Register of the Gertrude King papers

Finding aid prepared by Supriya Wronkiewicz
Hoover Institution Library and Archives
© 2010
434 Galvez Mall
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305-6003

Title: Gertrude King papers
Date (inclusive): 1941-1951
Collection Number: 2002C3
Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Library and Archives
Language of Material: English
Physical Description: 8 manuscript boxes (3.2 Linear Feet)
Abstract: The papers primarily consist of correspondence, reports, memoranda, pamphlets, and serial issues, relating to internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, and to placement of Japanese-American students in colleges. Also includes records of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) and collected materials directly related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation.
Creator: National Japanese American Student Relocation Council
Creator: King, Gertrude
Physical Location: Hoover Institution Library & Archives


The collection is open for research; materials must be requested in advance via our reservation system. If there are audiovisual or digital media material in the collection, they must be reformatted before providing access.


For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Library & Archives.

Acquisition Information

Acquired by the Hoover Institution Library & Archives in 2002, with an increment in 2018.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Gertrude King papers, [Box no., Folder no. or title], Hoover Institution Library & Archives.

Historical Note

In the three months following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the subsequent declaration of war on Japan and its allies, restrictions on Japanese Americans went into effect. Earlier restrictions first curtailed the activities of Japanese Americans, culminating with Executive Order #9066, where President Franklin Roosevelt authorized relocation of West Coast based Japanese Americans, immigrants and citizens alike. As a result, Japanese American students in the areas directly impacted by Executive Order #9066 were forced to withdraw from universities and colleges in which they were enrolled.
In response, a student relocation committee consisting of members from the national Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association, West Coast college and university presidents, and other educators formed to assist Japanese American students already enrolled in higher education so that they could continue their studies. Within two months, the War Relocation Authority authorized the formation of a nationwide committee to address the issues facing Japanese American students that were pursuing or wished to pursue higher education. As a result, on May 29, 1942, the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council [NJASRC] officially formed.
Within the NJASRC, the front line of student relocation and assistance was the Permit Department. This department assisted students in securing permits to leave their assigned relocation center in order to attend school. The Permit Department also worked directly with the students and universities to place qualified students in schools best suited to their needs, within communities where they were least likely to face extreme prejudice and persecution.
One of the most vocal and active members of this department was supervisor Gertrude (Trudy) King (1916-1969). During her time with NJASRC (June 1942-April 1944), Trudy King made a lasting impression on her colleagues and the students she helped to relocate, as evidenced by the extensive correspondence with both sets of individuals during and following her time in the NJASRC, even past the point when the NJASRC closed its doors in June 30, 1946.
Additional information regarding Gertrude King and the NJASRC was obtained from From Concentration Camp to Campus: Japanese American Students and World War II, by Allan W. Austin, University of Illinois Press, �2004.

Scope and Content of Collection

The Gertrude King Papers primarily consist of correspondence, reports, memoranda, pamphlets, and serial issues, relating to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, and to placement of Japanese-American students in colleges. The papers also include records of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) and collected materials directly related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation.
Gertrude King joined the NJASRC less than two months after its formation on May 29, 1942 and remained until April 1944. During that time and in the years following, King maintained correspondence with several of her colleagues within the NJASRC and outside of it. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence between King, her colleagues within the NJASRC, various individuals and groups that worked with NJASRC, colleges and universities, government organizations, relocation centers, and students. Along with correspondence both of an official and personal nature, the collection also includes several administrative and procedural documents for the NJASRC, including reports, college and student information lists, newsletters, memoranda, procedures, and personal notes regarding her work with the students directly and within the organization.
King also collected materials and documents relevant to the agencies she worked with her role in with NJASRC as well as materials related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation during World War II and in the months immediately following.
The original order of the materials as they were when initially acquired was retained as much as possible. The final arrangement for the papers is as follows: Correspondence, National Japanese American Student Relocation Council Records, and Subject File and Collected Documents.

Related Materials

Thomas Ray Bodine Papers, 1941-1982, Hoover Institution Library & Archives
John W. Nason Papers, 1921-2001, Hoover Institution Library & Archives
National Japanese American Student Relocation Council Records, 1942-1946, Hoover Institution Library & Archives

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945
World War, 1939-1945 -- United States
World War, 1939-1945 -- Education and the war


Correspondence 1942-1951

Scope and Contents note

Letters, both handwritten and typewritten primarily of a personal nature from relocated students other colleagues working with and part of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council; includes postcards, greetings cards, and 1 envelope of photographs. Materials are arranged alphabetically by correspondent. If a last name is not available, arrangement was made by first name.
box 1, folder 1

Andy 1943

box 1, folder 2

Arthur 1943

box 1, folder 3

Blumental-Bennett, Martha 1942-1950

box 1, folder 4

Emlen, Betty circa 1945-1947, undated

box 1, folder 5

Cosgrave Margaret circa 1942-1946, undated

box 1, folder 6

Endo, Yone 1946-1948

box 1, folder 7

Fukushima, Tosh 1946-1947

box 1, folder 8

Handa, Connie circa 1946-1951

box 1, folder 9

Hata, Mari 1948, undated

box 1, folder 10

Hayashi, Terri 1950, undated

box 1, folder 11

Hiroaka, Chiyo 1946-1949

box 1, folder 12

Inouye, Mary 1946-1951, undated

box 1, folder 13

Ishida, Gladys 1948-1949, undated

box 1, folder 14

Jay circa 1944-1947

box 1, folder 15

Lee, Minnie circa 1944-1947

box 1, folder 16

Maribel circa 1947-1948

box 1, folder 17

Murase, Ken 1950, undated

box 1, folder 18

Megillian, Mary 1944, 1950

box 1, folder 19-20

Nagatani, Kimi 1943-1950

box 1, folder 21

Nishimoto, Katsuma 1944-1945

box 2, folder 1

Okye, Betty 1948, 1951

box 2, folder 2-3

Oshiki, Kaz circa 1943-1948

box 2, folder 4

Ota, Lillian circa 1943-1944

box 2, folder 5

Ota, Tets 1945-1946

box 2, folder 6

Okamura, George 1946

box 2, folder 7

Rhoads, Esther 1942, 1948, undated

box 2, folder 8

Saito, Sachio 1944

box 2, folder 9

Sasaki, Hideo 1946

box 2, folder 10

Shimizu, James 1945

box 2, folder 11

Stevens, Ken and Stevens, Dottie circa 1942-1947

box 2, folder 12

Stevenson, Bill circa 1942-1947

box 2, folder 13

Sugihara, Ina 1943

box 2, folder 14

Sugino, Art 1944-1946

box 2, folder 15

Sugiyama, Bill 1944-1945

box 2, folder 16

Takasugi, Nao 1946

box 2, folder 17-18

Watanabe, Frank circa 1943-1950, undated

box 2, folder 19

Wilma circa 1943

box 2, folder 20

Yamada, Mary 1944-1945

box 2, folder 21

Yamada, Tamaichi 1942, undated

box 2, folder 22

Yamashita, Kay circa 1944-1948

box 3, folder 1

Miscellaneous correspondence 1942-1949, undated

Scope and Contents note

Includes an envelope with greeting cards and postcards

National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) Records 1942-1949

Scope and Contents note

Letters, administrative materials and forms, writings, lists, memoranda, reports, minutes of meetings, and documents generated for the organization and by the organization. The bulk of this material consists of correspondence within the organization and with entities working with the organization such as similar organization, local and state government offices, church groups, colleges and universities, and the students seeking relocation at all stages of the relocation process.
Arranged into the following subseries, Internal Correspondence; General Correspondence; Colleges, Universities, and Academic Professionals Correspondence; Student Correspondence; Miscellany Correspondence; Materials and Procedures.

Internal Correspondence circa 1942-1945

box 3, folder 10

American Baptist Home Mission Society 1942-1944

box 3, folder 11

American Friends Service Committee 1942-1944

box 3, folder 12

Art Students League of New York 1942-1943

box 3, folder 13

Churches and Other Religious Organizations 1942-1943

box 3, folder 14

Friends General Conference 1942-1943

box 4, folder 1

Local city, county, and state correspondence 1942-1943

Scope and Contents note

Usually pertaining to community acceptance of incoming students
box 4, folder 2

Haines, Ruth 1942, undated

box 4, folder 3

Morganroth, Ed 1942

box 4, folder 4

Relocation Centers 1942-1943

box 4, folder 5

Relocation Centers 1942-1943

Scope and Contents note

Includes information specifically pertaining to Manzanar and correspondence from counselor Helen Ely
box 4, folder 6

Various groups/individuals pertaining to funding and community support 1942-1943

box 4, folder 7

Various organizations 1943

box 4, folder 8-14

War Relocation Authority 1942 August-1943 November

box 4, folder 15

Wartime Civil Control Administration 1942

box 4, folder 16

Young Mens/Women's Christian Association 1942-1943

folder 4

Colleges, Universities, and Academic Professionals Correspondence circa 1942-1943

box 4, folder 17

A-N circa 1942-1943

box 4, folder 18

O-Y circa 1942-1943

box 5

Student Correspondence 1942-1946

box 5, folder 1-5

Incoming correspondence 1942-1946, undated

Scope and Contents note

Also includes excerpts from letters sent by students and letters pertaining to students
box 5, folder 6-9

Outgoing correspondence 1942-1944 January

box 5, folder 10

Letters to students from colleges and universities 1942-1943

box 5, folder 11

Miscellany Correspondence 1942-1944, undated


Office Records and Procedures 1942-1946

box 5, folder 12

Administrative procedures circa 1942

box 5

College lists and information circa 1942-1944

box 5, folder 13

Approved colleges circa 1942-1944

Scope and Contents note

Includes lists of colleges approved by the Army and Navy
box 5, folder 14-15

College information sheets 1943 February-1944 January

box 6, folder 1

Colleges submitted for and pending approval circa 1942-1943

box 6, folder 2

Lists of colleges favorable to Japanese students circa 1942-1943, undated

box 6, folder 3

Lists of colleges with accepted Japanese students circa 1942, undated

box 6, folder 4

Statistics and information pertaining to student placement in colleges circa 1942-1944, undated

Scope and Contents note

Includes map titled "Nisei students in colleges and universities outside restricted areas : 1941-1943"
box 6, folder 5

Documents generated for or by NJASRC circa 1942-1946

Scope and Contents note

Includes "Final Audit of Japanese American Student Relocation Council, 1946", information regarding NJASRC projects and other statistics
box 6, folder 6

Forms and pamphlets for student council use 1942, undated

box 6, folder 7

Minutes of meetings 1942-1945

Scope and Contents note

Includes minutes of Council meetings, 1944-1945, Plenary meeting, 1943, and Executive Committee meetings, 1942, 1945
box 6, folder 8

Memoranda circa 1942-1945

Scope and Contents note

Includes memoranda sent between NJASRC staff, groups within NJASRC, and NJASRC as a whole
box 6, folder 9

Newsletters 1943-1944

box 6, folder 10

Reference and personal notes pertaining to students and/or NJASRC circa 1942-1943

box 6, folder 11

Reports 1943-1944

box 6, folder 12

Student lists circa 1942-1943

Scope and Contents note

Includes lists of students who have been either FBI or Department of War approved, accepted in college, which students have permits and which students are still waiting for permits

Subject File and Collected Documents 1942-1945

box 6, folder 13

American Civil Liberties Union 1942-1945

Scope and Contents note

Includes memoranda, monthly bulletins, and copies of Civil Liberties Quarterly
box 6, folder 14

American Friends Service Committee 1942-1945, undated

Scope and Contents note

Includes publications, information bulletins, memoranda, newsletters, and correspondence
box 6, folder 15

Clippings 1942-1943

box 6, folder 16

Committee on the Resettlement of Japanese Americans 1945, undated

box 7, folder 1

Executive Order #9066, 1942 February 19; Executive Order 9102, 1942 March 18; Text of White House Statement on Treatment of Persons of Japanese Ancestry 1942-1943

box 7, folder 2

Extracts from the Testimony of J. Edgar Hoover Before the Subcommittee of the Committee of the Appropriations House of Representatives, 1943, February 18, Evidence of Americanism Among Japanese Americans, 1943, July 7 1943

box 7, folder 3

Japanese American evacuation and relocation 1942-1944, undated

Scope and Contents note

includes articles, pamphlets and small publications
box 7, folder 4

Midget Tribune, 1944-1945

box 7, folder 5

O'Brien, Robert 1943-1944

box 7, folder 6-7

Relocation center generated documents 1943-1944

Scope and Contents note

arranged alphabetically by relocation center
box 7, folder 8

Statements regarding Japanese American loyalty circa 1942-1943

box 7, folder 9-10

War Relocation Authority 1942-1943

box 7, folder 11

Miscellany 1943-1944, undated


2018 Incremental Materials 1941-2018

box 8, folder 1

Biographical sketch 2018

box 8, folder 2

Nisei Student Relocation Commemorative Fund Award 1982

box 8, folder 3

Victoria Denson High School Yearbook 1944

box 8, folder 4

Correspondence 1941-1951

Scope and Contents note

Contains letters between Gertrude King and her Vassar classmate, Hale Jabri.
box 8

Photographs of American Friends Service Committee Training Camp 1941-1942