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Collection Details
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  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administration Information
  • History or Biography
  • Scope and Content
  • Indexing Terms

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: The Gripsholm Exchanges (Manuscript). Memoir by Atushi Archi Miyamoto
    Dates: 1941- 2007
    Collection Number: "Consult repository."
    Creator: Miyamoto, Atushi Archi
    Extent: 1 box, [0.5 linear feet]
    Repository: California State University, Dominguez Hills Archives and Special Collections
    Archives & Special Collection
    University Library, Room G-145
    1000 E. Victoria Street
    Carson, California 90747
    Phone: (310) 243-3013
    URL: http://www.csudh.edu/archives/csudh/index.html
    Abstract: Manuscript/memoir of Atushi Archi Miyamoto on the diplomatic exchanges between the United States and Japan (1942-1943) known as The Gripsholm Exchanges. This document reflects upon and shares personal hardships experienced by detainees during World War II.
    Language: Collection material is in English

    Administration Information


    There are no access restrictions on this collection.

    Publication Rights

    All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Director of Archives and Special Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical materials and not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.

    Preferred Citation

    [Title of item], The Gripsholm Exchanges (Manuscript). Memoir by Atushi Archi Miyamoto, Courtesy of the Department of Archives and Special Collections. University Library. California State University, Dominguez Hills California State University, Dominguez Hills.

    Acquisition Information

    The materials were donated to the California State University Archives at California State University, Dominguez Hills by Atushi Archie Miyamoto in February 2007.

    Processing Information

    Collection processed by Veronica D’Aquino, 2008.

    History or Biography

    Manuscript. Atushi Archie Miyamoto memoir entitled The Gripsholm Exchanges: a short concise report on the exchanges of the hostages during WWII between the United States and Japan as it relates to Japanese Americans. These hostage exchanges took place between July 1942 and August 1943 in Lourenço Marques, Mozambique and Mormugao, India respectively. The author was a child passenger of the second exchange aboard the Swedish liner S.S. Gripsholm which was used as repatriation ship between the warfaring nations. Mr. Miyamoto returned to the United States as a teenager in 1948 and served as a lieutenant colonel in the US army until his retirement.

    Scope and Content

    The collection consists of two unpublished manuscripts written in October 2006, one of which is the revised version. The manuscript reviews the diplomatic negotiations which started in December 1941 and includes the accounts of two voyages, their stops enroute to their final destinations, and the hardships families experienced while painting a vivid picture of the detainees’ experience. The author also dispels common misconceptions that depict the exchange as exclusively one of prisoners of wars or one including Japanese American internees from the Tule Lake internment camp in California rather than the actual detainees which were mostly diplomats. This manuscript is based on the analyses of post war Japanese resources, the Gripsholm passengers’ lists, United States redress provisions for persons of Japanese ancestry, redress appeals, and personal testimonials of Japanese detainees, many of which are included as appendixes.

    Indexing Terms


    World War, 1939-1945—Diplomatic history
    World War, 1939-1945—Japanese Americans
    Japanese Americans—Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945—History—Sources
    Japanese Americans—Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945—Anecdotes
    Reparations for historical injustices

    Personal Names

    Miyamoto, Atushi Archi

    Corporate Names

    Gripsholm (Ship)
    Tule Lake Relocation Center

    Geographic Terms

    United States
    Lourenço Marques (Mozambique)
    Marmagao (India)