Finding Aid for the Documents concerning the Investigation Dispute between Bishop Bernardino de Cardenas and the Jesuits of Paraguay, 1664-1665

Cataloged by Pablo Sierra; finding aid with assistance from Kelley Bachli in the Center for Primary Research and Training (CFPRT); machine-readable finding aid created by Caroline Cubé.
UCLA Library Special Collections
UCLA Library Special Collections staff
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Descriptive Summary

Title: Documents concerning the Investigation Dispute between Bishop Bernardino de Cardenas and the Jesuits of Paraguay
Date (inclusive): 1664-1665
Collection number: 170/461
Creator: Romero, Antonio
Extent: 130 leaves : paper ; 315 mm xn 220 mm, bound to 325 mm x 230 mm
Abstract: Book of testimonies compiled by the "oidor" (judge) of the Buenos Aires Audiencia, Don Pedro de Rojas y Luna, in his investigation of the 1644 conflict between the Jesuits of Paraguay and the Bishop Bernardino de Cardenas.
Language: Finding aid is written in English.
Repository: University of California, Los Angeles. Library Special Collections.
Los Angeles, California 90095-1575
Physical location: Stored off-site at SRLF. Advance notice is required for access to the collection. Please contact the UCLA Library Special Collections Reference Desk for paging information.

Administrative Information

Restrictions on Access

COLLECTION STORED OFF-SITE AT SRLF: Open for research. Advance notice required for access. Contact the UCLA Library Special Collections Reference Desk for paging information.

Restrictions on Use and Reproduction

Property rights to the physical object belong to the UCLA Library Special Collections. Literary rights, including copyright, are retained by the creators and their heirs. It is the responsibility of the researcher to determine who holds the copyright and pursue the copyright owner or his or her heir for permission to publish where The UC Regents do not hold the copyright.

Provenance/Source of Acquisition

Phillipps Manuscript 16172, 17405.

Processing Note

Cataloged by Pablo Sierra; finding aid with assistance from Kelley Bachli in the Center for Primary Research and Training (CFPRT).

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Documents concerning the Investigation Dispute between Bishop Bernardino de Cardenas and the Jesuits of Paraguay (Collection 170/461). UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library.

UCLA Catalog Record ID

UCLA Catalog Record ID: 4230403 


Despite Don Pedro de Rojas y Luna's notorious achievements as an efficient colonial administrator in Spanish South America, relatively little is known about the central figure in this manuscript before his arrival to Buenos Aires. Considered a highly qualified individual for the demanding post of "oidor", Rojas already had ample experience as an administrator in the kingdom of Naples. In "Historia de la Conquista del Paraguay, Rio de la Plata y Tucuman," the historian Pedro Lozano highlight Rojas' inclusion as one of the original members of the Buenos Aires Audiencia (established in 1663). As oidor of the Audiencia, Don Pedro de Rojas y Luna was commissioned by the Crown to investigate the 1659 uprising of the indigenous people of Arecaya. In compliance with a royal decree dated August 25, 1662, Rojas was to prosecute and imprison Governor Alonso Sarmiento de Sotomayor y Figueroa, accused of excessive violence in his repression of the revolt. Rojas was succesful in this endeavor, as Sarmiento spent two years in jail before being pardoned for his actions. The 1665 manuscript in question was prepared during Rojas y Luna's stay in Paraguay, although its relation to Sarmiento's actions are not at all clear since the dispute between Bishop Cardenas and the Jesuits took place in 1644, nearly twenty years before. Don Pedro Rojas y Luna died in the port city of Buenos Aires in 1667, two years after the completion of the manuscript.

Scope and Content

The manuscript is organized chronologically, the earliest documents date from October 1664 but include copies of letters written in 1661. The bulk of the investigation was carried out during the first half of 1665, therafter one finds increasing gaps in the collection of testimonies. While the initial testimonies and exhortations produced lengthy and extremely detailed transcripts, towards the end of the manuscript these accounts become significantly shorter. The investigation was carried out nearly twenty years after the fact, and had already been preceded by the efforts of other officials (most notably Don Andres Garavito de Leon).
Text in Spanish.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.

Genres and Forms of Material


Related Material

Bound Manuscripts Collection (Collection 170)  . Available at UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library.


1r Cover page for the transcript of meetings held between the Jesuits of Paraguay and the Bishop of the province, Don Frai Bernardino de Cardenas. n.d.


1r-2v Copy of the briefing provided by the Crown for Don Fernando Ysabedra de Paz in 1661, in the preparation of his reports as oidor of Buenos Aires. 1664/10/23


3r-4v Copy of the instructions sent in 1661 from Madrid to Don Fernando Ysabedra de Paz, includes list of questions to be asked to primary witnesses. 1664/10/23


5r Auto issued to Don Pablo de Roxas y Luna orders him to refer back to the original instructions given to Fernando Ysabedra de Paz in 1661. 1664/10/23


5r-7r Testimony of General Diego de Vega y Frias, alleges to have been absent at the time of the disturbances. Taken in Santa Fe de la Veracruz. 1664/10/25


7r-11r Testimony of Manuel Cabral de Alpoín, colonel (maestre de campo) in San Juan de Vera, discloses information on Jesuits' extensive ranches. 1664/12/16


11v-14r Testimony of Captain Pedro Gomez de Aguilar, "correxidor y theniente de governador y capitan a guerra" only knows rumors through hearsay. 1664/12/18


15r-15v Estimated census of the number of Indians found in the provinces under the jurisdiction of the Jesuits of Buenos Aires, total of 2600 families. n.d.


16r-16v Don Pedro de Rojas informs Doctor Adrian Cornejo, governor of the bishopric of Buenos Aires, of his obligation to respond to his "exortatorio." 1665/01/22


16r-20v Doctor Adrian Cornejo submits a written declaration, explaining his actions and involvement in the dispute between the Jesuits and Cardenas. 1665/01/23


21r-36r Testimony of Lazaro de Ortega Vallejo (Ballejo), encomendero and mestre de campo, taken in the city of Asumpcion in the province of Paraguay. 1665/02/18


36r-43r Testimony of Captain Antonio Correadera, thirty-seven year old vecino of Asumpcion affirms having been present during most of the disturbances. 1665/02/23


43r-49v Testimony of Captain Diego de Yedros, thirty-two years old, names the owners whose houses were burned and/or sacked when he was only 16. 1665/03/02


49v-52r Testimony of Captain Francisco Pesoa de Figueroa, native of Chile, allegedly visited the Jesuit "reducciones" nineteen years before this statement. 1665/03/03


52r-56v Testimony of Alonso Fernandez Ruano's, public notary and alferez, native of Extremadura, eyewitness of Jesuit disputes while living in Asumpcion. 1665/03/04


57v-60r The archdeacon (arcediano) of Asumpcion, Licenciado Don Pedro de Mendoza, responds to exhortation with description of disturbances in 1644. 1665/03/04


61r-66r Testimony of Captain Francisco Sanchez de Cabrera, witness to the death of many Indians in their forced relocation from Guayra to Parana. 1665/03/04


66r-75r Testimony of General Christobal de Balbuena, alcalde provincial of Asumpcion, testifies in relation to the house burnings in the San Roque barrio. 1665/03/09


76r-86r Testimony of Rodrigo de Rojas Aranda, colonel (maestre de campo), describes the military actions taken by Sebastian de Leon in great detail. 1665/03/23


86r-88r Testimony of Lucas Melgarejo, encomienda holder of Villa Rica and grandson of one of Paraguay's conquistadores, Ruy Diaz de Melgarejo. 1665/03/26


88r-90r Testimony of Don Fernando Corrilla del Valle, maestre de campo, provides a list of the prominent individuals present at Ytapua, in the Parana. 1665/03/27


90r-93v Testimony of General Pedro Gamarra y Mendoza, discusses the behavior of the indigenous people of Guayra after the arrival of the portuguese. 1665/03/29


93r-100r Testimony of Antonio Roberto Coronel, sargento mayor, provides key information on the activities of a "portuguese spaniard" Domingo Fartto. 1665/04/13


100r-104r Testimony of Captain Garcia Moreno, recounts encounter with portuguese vagabond, "Carlos el desdichado," who found gold in the Piquiri river. 1665/04/25


104r-106r Testimony of Captain Juan Delgado, relates that he had already been previously interrogated by Don Andres Garavito de Leon own investigation. 1665/04/25


106r-107r Testimony of Joseph Cervin, maestre de campo, who explains his role in taking bishop Cardenas under his custody from Asumpcion to Santa Fe. 1665/05/16


107r-111r Testimony of Don Pedro de Valdivia (Baldibia) Chriçuela, captain and alcalde ordinario of Asumpcion, describes the nature of the Jesuits' dispute. 1665/05/27


111r-115r Testimony of Captain Melchor Marecos Pollito (?), relates the origins of the disagreement between bishop Cardenas and governor Hinestrosa. 1665/06/02


115r-117v Declaration provided by the maestre de campo Sebastian de Leon, made in reference to a letter taken from the Asumpcion cabildo archives. 1665/07/03


117v-127v Testimony of Francisco de Aranda Rojas Castellano del Castillo de Tapua, attests that many houses were burned in Asumpcion during the dispute. 1665/07/17


128r-128v Testimony of Francisco Sanchez de Vera, presents his view of the proceedings as legitimate brother of the Licenciado Cristobal Sanchez de Vera. 1665/08/16


128v-130r Testimony of Captain Juan Delgado, explains his encounter with Spanish soldiers and Fabio de Moya, who led him back to Delgado's "chacra". 1665/08/16