Finding aid of the John Money Papers

Johanna Michael
ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives
909 West Adams Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90007
Phone: (213) 741-0094
Fax: (213) 741-0220
© 2008
ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives. All rights reserved.

Finding aid of the John Money Papers

Collection number: Coll2008-023

ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives

Los Angeles, California
Processed by:
Johanna Michael
Date Completed:
May 30, 2008
Encoded by:
Michael P. Palmer
© 2008 ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives. All rights reserved.
Processing this collection has been funded by a generous grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.

Descriptive Summary

Title: John Money papers
Dates: 1802-1993
Bulk Dates: 1980-1984
Collection number: Coll2008-023
Creator: Money, John, 1921-2006
Collection Size: 3 archive cartons. 1 linear foot.
Repository: ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives.
Los Angeles, California 90007
Abstract: Writings, lectures, course materials, printed materials from research, and miscellaneous items created and collected by psychologist/sexologist Dr. John William Money. The bulk of the collection is a complete carbon-copy set of Money's lectures from his class, "Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality" at Johns Hopkins University, in fall 1980. The collection also includes a number of Money's early writings; article off-prints; and his "Autobiographical Statement," later re-titled "Explorations in Human Behavior" and published in the second volume of The History of Clinical Psychology in Autobiography (1993), edited by C. Eugene Walker.
Languages: Languages represented in the collection: English


The collection is open to researchers. There are no access restrictions.

Publication Rights

Researchers wishing to publish materials must obtain permission in writing from ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives as the physical owner. Researchers must also obtain clearance from the holder(s) of any copyrights in the materials. Note that ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives can grant copyright clearance only for those materials for which we hold the copyright. It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain copyright clearance for all other materials directly from the copyright holder(s).

Preferred Citation

Box #, folder #, John Money Papers, Coll2008-023, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California.

Acquisition Information

Donated by John Money in several installments between 1998 and 2001.

Processing Information

Formerly housed in box 103-78. Collection processed by Johanna Michael, May 30, 2008.


John William Money was born on July 8, 1921, in Morrinsville, Waikato, New Zealand. He grew up in a conservative, evangelical Christian family, which may have influenced his research focus later in life. He received his undergraduate degree in psychology from Victoria University in 1943, then emigrated to the United States to pursue graduate education. He studied social relations in the Psychological Clinic at Harvard University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1952. The next year, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University Medical School, where he taught and carried out sexology research for over 50 years. He founded the Psychohormonal Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University Medical School and coined the term "gender role" in 1955, which he later expanded to "gender-identity/role" (GI/R). Throughout his career, Money authored numerous publications on sexology, including Venuses Penuses in 1986 and the controversial Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, coauthored with Anke Ehrhardt in 1972. In the latter, Money and Ehrhardt expressed the view that gender was malleable and could be altered through external factors such as prescribed hormones and behavior therapy. To support this hypothesis, Money cited the "John/Joan" case, in which he advised a Canadian couple whose son's genitals had been severely damaged in a circumcision gone awry to raise the child as a female. The family acted according to this advice; the child underwent surgery to construct a vagina and began estrogen treatment. Money followed "Joan's" progress for five years and declared the treatment successful. However, as soon as "Joan" was informed about the treatment at the age of fourteen, he reclaimed a male identity and underwent sex reassignment surgery. Despite this action, "John" remained deeply troubled and committed suicide in 2004. According to his colleagues, Money was very distressed by the outcome of that case and preferred not to re-examine it. Dr. Richard Green, an emeritus professor at the University of California, Los Angeles and one of Money's former colleagues, publicly defended Money's actions, explaining that Money had no way of knowing that the treatment would backfire. Other researchers, however, find fault with Money's research practices regarding the case. Despite this debate, Money's impact in the field of sexology remains undisputed. His research marked the first steps toward a new understanding of gender that is still developing today. Money died of complications from Parkinson's disease on July 7, 2006 in Towson, Maryland. He was survived by eight nieces and nephews. Many originals of his lectures and research are housed at the Kinsey Institute.
Carey, Benedict. "John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, Dies." New York Times. 11 July 2006.
John Money Papers, Coll2008-023, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California.
Stein, Mark, ed. "Money, John and Anke Ehrhardt." Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America . New York: Thompson-Gale, 2004.

Scope and Content of Collection

This collection consists of one series, divided into four subsections: Writings, Teaching, Printed Materials and Miscellaneous. Money's writings are arranged chronologically; from early works (1953-1956), to article off-prints (1957-1984), to his Autobiographical Statement (with accompanying curriculum vitae), later titled "Explorations in Human Behavior" for publication in volume two of C. Eugene Walker's compilation, he History of Clinical Psychology in Autobiography T (1993). Money's course materials from his teaching and administrative experience at Johns Hopkins University and a complete carbon-copy set of his lectures from Fall 1980 are also arranged chronologically by category. A small number of printed materials that Money collected during his research are also included in the collection, arranged by author. The last category contains miscellaneous items, including a copy of a New York Times article about Money.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
Gender identity
Money, John, 1921-2006
Psychosexual development
Sex differentiation

Box 1 : 1-3

Writings 1953-1993

Physical Description: 3 folders.
Box 1 : 1

Early Writings 1953-1956

Box 1 : 2

Article Off-prints 1957-1984

Box 1 : 3

Autobiographical Statement/Explorations in Human Behavior 1993

Box 1 : 4-20 ; 2 : 1-8

Teaching 1969-1984

Physical Description: 25 folders.
Box 1 : 4

Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality, Handout 1980

Box 1 : 5-19

Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality, Lectures 1-15 1980

Box 1 : 5

Lecture 1 1980

Box 1 : 6

Lecture 2 1980

Box 1 : 7

Lecture 3 1980

Box 1 : 8

Lecture 4 1980

Box 1 : 9

Lecture 5 1980

Box 1 : 10

Lecture 6 1980

Box 1 : 11

Lecture 7 1980

Box 1 : 12

Lecture 8 1980

Box 1 : 13

Lecture 9 1980

Box 1 : 14

Lecture 10 1980

Box 1 : 15

Lecture 11 1980

Box 1 : 16

Lecture 12 1980

Box 1 : 17

Lecture 13 1980

Box 1 : 18

Lecture 14 1980

Box 1 : 19

Lecture 15 1980

Box 1 : 20

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Introduction to Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, Course Outline 1969-1970

Box 2 : 1-4

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, First Year Program 1982-1984

Box 2 : 1

Clinical Syndromes Study Guide 1982-1983

Box 2 : 2

Course Outline 1983-1984

Box 2 : 3

Readings 2 1983-1984

Box 2 : 4

Readings 3 1983-1984

Box 2 : 5-8

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Year II Program, Course Outline 1971-1975

Box 2 : 5


Box 2 : 6


Box 2 : 7


Box 2 : 8


Box 3 : 1-8

Printed Materials 1802-1983

Physical Description: 8 items.
Box 3 : 1

American Association on Mental Deficiency. Directory, Appendix A: Listing of State and Private Training Schools and Homes for the Retarded 1958

Box 3 : 2

Clive Michael Boutiler v. U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Service. U.S. Supreme Court, october Term, 1966. No. 440. Amicus curiae brief of the Homosexual Law Reform Society of America. 1966

Box 3 : 3

Jaqueline Foroni rendue a son véritable Sexe, ou Rapport, Réflexions et jugement préséntes à l'Académie de Mantoue, par la Classe de Médecine, sur le sexe d'un individu vivant, connu sous le nom de Jaqueline Foroni 1802


Box 3 : 4

Erwin J. Haeberle. The Birth of Sexology; A History in Documents 1983

Box 3 : 5

Magnus Hirshfeld. Was eint und trennt das Menschengeschlecht? 1919


Box 3 : 6

Homophile Studies; ONE Institute Quarterly. Volume 8, No. 22 1970

Box 3 : 7

National Institute of Public Health. Report on the XYY Chromosomal Abnormality 1970

Box 3 : 8

Brad Wilson. Sweet Hollow Cook Book 1968

Box 3 : 9

Miscellaneous 1985-1990