Ireland was officially merged with England in 1801 under the Act of Union 1800. The island was governed by the UK Parliament
in London through its Dublin Castle administration in Ireland. Despite this union, Ireland faced considerable economic difficulties
in the 19th century. Both liberal and conservative groups rose up in support of continued union with England and Home Rule.
Supporters of Home Rule included Isaac Butt, who established the new moderate nationalist movement called the Home Rule League,
as well as William Shaw and Charles Stewart Parnell, both of whome turned the moderate movement into the Irish Parliamentary
Party, which campaigned for the right of Ireland to govern herself as a region within the United Kingdom. William Ewait Gladstone
introduced the first Home Rule Bill in 1886, and its subsequent defeat was a primary cause of the Belfast Riots later that
same year. Various riots and violent incidences related to this political issue broke out throughout the 19th and early 20th
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