A Register of the Gertrude King papers, 1942-1951

Processed by Supriya Wronkiewicz.
Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Phone: (650) 723-3563
Fax: (650) 725-3445
Email: hooverarchives@stanford.edu
© 2010
Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

A Register of the Gertrude King papers, 1942-1951

Hoover Institution Archives

Stanford University

Stanford, California
Processed by:
Supriya Wronkiewicz
Date Completed:
Encoded by:
Machine-readable finding aid derived from Microsoft Word and MARC record by Supriya Wronkiewicz.
© 2010 Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

Collection Summary

Title: Gertrude King papers, 1942-1951
Dates: 1942-1949
Collection Number: 2002C3
Creator: King, Gertrude
Collection Size: 7 (2.8 linear feet)
Repository: Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Abstract: The papers primarily consist of correspondence, reports, memoranda, pamphlets, and serial issues, relating to internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, and to placement of Japanese-American students in colleges. Also includes records of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) and collected materials directly related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation.
Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives
Languages: English

Administrative Information


Collection is open for research.
Access to sound recordings, video recordings, or motion picture material requires at least two weeks advance notice. Please contact the Hoover Institution Archives for further information.

Publication Rights

For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Gertrude King Papers, 1942-1951, [Box number], Hoover Institution Archives.

Acquisition Information

Acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives in 2002.


Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find the collection in Stanford University's online catalog Socrates at http://library.stanford.edu/webcat . Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in Socrates is larger than the number of boxes listed in this finding aid.

Related Materials

Thomas Ray Bodine Papers, 1941-1982, Hoover Institution Archives
John W. Nason Papers, 1921-2001, Hoover Institution Archives
National Japanese American Student Relocation Council Records, 1942-1946, Hoover Institution Archives

Separated Materials

The issues of the following publications have been separated from the collection due to duplication in the Hoover Institution Library: Communique; Denison Tribune; Granada Pioneer; Manzanar Free Press; Pacific Citizen; The Rohwer Outpost; Topaz Times; The Tulare News.

Historical Note

In the three months following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the subsequent declaration of war on Japan and its allies, restrictions on Japanese Americans went into effect. Earlier restrictions first curtailed the activities of Japanese Americans, culminating with Executive Order #9066, where President Franklin Roosevelt authorized relocation of West Coast based Japanese Americans, immigrants and citizens alike. As a result, Japanese American students in the areas directly impacted by Executive Order #9066 were forced to withdraw from universities and colleges in which they were enrolled.
In response, a student relocation committee consisting of members from the national Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association, West Coast college and university presidents, and other educators formed to assist Japanese American students already enrolled in higher education so that they could continue their studies. Within two months, the War Relocation Authority authorized the formation of a nationwide committee to address the issues facing Japanese American students that were pursuing or wished to pursue higher education. As a result, on May 29, 1942, the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council [NJASRC] officially formed.
Within the NJASRC, the front line of student relocation and assistance was the Permit Department. This department assisted students in securing permits to leave their assigned relocation center in order to attend school. The Permit Department also worked directly with the students and universities to place qualified students in schools best suited to their needs, within communities where they were least likely to face extreme prejudice and persecution.
One of the most vocal and active members of this department was supervisor Gertrude (Trudy) King (1916-1969). During her time with NJASRC (June 1942-April 1944), Trudy King made a lasting impression on her colleagues and the students she helped to relocate, as evidenced by the extensive correspondence with both sets of individuals during and following her time in the NJASRC, even past the point when the NJASRC closed its doors in June 30, 1946.
Additional information regarding Gertrude King and the NJASRC was obtained from From Concentration Camp to Campus: Japanese American Students and World War II, by Allan W. Austin, University of Illinois Press, ©2004.

Scope and Content of Collection

The Gertrude King Papers primarily consist of correspondence, reports, memoranda, pamphlets, and serial issues, relating to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, and to placement of Japanese-American students in colleges. The papers also include records of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) and collected materials directly related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation.
Gertrude King joined the NJASRC less than two months after its formation on May 29, 1942 and remained until April 1944. During that time and in the years following, King maintained correspondence with several of her colleagues within the NJASRC and outside of it. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence between King, her colleagues within the NJASRC, various individuals and groups that worked with NJASRC, colleges and universities, government organizations, relocation centers, and students. Along with correspondence both of an official and personal nature, the collection also includes several administrative and procedural documents for the NJASRC, including reports, college and student information lists, newsletters, memoranda, procedures, and personal notes regarding her work with the students directly and within the organization.
King also collected materials and documents relevant to the agencies she worked with her role in with NJASRC as well as materials related to the Japanese American evacuation and relocation during World War II and in the months immediately following.
The original order of the materials as they were when initially acquired was retained as much as possible. The final arrangement for the papers is as follows: Correspondence, National Japanese American Student Relocation Council Records, and Subject File and Collected Documents.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
National Japanese American Student Relocation Council.
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945.
World War, 1939-1945--United States.
World War, 1939-1945--Education and the war.

Collection Contents

Box: 1-3

Correspondence 1942-1951

Scope and Content Note

Letters, both handwritten and typewritten primarily of a personal nature from relocated students other colleagues working with and part of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council; includes postcards, greetings cards, and 1 envelope of photographs. Materials are arranged alphabetically by correspondent. If a last name is not available, arrangement was made by first name.
Box/Folder: 1 : 1

Andy, 1943

Box/Folder: 1 : 2

Arthur, 1943

Box/Folder: 1 : 3

Blumental-Bennett, Martha, 1942-1950

Box/Folder: 1 : 4

Emlen, Betty, circa 1945-1947, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 5

Cosgrave Margaret, circa 1942-1946, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 6

Endo, Yone, 1946-1948

Box/Folder: 1 : 7

Fukushima, Tosh, 1946-1947

Box/Folder: 1 : 8

Handa, Connie, circa 1946-1951

Box/Folder: 1 : 9

Hata, Mari, 1948, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 10

Hayashi, Terri, 1950, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 11

Hiroaka, Chiyo, 1946-1949

Box/Folder: 1 : 12

Inouye, Mary, 1946-1951, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 13

Ishida, Gladys, 1948-1949, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 14

Jay, circa 1944-1947

Box/Folder: 1 : 15

Lee, Minnie, circa 1944-1947

Box/Folder: 1 : 16

Maribel, circa 1947-1948

Box/Folder: 1 : 17

Murase, Ken, 1950, undated

Box/Folder: 1 : 18

Megillian, Mary, 1944, 1950

Box/Folder: 1 : 19-20

Nagatani, Kimi, 1943-1950

Box/Folder: 1 : 21

Nishimoto, Katsuma, 1944-1945

Box/Folder: 2 : 1

Okye, Betty, 1948, 1951

Box/Folder: 2 : 2-3

Oshiki, Kaz, circa 1943-1948

Box/Folder: 2 : 4

Ota, Lillian, circa 1943-1944

Box/Folder: 2 : 5

Ota, Tets, 1945-1946

Box/Folder: 2 : 6

Okamura, George, 1946

Box/Folder: 2 : 7

Rhoads, Esther, 1942, 1948, undated

Box/Folder: 2 : 8

Saito, Sachio, 1944

Box/Folder: 2 : 9

Sasaki, Hideo, 1946

Box/Folder: 2 : 10

Shimizu, James, 1945

Box/Folder: 2 : 11

Stevens, Ken and Stevens, Dottie, circa 1942-1947

Box/Folder: 2 : 12

Stevenson, Bill, circa 1942-1947

Box/Folder: 2 : 13

Sugihara, Ina, 1943

Box/Folder: 2 : 14

Sugino, Art, 1944-1946

Box/Folder: 2 : 15

Sugiyama, Bill, 1944-1945

Box/Folder: 2 : 16

Takasugi, Nao, 1946

Box/Folder: 2 : 17-18

Watanabe, Frank, circa 1943-1950, undated

Box/Folder: 2 : 19

Wilma, circa 1943

Box/Folder: 2 : 20

Yamada, Mary, 1944-1945

Box/Folder: 2 : 21

Yamada, Tamaichi, 1942, undated

Box/Folder: 2 : 22

Yamashita, Kay, circa 1944-1948

Box/Folder: 3 : 1

Miscellaneous correspondence, 1942-1949, undated

Scope and Content Note

Includes an envelope with greeting cards and postcards
Box : 3-6

National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (NJASRC) Records 1942-1949

Scope and Content Note

Letters, administrative materials and forms, writings, lists, memoranda, reports, minutes of meetings, and documents generated for the organization and by the organization. The bulk of this material consists of correspondence within the organization and with entities working with the organization such as similar organization, local and state government offices, church groups, colleges and universities, and the students seeking relocation at all stages of the relocation process.
Arranged into the following subseries, Internal Correspondence; General Correspondence; Colleges, Universities, and Academic Professionals Correspondence; Student Correspondence; Miscellany Correspondence; Materials and Procedures.
Box : 3-4

Internal Correspondence, circa 1942-1945

Box/Folder: 3 : 10

American Baptist Home Mission Society, 1942-1944

Box/Folder: 3 : 11

American Friends Service Committee, 1942-1944

Box/Folder: 3 : 12

Art Students League of New York, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 3 : 13

Churches and Other Religious Organizations, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 3 : 14

Friends General Conference, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 1

Local city, county, and state correspondence, 1942-1943

Scope and Content Note

Usually pertaining to community acceptance of incoming students
Box/Folder: 4 : 2

Haines, Ruth, 1942, undated

Box/Folder: 4 : 3

Morganroth, Ed, 1942

Box/Folder: 4 : 4

Relocation Centers, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 5

Relocation Centers, 1942-1943

Scope and Content Note

Includes information specifically pertaining to Manzanar and correspondence from counselor Helen Ely
Box/Folder: 4 : 6

Various groups/individuals pertaining to funding and community support, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 7

Various organizations, 1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 8-14

War Relocation Authority, 1942 August-1943 November

Box/Folder: 4 : 15

Wartime Civil Control Administration, 1942

Box/Folder: 4 : 16

Young Mens/Women's Christian Association, 1942-1943

Box : 4

Colleges, Universities, and Academic Professionals Correspondence, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 17

A-N, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 4 : 18

O-Y, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 5

Student Correspondence, 1942-1946

Box/Folder: 5 : 1-5

Incoming correspondence, 1942-1946, undated

Scope and Content Note

Also includes excerpts from letters sent by students and letters pertaining to students
Box/Folder: 5 : 6-9

Outgoing correspondence, 1942-1944 January

Box/Folder: 5 : 10

Letters to students from colleges and universities, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 5 : 11

Miscellany Correspondence, 1942-1944, undated

Box : 5-6

Office Records and Procedures, 1942-1946

Box/Folder: 5 : 12

Administrative procedures, circa 1942

Box/Folder: 5

College lists and information, circa 1942-1944

Box/Folder: 5 : 13

Approved colleges, circa 1942-1944

Scope and Content Note

Includes lists of colleges approved by the Army and Navy
Box/Folder: 5 : 14-15

College information sheets, 1943 February-1944 January

Box/Folder: 6 : 1

Colleges submitted for and pending approval, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 6 : 2

Lists of colleges favorable to Japanese students, circa 1942-1943, undated

Box/Folder: 6 : 3

Lists of colleges with accepted Japanese students, circa 1942, undated

Box/Folder: 6 : 4

Statistics and information pertaining to student placement in colleges, circa 1942-1944, undated

Scope and Content Note

Includes map titled "Nisei students in colleges and universities outside restricted areas : 1941-1943"
Box/Folder: 6 : 5

Documents generated for or by NJASRC, circa 1942-1946

Scope and Content Note

Includes "Final Audit of Japanese American Student Relocation Council, 1946", information regarding NJASRC projects and other statistics
Box/Folder: 6 : 6

Forms and pamphlets for student council use, 1942, undated

Box/Folder: 6 : 7

Minutes of meetings, 1942-1945

Scope and Content Note

Includes minutes of Council meetings, 1944-1945, Plenary meeting, 1943, and Executive Committee meetings, 1942, 1945
Box/Folder: 6 : 8

Memoranda, circa 1942-1945

Scope and Content Note

Includes memoranda sent between NJASRC staff, groups within NJASRC, and NJASRC as a whole
Box/Folder: 6 : 9

Newsletters, 1943-1944

Box/Folder: 6 : 10

Reference and personal notes pertaining to students and/or NJASRC, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 6 : 11

Reports, 1943-1944

Box/Folder: 6 : 12

Student lists, circa 1942-1943

Scope and Content Note

Includes lists of students who have been either FBI or Department of War approved, accepted in college, which students have permits and which students are still waiting for permits
Box : 6-7

Subject File and Collected Documents 1942-1945

Box/Folder: 6 : 13

American Civil Liberties Union, 1942-1945

Scope and Content Note

Includes memoranda, monthly bulletins, and copies of Civil Liberties Quarterly
Box/Folder: 6 : 14

American Friends Service Committee, 1942-1945, undated

Scope and Content Note

Includes publications, information bulletins, memoranda, newsletters, and correspondence
Box/Folder: 6 : 15

Clippings, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 6 : 16

Committee on the Resettlement of Japanese Americans, 1945, undated

Box/Folder: 7 : 1

Executive Order #9066, 1942 February 19; Executive Order 9102, 1942 March 18; Text of White House Statement on Treatment of Persons of Japanese Ancestry, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 7 : 2

Extracts from the Testimony of J. Edgar Hoover Before the Subcommittee of the Committee of the Appropriations House of Representatives, 1943, February 18, Evidence of Americanism Among Japanese Americans, 1943, July 7 1943

Box/Folder: 7 : 3

Japanese American evacuation and relocation, 1942-1944, undated

Scope and Content Note

includes articles, pamphlets and small publications
Box/Folder: 7 : 4

Midget Tribune, 1944-1945

Box/Folder: 7 : 5

O'Brien, Robert, 1943-1944

Box/Folder: 7 : 6-7

Relocation center generated documents, 1943-1944

Scope and Content Note

arranged alphabetically by relocation center
Box/Folder: 7 : 8

Statements regarding Japanese American loyalty, circa 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 7 : 9-10

War Relocation Authority, 1942-1943

Box/Folder: 7 : 11

Miscellany, 1943-1944, undated