Guide to the Northwest Boundary Survey Photographs from the Papers of George Clinton Gardner, 1858-1862 (bulk 1860-1861)

James Eason
The Bancroft Library
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
Phone: (510) 642-6481
Fax: (510) 642-7589
Email: bancref@library.berkeley.edu
URL: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/
© 2015
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Guide to the Northwest Boundary Survey Photographs from the Papers of George Clinton Gardner, 1858-1862 (bulk 1860-1861)

Collection number: BANC PIC 1963.040--AX

The Bancroft Library

University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
Phone: (510) 642-6481
Fax: (510) 642-7589
Email: bancref@library.berkeley.edu
URL: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/
Finding Aid Author(s):
James Eason
Finding Aid Encoded By:
GenX
© 2015 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Collection Summary

Collection Title: Northwest Boundary Survey photographs from the papers of George Clinton Gardner
Date (inclusive): 1858-1862
Date (bulk): 1860-1861
Collection Number: BANC PIC 1963.040--AX
Creator: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Gardner, G. Clinton (George Clinton) Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission British North American Boundary Commission
Extent: 45 photographs : albumen prints on mounts ; mounts 26 x 35 cm.
Repository: The Bancroft Library.
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
Phone: (510) 642-6481
Fax: (510) 642-7589
Email: bancref@library.berkeley.edu
URL: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/
Languages Represented: Collection materials are in

Information for Researchers

Access Information

RESTRICTED ORIGINALS. USE ONLINE DIGITAL IMAGES ONLY. Use of originals only by permission of the appropriate curator. Inquiries concerning these materials should be directed, in writing, to the Head of Public Services, The Bancroft Library.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Northwest Boundary Survey photographs from the papers of George Clinton Gardner, BANC PIC 1963.040--AX, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog
Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Canada, Western – Pictorial works
Northwest boundary of the United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

Administrative Information

Received with the Robert B. Honeyman collection as part of the George Clinton Gardner papers (BANC MSS P-B 221).

Arrangement

The Northwest Boundary Survey photographs have been arranged and numbered by Bancroft Library staff. No original order was discernable, and items were entirely unidentified. Identifications were made by comparison to online images from collections at the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Yale's Beinecke Library, and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Identifications from these collections were then compared to the tables of geographical coordinates in Marcus Baker's "Survey of the Northwestern Boundary of the United States, 1857-1861" (Bulletin of the USGS, no. 174, 1900.)
The Bancroft Library items have now been arranged as views and landscapes, followed by portraits. Views and landscapes are arranged by approximate geographic area, starting in the west at Point Roberts, on the 49th Parallel (items 1-4), followed by views moving up the Columbia River (items 5-6) to the Fort Colville area (items 7-13). Following the Colville area views, landscapes are arranged progressing from west to east, roughly along the 49th Parallel from the Boundary Commission's depot at Sinyakwateen (item 14) eastward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains near the Akamina Ridge, in what is now Glacier National Park (items 27-30). Viewers should note that this approximate geographic progression is not chronological and does not provide a narrative of the survey's progress. The Commission's photographers are likely to have made photographs while progressing eastward to the Rockies and upon their return journey to the west. Furthermore, the Point Roberts views (items 1-4) are believed to have been taken in 1862, after the other views, when the obelisk was completed.
Portraits (items 31-45) are grouped based on identification of the individuals depicted and their identified tribes or affiliations, or by similarity of background visible in the photographs. First is a group portrait of Vancouver Island Indians, followed by Kootenai (Kootenay) Indians, Spokane Indians, "Colville Indians", and family members of Angus MacDonald, all of whom were photographed in front of cabins that may be the British survey party's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or may be at the Hudson's Bay Company depot in the same region, or some at each location. Following these is one portrait of a Kalispel couple, whose territory was further to the east, and, finally, two portraits of British survey party members.

Processing Information

Arranged, numbered, and described in 2014.

Biography/Organization History

Between 1857 and 1862 a joint commission of the United States and Great Britain surveyed and marked the international boundary as established by the Oregon Treaty of 1846. The border ran along the 49th Parallel from Point Roberts, in the west, inland. The survey accomplished during this period extended eastward to the crest of the Rocky Mountains, in current Montana and Alberta, at a longitude of approximately 114 degrees 3' 28.4".
The extant photographs produced during the survey were made by un-named photographers with the Corps of Royal Engineers of the army of Great Britain. The American team attempted to use photographic equipment, apparently without success.
Since no official report was published immediately following the survey, the most readily available source of information on the survey and the locations of border monuments and survey camps is the report written by Marcus Baker and published in 1900. It is titled "Survey of the Northwestern Boundary of the United States, 1857-1861," in the Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, no. 174 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900.) This report enumerates locations noted in survey documentation and gives latitude and longitude as recorded by both the British and American survey parties. This source is invaluable for interpreting manuscript captions found on copies of photographs, which vary from collection to collection and are often barely legible. It also facilitates reasonably accurate, if general, placement of the views.

Scope and Content Note

The collection consists of photographs taken chiefly in Washington Territory and along the 49th parallel by British photographers in the Corps of Royal Engineers, as part of the survey to identify and mark the international boundary between British Columbia and the United States. The images include landscapes, survey party members, camps, survey monuments and cairns, outposts (chiefly Fort Colvile [sic] and the British party's winter quarters in the Colville vicinity), and Indians of the Pacific Northwest.

Note

Forms part of the Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. collection of early Californian and Western American pictorial material.

Container Listing

 

[Boundary monument at Point Roberts, west face - Treaty of Washington June 15th 1846.] [1862?] BANC PIC 1963.040:01--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress, quoting text inscribed in obelsik.
Obelisk completed 1862, according to the online article "Initial Point — The Boundary Obelisk" (http://oppositethecity.wordpress.com/2012/10/29/initial-point-the-boundary-obelisk/ : accessed February 2014)
This print is an early (presumably 1860s) albumen copy photograph. The original print was affixed to a wooden backing board for copying, and this board and a corner pin are visible along the lower edge.
 

[Boundary monument at Point Roberts - Lat. 49 0 0, Long [blank] Erected 1861.] [1862?] BANC PIC 1963.040:02--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress. Obelisk completed 1862.
This print is an early (presumably 1860s) albumen copy photograph. The original print was affixed to a wooden backing board for copying, and this board is visible along the lower edge.
 

[Boundary monument at Point Roberts - Archibald Campbell, U.S. Comm.] [1862?] BANC PIC 1963.040:03--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress. Obelisk completed 1862.
This print is an early (presumably 1860s) albumen copy photograph. The original print was affixed to a wooden backing board for copying, and this board is visible along the lower edge.
 

[Boundary monument at Point Roberts - Capt. J.C. Prevost, R.N., Capt. G.H. Richards, R.N., Lt. Col. J.S. Hawkins, R.E., H.B.M. Commssrs.] [1862?] BANC PIC 1963.040:04--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers.
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress. Obelisk completed 1862.
This print is an early (presumably 1860s) albumen copy photograph. The original print was affixed to a wooden backing board for copying, and this board is visible along the lower edge.
 

[Scene on the Columbia River at the Dalles with tipi in the middle distance.] [1860?] BANC PIC 1963.040:05--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works

 

[Block house, Upper Cascades, Columbia River: scene of a massacre of whites by the Indians, view taken May 1860.] [May, 1860] BANC PIC 1963.040:06--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

View, from across river, of the Upper Block House, also known as Fort Lugenbeel.

Additional Note

Title from caption on Library of Congress copy.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works

 

[Log huts, winter quarters of the British North American Boundary Commission on the banks of the Columbia, two miles above the Hudson Bay Company's post at Colville: left portion of panorama.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:07--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Left portion of two-part panorama of a compound of cabins erected to house the British boundary commission's survey party.

Additional Note

Library of Congress copy captioned: "No. 2, log huts, winter quarters of the Br. N. Am. Boundary Commission on the banks of the Columbia two miles above the Hudson Bay Cos. Post at Colville." Presence of "No. 2" suggests it is part of a multi-part panoramic view, however it is odd that the left portion is numbered "2". It is possible that there was a third part forming the left-most portion of the view, and this view is 2 of 3. Beinecke copy captioned: "British Quarters Fort Colville; [on back: ] Panorama No. 1 B.B.C. Barracks Colville."

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Log huts, winter quarters of the British North American Boundary Commission on the banks of the Columbia, two miles above the Hudson's Bay Company's post at Colville: right portion of panorama.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:08--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Right portion of two-part panorama of an orderly compound of cabins erected to house the British boundary commission's survey party. A British flag flys on a pole, and a tent is in foreground.

Additional Note

Title devisde based on caption on Library of Congress copy of adjoining half of panorama.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Mule packed with pork barrels. Mssrs. Lord and Bauerman and muleteer at Colville.] [1860-1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:09--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Photograph shows three men with a mule with two casks tied to its back at the British North American Boundary Commission base in Colville; also shows two Boundary Commission huts (cabins). John Keast Lord, second from left, and Hilary Bauerman, right, with a muleteer at far left are identified in the caption of the copy at the archives of the Royal Corps of Engineers, Chatham (as reproduced in John Falconer. "Photography and the Royal Engineers," The Photographic Collector 2:1, Autumn 1981, p. 44.) The casks are identified as pork barrels and the location "at Colville."

Additional Note

Title from caption on Royal Engineers' copy. Caption on Library of Congress copy: "Mule laden with casks, Boundary Commission huts, Colville, Columbia River"

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works
Fort Colvile (Wash. : Trading post) -- Pictorial works

 

[Part of the Kettle Falls of the Columbia River, 1860: left portion of panorama.] [1860] BANC PIC 1963.040:10--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Title and date from caption of Library of Congress copy.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Part of the Kettle Falls of the Columbia River, 1860: right portion of panorama.] [1860] BANC PIC 1963.040:11--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Title and date from caption of Library of Congress copy. Annotation on back or Beinecke copy: "Panorama No. 2."

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Falls on the Colville (Mill River), 1860.] [1860] BANC PIC 1963.040:12--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Title and date from caption of Library of Congress copy.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Indian wigwams near Fort Colville.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:13--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Title from caption of Library of Congress copy. Victoria and Albert copy: "Indian encampment at Fort Colville, 1860-1861."

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Boundary Commission depot, Sinyakwateen, Pend Oreille River - Indian wigwam and canoe in the foreground, season of the flood, 1861.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:14--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Indian tipis near the Boundary Survey encampment called Camp Sinyakwateen in Washington Territory, northeast of Colville.

Additional Note

Title and date from caption of Library of Congress copy. Library of Congress caption transcription: "Siniakwateen" for Sinyakwateen. Victoria and Albert copy cataloged with mis-transcription as: "Linyakwateen Depot Camp, on the Left Bank of the Pend d'Oreille River, 1860-1861." Royal Engineers copy captioned "Sinyakwateen Depot Camp, on the Left Bank of the Pend d'Oreille River, 1860-1861."
 

[Scene on the Columbia River at the junction with the Pend Oreille River with outcrop in the foreground.] [1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:15--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Columbia River Region -- Pictorial works

 

[Man standing among tree stumps on bank of the Moyie River at the boundary cut, with cairn (stone pyramid) marking the boundary line between United States and Canada in the background.] [1860-1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:16--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Cutting the boundary line along the right bank of the Moyie River.] [1860-1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:17--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Identified in The Golden Age of British Photography (Aperture, 1984) as: "Cutting the Forty-ninth Parallel, on the right bank of the Mooyie [Moyie] River, looking west, 1860-61."

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Boundary line cutting, Yahk River - cairn just completed] [1860-1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:18--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Title from caption of Library of Congress copy. The Yahk River is variously spelled: Yahk'h, Yaak, etc. It is located between the Kootenai (Kootenay) River West and Kootenai River East.

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Zenith telescope and observatory tent, Yahk River station. Captain Darrah and assistant (i.e. Capt. Haig.)] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:19--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Two bearded officers posed with astronomical equipment in a small tent.

Additional Note

Title from caption on Royal Engineers' copy, as reproduced by John Falconer in Photograph and the ROyal Engineers (The Photographic Collection 2:3, p. 43)
Identified by note on Library of Congress copy: Captain Charles J. Darrah, R.E., seated in tent, and Captain Robert W. Haig, R.A. of the British North American Boundary Commission posed at an astronomical observation tent with theodolite, during the marking of the boundary line between Canada and the United States. Box at right marked "Capt. Darrah, R.E., No. 2"

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys
United States -- Surveys -- Pictorial works

 

[Indian encampment, Tobacco Plains, Kootenay (i.e. Kootenai) River, fish trap in the foreground, 1861] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:20--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Caption and date from Library of Congress copy. Annotation on Beinecke copy: "Fish traps - skin lodges." Reference to Tobacco Plains suggests the location is near the eastern section of the Kootenai (Kootenay) River.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works

 

[Monument on the Boundary at Kootenay West, Kootenay River.] [1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:21--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Boundary cairn or stone pyramid in foreground with cut through forest in background, rising to horizon. Stone pyramid (also referred to as a "pile of stones"), eastern instersection of Kootenay River with the 49th parallel.

Additional Note

Identified in "The Golden Age of British Photography" (Aperture, 1984) as: "Stone pyramid on the Forty-ninth Parallel, on the right bank of the eastern intersection of the Kootenay River, cutting on left bank."

Indexing Terms

Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works

 

[Roman Catholic mission on the left bank of the Kootenay (i.e., Kootenai) River, south of the boundary in Washington Territory, 1861.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:22--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Log cabin indentified as Catholic mission or church. The location of this mission is discussed in some detail by several American survey party members in "Evidence for the United States in the matter of the claim of the Hudson's Bay Company pending before the British and American Joint Commission for the Settlement of the Claims of the Hudson's Bay and Puget's Sound Agricultural Companies" (published 1867). Witnesses were shown a copy of this photographic view and examined in order to establish whether this mission site, below the 49th parallel, was part of or adjacent to an alleged Hudson's Bay Company "Kootenay post". James Alden testified the site was three or four miles south of the 49th parallel, on the left bank of the Kootenay as the river flowed southward (therefore the east side), and near the river but not in sight of it. He indicated there were three or four small log "huts" and this church. The buildings were not occupied at the time of Alden's visit, which may have been a bit earlier than when the photograph was taken. (See especially p. 551-554.)

Additional Note

Date from Library of Congress. The Library of Congress copy has annotation "Kishenehn?" which appears to be incorrect, based on information on other copies that locate the mission on the Kootenai River (which is west of Kishenehn.)

Indexing Terms

Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works

 

[Boundary line cut with cairn at Kishenehn, looking west, 1861.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:23--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Clearing cut thourgh forest, marking the international border along the 49th Parallel.

Additional Note

Caption and date from Library of Congress copy. Victoria & Albert copy captioned: "Cutting and Stone Pyramid on the 49th Parallel, at Kensenehn [i.e. Kishenehn] , Looking West." Library of Congress copy has transcription variant: "Kishenchn."

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Northwest, Pacific – Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Approach to the boundary pass, Rocky Mountains - left portion of three-part panorama.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:24--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Probably taken from the valley of the Flathead River, looking east toward the pass in the Rocky Mountains that would ascend toward Kintla Lake. The approach to the pass is described by Dr. David Lyall in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, v.7, 1663, p. 130.

Additional Note

Title based on caption of view number two of this three-part panorama, at the Library of Congress. Beinecke Library copy unidentified, but annotated on back: "Panorama # 1"

Indexing Terms

Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works

 

[Approach to the boundary pass, Rocky Mountains - middle portion of three-part panorama.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:25--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Probably taken from the valley of the Flathead River, looking east toward the pass in the Rocky Mountains.

Additional Note

Title based on caption of view number 2 of this three-part panorama, at the Library of Congress. Beinecke Library copy unidentified, but annotated on back: "Panorama # 3." This print has a faint papermaker's watermark along lower edge, a tentative transcription of which is "1862[?] B.H.K Rives".

Additional Note

Identification based on Library of Congress copy and Beinecke Library copy. Library of Congress copy captioned: "No. 2 of 3, approach to the boundary pass, Rocky Mountains." Beinecke Library copy unidentified, but annotated on back: ""Panorama # 2."

Indexing Terms

Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works

 

[Approach to the boundary pass, Rocky Mountains - right portion of three-part panorama.] [1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:26--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Probably taken from the valley of the Flathead River, looking east toward the pass in the Rocky Mountains.

Indexing Terms

Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works

 

[Summit of the Rocky Mountains, just west of Cameron Lake near Forum Peak. Boundary cairn with British flag.] [July, 1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:27--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Roughly 114 degrees 03' 28". Title devised based caption on copy at Library of Congress and modern mapping of region.

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Boundary cairn at Summit of the Rocky Mountains, just west of Cameron Lake near Forum Peak.] [July, 1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:28--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Additional Note

Roughly 114 degrees 03' 28"". Title devised. Library of Congress copy captioned: "Watershed of Rocky Mountains, lat. 49 ̊N. - snow patches and glaciers."

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Summit of Rocky Mountains, looking west toward Gardner Point and Upper Kintla Lake, from boundary cairn near Cameron Lake and Forum Peak. Boundary carin with British flag, July 1861 - left half of panorama.] [July, 1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:29--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

View of a ridge and Gardner Point in what is now northern Montana, with Upper Kintla Lake in the right distance. Akamina Ridge (Alberta, Canada) would be just to the right, out of field. Kinnerly Peak is a faint outline on the horizon, just left of center. The visible ridge, ending in Gardner Point, is in front of Kinnerly Peak. This view forms an approximate two-part panorama when paired with item 30 of this collection.

Additional Note

Roughly 114 degrees 03' 28"". Title devised. Library of Congress copy annotated: "Rocky Mountains looking west from boundary cairn, July 1861." Location identified using maps and Google Earth views.

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Summit of Rocky Mountains, looking west toward Akamina Ridge, from boundary cairn near Cameron Lake and Forum Peak, July 1861 - right half of panorama.] [July, 1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:30--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Upper Kintla Lake would be just to the left, out of frame. This view forms an approximate two-part panorama when paired with item 29 of this collection.

Additional Note

Roughly 114 degrees 03' 28"". Title devised. Library of Congress copy captioned: "Summits of Rocky Mountains near lat. 49 ̊N., July 1861." Identified using maps and Google Earth views.

Indexing Terms

Canada -- Boundaries -- United States -- Surveys
Rocky Mountains -- Pictorial works
United States -- Boundaries -- Canada -- Surveys

 

[Vancouver Island Indians, in European dress.] [1858-1861] BANC PIC 1963.040:31--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Group portrait of eleven men and women. Possibly a copy photograph made in the 1860s.

Additional Note

Title from copy at Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Canada, Western – Pictorial works

 

[Kootenay (i.e., Kootenai) Indians] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:32--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Three Native American men seated outside of log cabin, with blanket draped behind them. Probably photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Three Kootenai men, full-length portrait, seated against blanket in front of a log cabin, facing front, wearing traditional dress.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:33--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Three Native American men (Kootenai or Kootenay) seated outside of log cabin, with blanket draped behind them. Man on right is shirtless and wrapped in blanket. Probably photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Kootenai group.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:34--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Native American man (Kootenai or Kootenay) standing by three women and an infant who are seated outside of log cabin, with blanket draped behind them. Probably photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Group of Native Americans, three standing, one seated on the ground, possibly Colville or Kutenai (Kootenai or Kootenay), at the winter quarters of the British Northwest Boundary Commission Survey near Colville, Washington.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:35--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Man standing at right is wrapped in animal skin (bear or buffalo?). Man at center is wrapped in a blanket.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Colville Indian woman and child.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:36--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Native American woman, seated on chair outside a cabin (of planks or squared logs), holding an infant. Probably photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville.

Additional Note

Title from copy at Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Young MacDonald suspended against the wall.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:37--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Baby in Native American cradleboard, with other fabric and/or beadwork displayed around him. The baby, identified as "Young MacDonald" in the caption at Library of Congress, must be the child of Angus MacDonald (McDonald) of the Hudson's Bay Company, and his wife Catherine, a Nez Percé.

Additional Note

Title from copy at Library of Congress. The child's father, Angus MacDonald, is pictured in item 38 of the collection at Bancroft Library.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works
Fort Colvile (Wash. : Trading post) -- Pictorial works

 

[Angus McDonald (Angus MacDonald), Factor, Hudson's Bay Company.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:38--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Bearded man in plaid shirt and a Scottish (glengarry?) hat, with walking stick, standing in front of blanket or canvas backdrop. Possibly photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Identification from copy at Beinecke Library. Angus MacDonald was the father of the baby in item 37 of this collection.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works
Fort Colvile (Wash. : Trading post) -- Pictorial works

 

[Christine MacDonald's uncle] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:39--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

A Native American man, apparently a brother of Catherine, the Nez Percé wife of trapper and Hudson's Bay Company factor Angus MacDonald (McDonald), and therefore uncle of their daughter Christina MacDonald. He wears European style clothing, and is seated on a chair outside a cabin of squared logs. Possibly photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Identification based on Library of Congress copy.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works
Fort Colvile (Wash. : Trading post) -- Pictorial works

 

[Garry the Spokane chief.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:40--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Chief Garry, seated in doorway of a cabin of planks or squared logs, possibly at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Identification based on Library of Congress copy.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Three men of the party of Spokane chief Garry.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:41--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Three Native American men posed seated at door of a cabin of planks or squared logs, with rifles and other weapons, in traditional clothing. Possibly photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Identification based on Library of Congress copy, which is on same mount as the portrait of Chief Garry (Bancroft Library item 40). The LoC mount with the two photographs is captioned "Garry the Spokan chief [and] three of his men."

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Two Native American men, one standing and one seated.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:42--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Indian men in non-traditional (European style) clothing. One man is seated on a chair, both on step of a cabin of squared logs. Possibly photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Title devised by cataloger.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs
Colville Region (Wash.) -- Pictorial works

 

[Kalispel couple, full-length portrait, the man standing, the woman seated, facing front, wearing traditional dress.] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:43--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Native American man and woman. Woman is seated in a chair, and a blanket or canvas is draped behind them.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Indexing Terms

Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Photographs

 

[Lieutenant Charles W. Wilson, full-length portrait, standing, facing front, wearing buckskins, with rifle.] [September 1860] BANC PIC 1963.040:44--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Wilson, of the Royal Engineers, stands at door of a cabin of planks or squared logs. Possibly photographed at the British survey team's winter quarters near Fort Colville, or at the Hudson's Bay Company post.

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.

Additional Note

Taken on or about September 3, 1860, according to C.W. Wilson's journal.

Indexing Terms

Wilson, Charles William, Sir, 1836-1905 -- Portraits

 

[Unidentified man, possibly John Keast Lord, naturalist with the Commission survey, full-length portrait, seated, facing right, holding whip] [1860-1861?] BANC PIC 1963.040:45--AX

Creator/Collector: Great Britain. Army. Royal Engineers. Great Britain. North American Boundary Commission
Physical Description: 1 photograph : albumen print on mount ; mount 26 x 35 cm.

Scope and Content Note

Heavily bearded man, seated in front of blanket or canvas backdrop, holding a long crop or whip (identified in devised Library of Congress title as a dog whip, presumably for a team of sled dogs, but could be for horse or oxen teams.)

Additional Note

Devised title from Library of Congress.
Beinecke copy annotated: "Lord Quartermaster."
John Keast Lord is pictured in item 9 of the Bancroft Library collection.