211

b. Use of defectors from the Okhrana

Scope and Contents note

The collection contains dispatches exchanged between Headquarters and the Paris Office referring to agents who defected from the Okhrana and cooperated with the revolutionaries, such as Sorkin, Meilakhovich, Yanitskii, Finkelman, Borisov, Leone, Joulia, Jollivet, Pilenas-Wallenrod, Sushkov, and Tiercelin, and to important cases -- Lt. Benson, Bakai, Menshchikov, Leroy, and Rips. Colonel von Kotten recruited agent Rips in Russia and brought him to Paris for deep cover work. It appears that Rips was actually a plant for the revolutionaries, who wanted to assassinate von Kotten. The latter escaped with several gun wounds, but the case came to court. Seven volumes of the proceedings in court, where the revolutionaries mustered a strong defense, are included in this set.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 390-391
Index XXIVb, Folder 1

Dispatches, circulars, and other materials pertaining to defectors of the Okhrana, 1887-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVb, Folder 2

Clippings of articles written by Mikhail Bakai, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVb, Folder 3

Clipping containing an interview with Burtsev on Okhrana defector Menshchikov

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVb, Folder 4

Ambassador Bakherakht's story on the case of Russian Army Lt. Benson and his acquisition of a Swiss villa, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390
Index XXIVb, Folder 5

The case of Mikhail E. Bakai, 1908-1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390

Scope and Contents note

Includes dispatches notes, notes, telegrams, and reports on his background, exposure of Agent Kensitskii, relations with Burtsev, etc.
Index XXIVb, Folder 6

The case of Leonid P. Menshchikov, 1910-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 390

Scope and Contents note

Includes dispatches, clippings, circulars, and reports on his exposure of agents as a result of his defection, his memoirs, his visit to the United States, etc.
Index XXIVb, Folder 7

The case of Maurice Leroy, 1908-1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 391

Scope and Contents note

Includes dispatches and reports on his defection and a photograph.
Index XXIVb, Folder 8

The case of Movsha (Mikhail) Rips, 1909-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 391

Scope and Contents note

Includes dispatches, reports, 7 volumes of stenographic notes of his hearing before the French court for the attempted murder of Colonel von Kotten.
Index XXIVb, Folder 9

Cross-reference sheet

Box 212

c. Penetration of the Okhrana

Scope and Contents note

The documents yielded by the Paris Okhrana archives on its penetration by the revolutionaries indicate that the Okhrana's main concern in this respect was Vladimir Burtsev, who succeeded in obtaining secret Okhrana information directly from the St. Petersburg Headquarters (1906-1907) and the Paris Office. He used the information to expose secret agents of the Paris Office.
This file contains double agent Jollivet's report on Burtsev's sources in the Okhrana as well as his report on Burtsev's intelligence activities. (See XVIId and XXlVb for additional information.) The papers serve as conclusive evidence that Burtsev periodically had access to secret files of the Okhrana both in St. Petersburg and Paris. Attempts by the revolutionaries to join the Okhrana as agents in order to obtain secret information were not as successful as Burtsev's direct access to classified Okhrana documents through regular Okhrana personnel.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 391-392
Index XXIVc, Folder 1

Reports and other notes pertaining to penetration of the Okhrana by revolutionaries, 1887-1917

Index XXIVc, Folder 2a

Clippings from Budushchee concerning the exposure of deep cover agents by Kensitskii and Dorozhko, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2b

Penetration by Burtsev of Swiss liaison with the Okhrana, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2c

Okhrana circular of a list of names of those suspected by the revolutionaries of being provocateurs, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2d

Burtsev's access to the Okhrana, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2e

Clippings about the exposure of Okhrana activities in the French press, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2f

Clippings from the Italian press exposing Okhrana activities, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2g

Burtsev's open letter to LePressence, head of the Civil Liberties League in Paris, exposing Okhrana agents and activities, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2h

Agent Jollivet's report on Burtsev's sources in the Okhrana, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2i

Clipping from Il Secolo about Burtsev in Italy, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2j

Burtsev's intelligence source on the Okhrana in the police department, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2k

Agent Jollivet's reports on Burtsev's intelligence activities, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2l

Burtsev's announcement in Brussels newspapers on Okhrana agents and their functions, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392

Scope and Contents note

Includes an article containing 29 names.
Index XXIVc, Folder 2m

Statements of State Counselor Berednikov in connection the with indictment of his exposure to Okhrana personnel, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2n

Agent Poznanskii's suit against Burtsev, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2o

Exposure of Okhrana agent Yost (Iost), 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2p

Exposure of agent Kensitskii, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2q

Activities of Bakai's revolutionary police in Paris

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2r

Burtsev's and Bakai's claims that they have access to the police department of St. Petersburg, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2s

Burtsev's man Segal as an Okhrana agent, 1909-1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2t

Report on Burtsev's attempts to penetrate the Okhrana, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2u

Reports on Burtsev's exposure of agent Mass through a St. Petersburg source, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVc, Folder 3

Reference: See the notes in double agent Berg's folder in XIa, folder 2d

Box 212

d. Documentation of revolutionary agents

Scope and Contents note

The documents in this file consist of incoming and outgoing dispatches and raw agent reports covering the period from 1894 to 1916. The Russian revolutionaries abroad were in constant need of documents and passports in order to maintain contact with their co-conspirators in Russia.
Passports were either stolen from Russian consulates abroad or purchased illegally from minor consular officials. Passports and other official documents and stamps were also produced in revolutionary printing shops. Another method of obtaining passports for illegal use was for one to be reported missing to consular officials in order to receive a new passport while the "lost" document then became ''available" after some alterations. A factor that helped the revolutionaries greatly in their forging operations was that no photograph of the legal owner was contained in the Russian domestic or foreign passports of that period. During the war there was a brisk trade in forged military service exemption certificates abroad.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to the documentation of revolutionary agents, 1894-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2a

Circulars pertaining to the theft of passport blanks and government stamps by revolutionaries in Russia, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2b

Request for instructions on how to handle possible fraudulent requests for new passports, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2c

Illegal use of a passport by a London anarchist, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2d

Geneva Russian consulate employee Lilin stole a large supply of passport blanks, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2e

Basel as the center for false Russian passports, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2f

Dispatches from the Russian consulate in Berlin about the use of passport blanks by the revolutionaries, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2g

Sale of false passports blanks in revolutionary circles in Paris, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVd, Folder 4

Reference: For a list of passports, seals, and personal documents, see circular no. 145031/382, November 18, 1916, in XIIId(2), folder 61

Box 212

e. Propaganda outlets

Scope and Contents note

Revolutionary propaganda outlets involved the smuggling of propaganda materials into Russia, their storage and distribution both in Russia and abroad, public lectures and rallies, and the planting of anti-government articles in the foreign press. During the war, revolutionary propaganda was distributed among Russian prisoners of war in Germany and Austria. All of these aspects of propaganda are reflected in the documents under this classification. Also see Index Numbers VIIIb, XVIIt, and XXIVh for further source materials.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 392-393
Index XXIVe, Folder 1

Dispatches and other papers pertaining to revolutionary propaganda outlets, 1886-1917

Access

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVe, Folder 2a

Placard in French calling for a protest meeting of behalf of Burtsev, 1903

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2b

Organization of an "Information Bureau" in Berlin for keeping the socialist press abroad informed on happenings in Russia, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2c

Report on Social Democratic propaganda outlets in St. Petersburg, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2d

Obituaries for three revolutionary martyrs, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2e

Report on the editor of an anti-militarist newspaper in Genoa, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2f

Clippings from French and British press containing articles on behalf of the revolutionaries, 1908-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2g

Smuggling of propaganda into Russia from London, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2h

Russian teachers' excursions into Europe and their exposure to revolutionary propaganda, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2i

Opening of the Université Populaire Russe é Paris, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2j

Report on attempts by revolutionaries to propagandize the crew of the Russian battleship "Slava" in Toulon, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2k

Zurich Socialist Revolutionary group dispatching propaganda to Russia, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2l

Publication of Bakai's brochure in New York, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2m

Socialist Revolutionaries in Constantinople engaged in smuggling illegal literature into Russia, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2n

Publication of special material in Brussels for propaganda among Russian army officers, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2o

Report that Burtsev is to be sued for slander in Paris, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2p

Report on shipment of illegal literature into Russia, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2q

Article in Belgian newspaper La peuple , with a Russian translation, exposing 29 names of Okhrana agents, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2r

Burtsev's exposure of Bint and Sambain and the Feuger blackmail case, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2s

Leftist press against the Okhrana and Krasil'nikov's survey, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2t

Leaflets on the Zimmerwald Conference in French and Russian, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2u

Article on the Russian occupation of Galicia

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2v

Report on the transportation of political contraband across the Prussian border

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2w

"Vers la dissolution de la Douma," article for the French press

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box 212

f. Liaison with European leftist groups

Scope and Contents note

The dispatches and raw reports included in this file, covering the period between 1902 and 1916, indicate that the Russian revolutionary movement abroad did involve liaison with German Social Democrats, Italian, anarchists, and French socialists. Liaison was maintained for purposes of influencing foreign governments in favor of the Russian revolutionary cause and to obtain material support for the revolutionaries. Parliamentary representatives of leftist foreign political groups were engaged for interpellations and to prod the governments against the Okhrana. The Russian revolutionary movement gained some influential friends among foreign leftist writers and politicians: Anatole France, Rebel, Jean Jaurès, and others.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1a

Papers pertaining to intelligence and other underground liaison with French, German, and Italian socialist and anarchist groups, 1902-1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1b

Agent Woltz's surveillance reports on Benito Mussolini and various French, Bulgarian, and Serbian revolutionaries, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1c

Exclusion of police agents from Masonic lodges, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1d

Minutes of the meeting of the French Socialist Committee of Action, 1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box 212

g. Early types of communist front organizations among Russian émigrés

Scope and Contents note

Revolutionaries, particularly the Social Democrats, developed the practices of joining non-political associations of the émigrés for the purpose of converting them to their own political orientation and aims. A score of professional, cultural, and other societies started by the Russians abroad thus became tools and convenient spokesmen of the Marxists, i. e. the prototypes of the subsequent communist front organizations. This collection is fairly representative of the category. Some such organizations were founded by the revolutionaries with the outright purpose of supporting their aims, but under such names as "Committee for Russian Prisoners and Exiles," "Fund for Free Press," and other headings appealing for support on humane or democratic grounds. Organizations such as "Mutual Assistance Funds," "Student Unions," "International Women's Conferences," the "Peace Movement," etc., all patterns for subsequent communist fronts, had among the prime movers such agitators as Lenin's wife Krupskaya and Alexandra Kollontai. The Council of Russian Seamen's Unions, with the secretariat in England, was under communist control from the very beginning of its existence.
The folders contain documents referring to still other organizations that started out or gradually became communist fronts, as for instance the "Union of Professional Russian Writers," the "Bibliotheque," or wartime organizations to help prisoners of war in Germany.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to organizations established by revolutionaries among émigrés for allegedly non-political purposes but serving Marxist or other revolutionary ends, 1905-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 2

Dispatches and other materials, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393

Scope and Contents note

Includes a book of receipts, by-laws of the Union of Professional Writers from Russia, resolution on Aleksinskii, invitation forms, records of a collection for a sick comrade, correspondence, etc.
Index XXIVg, Folder 3a

Headquarters circular concerning the "London Fund for Free Press in Russia," 1894

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3b

The Peace League and Konni Zilliacus's trip to London, 1904

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3c

Subscribers' list of the Bibliothéque (international), 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3d

English language publication of the Committee to Help Political Prisoners, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3e

Dispatches and leaflets published by the Seamen's Union, 1911-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3f

Russian students at Karlsruhe: meetings and resolutions, 1910-1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3g

Mutual assistance fund in Paris, the "émigré Treasury," 1912-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3h

Circular on the International Women's Conference and delegate Krupskaya, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3i

Society to Aid Prisoners of War in Germany and Austria, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box 213

h. Smuggling to Russia of arms, publications, and revolutionaries

Scope and Contents note

Arms smuggling into Russia, according to this collection of documents, was at its peak during the Russo-Japanese War and the upheavals at its aftermath, in 1905-1907. The bulk of this collection thus originated in that period. Chief Garting in Paris spread the network of agents against revolutionary smugglers to many European countries, concentrating particularly in northern and Italian ports. His liaison with security agencies and port authorities in various countries brought some good results. The revolutionaries who engaged in smuggling during the peak period were the Social Democrats (Bolsheviks) and the Bundists.
The first two folders of the collection, with chronological arrangement of the documents, from 1894 to 1915 contain various dispatches, raw reports, revolutionary agents, arms, and propaganda. Documents on smuggling illegal literature are at the end of the second folder.
Folder 3 has a complete record of Okhrana surveillance over gunrunning from Antwerp, one of the favorite ports for the revolutionaries in 1905 and 1906. In Folders 4 and 5, specific reports of the same period illustrate the efforts of Garting and his agents in various other European centers and include individual agents' and liaison reports in 1910.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 394-395
Index XXIVh, Folder 1

Dispatches, raw reports, and intelligence notes on smuggling agents, arms, etc. into Russia, 1894-1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 394
Index XXIVh, Folder 2

Dispatches, raw reports, and intelligence notes on smuggling agents, arms, etc. into Russia (cont'd.), 1907-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 394
Index XXIVh, Folder 3

Complete record of Okhrana surveillance over gunrunning from Antwerp, 1905-1906

Access

Available on microfilm reels 394-395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4a

Garting's report to Rataev regarding the organization of surveillance over illegal gunrunning in Berlin, 1902

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4b

Berlin Okhrana office investigation of the production of hand grenades in Berlin, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4c

Garting's report on the Bund's funds for arms purchases, current methods and routes used by revolutionaries for smuggling arms and political propaganda into Russia, and proposals to control such contraband, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4d

Okhrana reports on gunrunning (arms trafficking) from Copenhagen, 1905-1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4e

Revolutionary arms shipments from various European ports, 1905-1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4f

Arms shipments from Sweden, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4g

Garting reports on gunrunning (arms trafficking) in Germany, France, Belgium and attempts to enlist British customs service in control of revolutionary arms shipments, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4h

Sofronskii and Wallach (Litvinov) engaged in purchasing arms in Europe, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395

Scope and Contents note

Includes intercepted letters from Sofronskii.
Index XXIVh, Folder 4i

Garting's trip to Denmark and Sweden to investigate arms smuggling, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4j

Arms shipments from Hamburg, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4k

Krause's information about an alleged ring of terrorists in Dresden, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4l

Police Captain Grénweller of Lébeck, Germany, on arms smuggling, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4m

Arms shipments from England, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5a

De Groot's reports on arms shipments from Rotterdam, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5b

Arms shipments from Italy

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5c

Arms shipments from Amsterdam, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5d

Wallach (Litvinov) in Berlin to engage in smuggling machine guns into Russia, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5e

Smuggling of arms through Mannheim, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5f

Surveillance over arms smuggling from Denmark and Sweden, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5g

Headquarters' comments on the uselessness of Garting's agents in discovering arms smuggling, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5h

Agent Sambain's reports on surveillance of smugglers in Stockholm, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5i

Agent Neuhaus's reports from Memel (Klaipeda) on ships suspected of smuggling arms, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5j

Agent Fontaine's reports from the German-Russian border, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5k

Agent Durin's reports on arms traffickers from Wirballen (Virbalis), 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5l

Movement of ships in Kiel suspected of arms trafficking, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5m

Engineer Buckland in London offers information on revolutionary arms smuggling, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5n

Report on arms smuggling into Russia

Access

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Box 214

i. Terrorist techniques: bomb construction, deliveries, planning attacks, liberation of prisoners

Scope and Contents note

Many revolutionary groups adopted terrorism as their principal strategy and tactic. They resorted to violence to the degree that terrorism became practically synonymous with revolution. A statistical table among the survey in this collection shows that in the period from October 1907 to May 1910, revolutionary bands in Russia perpetrated 23,044 terrorist acts, in which the number of officials and other persons killed was 4,322 and wounded 4, 465. These acts, particularly against important officials, were inspired or actually committed by the conspirators coming from abroad with arms. The purpose of assassination was not to exterminate officials known as oppressors of the people or tyrannical in their methods; there is evidence rather that the revolutionaries were more concerned about killing off the more competent and popular high officials in order to bring chaos in orderly government and confusion in the public.
The collection of dispatches and various other documents in Folder 1, arranged chronologically from 1887 to 1916, gives many specific cases; but taken as a whole, it shows the general trend of the conspiracies. The life of the Tsar was threatened more frequently than any other; he was spared before the revolution, but not so some of the members of his immediate family and members of his cabinet. The dispatches, raw reports, and newspaper clippings describe the planning of assassinations, plots, construction of bombs and work on explosives in the laboratories of the revolutionaries. The role of such important terrorist leaders as Gershuni, Savinkov, Chernov, Sazonov, Barthold, and Gots is described.
Folders 2 and 3 are listed in the inventory by specific documents. The role of Vera Figner's campaign to execute prison breaks in Russia is referred to in several documents. On the technique of bomb construction by Russian terrorists, see Volume I of the Prefecture de Police in Vb, Folder 6. For the role of terrorist leaders, see also the folders under Index Numbers XVIId, XVIIg, XVIIh, and XVIIi.

Access

Available on microfilm reels 396-400
Index XXIVi, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes, and newspaper clippings pertaining to revolutionary terrorist techniques, 1887-1916

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2a

Report on a plot to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) formulated in Geneva by Afanasiev and members of the Polish Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2b

Individuals intending to go to Russia to engage in terrorism, 1905

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2c

Petr Rutenberg accused of murdering Georgii Gapon, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2d

School for training terrorists in Krakow operated by the Polish Socialist Party, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2e

Newspaper clippings in German on bomb deposits of Russian terrorists in Berlin, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2f

Averted attempt on the life of the Dowager Empress Mariia Feodorovna, 1907

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2g

Assassins of General von Launitz, 1908

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2h

Newspaper clippings on terrorist acts and anarchists, 1908-1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2i

Rips's motives for attempting to assassinate Colonel von Kotten, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2j

Plot to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) in Poltava and a request to watch suspicious movements abroad, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2k

Report on the possible use of aircraft by revolutionaries to commit acts of terror in Russia, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2l

Formation of a Socialist Revolutionary strong arm unit in Sweden with the participation of Savinkov and Sletov, 1909

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2m

Statistics on Russian government officials killed between 1907 and 1910 by Russian revolutionaries, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2n

Report on terrorist Boris Barthold, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2o

Formation of a Socialist Revolutionary strong arm detachment abroad, 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2p

Preparations for the murder of Stolypin and Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II), 1910

Access

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 3a

The governor general of Warsaw received an anonymous letter from Cologne exposing a plot against Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II), 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3b

A Paris group collaborates with the Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3c

Announcement of terrorists about an attempt on the life of a prison official in Russia, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3d

Storage place for bombs in Chita, 1911

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3e

Bomb explosion in a Liege theater, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3f

Case of Widmann in Berlin offering information about a planned act of terrorism, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3g

Formation of a Society for Active Assistance to Political Prisoners and Exiles in Paris, which is to help organize prison breaks, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3h

Bylaws of the Society for Struggle against Imprisonment and Exile for Political Activities, 1912

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3i

Boris Bathold planning to go to Russia on a terrorist mission, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3j

Appeal of the Krakow Union to Aid Political Prisoners for funds to organize prison breaks, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3k

Terrorist group for the murder of Kasso, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3l

Reaction of the German press to the assassination attempt on the Dowager Empress in Rostock, 1913

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3m

Attempt on the life of former Turkish minister Sherif Pasha (Serif Pasa) in Paris, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3n

Formation of leagues to support political prisoners in Russia by raising funds to organize prison breaks, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3o

Statement of Snezhkov on a plot to assassinate the tsar, 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3p

The case of Kirishek and six other Russians accused of espionage, bomb construction, etc., 1914

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3q

Hearings before the French tribunal in the case of Kirishek and four other Russian terrorists, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3r

List of documents found in the possession of Kirishek and other Russian anarchists on trial, 1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3s

A brief on Russian revolutionaries in France

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3t

Drawings for bomb construction with directions

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3u

Revolutionary plan to assassinate Tsarina Mariia Feodorovna in London

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVi, Folder 5

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 71, 1904, on the assassination plot against Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XXIVi, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 94, 1904, on the assassination plot against Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XXIVi, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 1064, 1903, requesting information on the plans of the "Center" and the leaders of the Fighting Unit concerning the assassination of Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(3), folder 13

Index XXIVi, Folder 8

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 1085, 1903, ordering that Sazonov (the eventual assassin of Pleve) be kept under constant surveillance in Bern, in XIIIc(3), folder 13

Index XXIVi, Folder 9

Reference: See incoming telegram, June 17, 1904, on Finnish revolutionary sentiment and attitude toward the attempt on the life of Governor Bobrikov by a Finnish patient, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index XXIVi, Folder 10

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 329, 1904, announcing Pleve's assassination and a physical description of the assassin, in XIIIc(3), folder 17

Index XXIVi, Folder 10

Reference: For photographs of the types of bombs constructed by Russian revolutionaries, see Volume I of the books prepared by the French Sûreté, in Vb, folder 6

Box 214

j. Training of terrorists and propagandists' schools

Scope and Contents note

The documents included in this file cover the period from I906 to 1911 and pertain to Maksim Gorky's school on the island of Capri (1909), military training of revolutionaries in Paris (1907), the terrorist school in Paris (1910), the propagandists school organized by the Vpered (Leninist) group in Bologna (1910), the anarchist school in Paris (1911), and the first All-Party School of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party at Longjumeau (1911). Raw agent reports describe attempts to establish the whereabouts of Savinkov's terrorist training school (1911). Okhrana agent "Vladimirets," enrolled as a trainee in such a school describes the program of study and Lenin's participation in it. Several dispatches refer to the organization of military training by the revolutionaries in preparation of armed uprisings in Russia.

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 1

Miscellaneous dispatches and raw reports on the indoctrination and training of terrorists and propagandists, 1908-1915

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2a

Circular letter describing a revolutionary program of training, 1906

Access

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2b

Report on a military training school for revolutionaries in Paris, 1907