Carleton E. Watkins Mammoth Plate Photograph Albums: Finding Aid 137500; 137501; 137502; 137503

Finding aid prepared by Suzanne Oatey.
The Huntington Library
© 2019
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Business Number: (626) 405-2191
reference@huntington.org


Contributing Institution: The Huntington Library
Title: Carleton E. Watkins Mammoth Plate Photograph Albums
Creator: Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916
Identifier/Call Number: 137500; 137501; 137502; 137503
Physical Description: 9.33 Linear Feet (174 mammoth plate photographs in 4 albums: albumen prints; size of prints varies, approximately 36 x 53 cm. (14 1/4 x 21 in.); albums each 50 x 69 cm. (19 3/4 x 27 1/4 in.))
Date (inclusive): approximately 1876-1889
Abstract: A set of four albums of mammoth plate photographs by American photographer Carleton E. Watkins (1829-1916) made approximately 1876-1889 in California, Nevada, and Arizona. The albums contain 174 photographs and are titled: Photographic Views of Kern County, California; The Central Pacific Railroad and Views Adjacent; Summits of the Sierra; and Arizona and Views Adjacent to the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Language of Material: English.

Access

RESTRICTED. Available with curatorial approval. Requires extended retrieval and delivery time.

Existence and Location of Copies

This collection has been digitized in its entirety and the digital reproductions are available in the Huntington Digital Library. 
Copy prints, copy negatives and copy transparencies on file; see Copy negatives collection, photCL 720.

Publication Rights

The Huntington Library does not require that researchers request permission to quote from or publish images of this material, nor does it charge fees for such activities. The responsibility for identifying the copyright holder, if there is one, and obtaining necessary permissions rests with the researcher.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Carleton E. Watkins Mammoth Plate Photograph Albums, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Provenance

These albums were most likely made sometime in the 1890s for railroad magnate Collis P. Huntington (1821-1900), a boyhood friend of Watkins' from Oneonta, New York. They eventually came into the private library of Henry E. Huntington, Collis' nephew, who established the Huntington Library in 1919. Library catalog records show that the "Summits of the Sierras" album was in the Library as of 1922 and the other three albums were in the Library as of 1930.

Provenance Note / Related Material

The Hispanic Society of America, New York, also held a set of four Watkins mammoth plate photograph albums, identically bound to these, of related subjects. They were received in the 1920s from the museum's founder, Archer Huntington, who was Collis P. Huntington's stepson. In 2018, the museum sold three of the albums through Christie's to an unknown buyer. The HSA retained one of the albums, photographs of Spanish missions of California.
There isn't any surviving documentation regarding the transfer of the albums from Watkins to Collis P. Huntington. It appears likely, though, that all eight albums were made at the same time for Huntington and were dispersed to his heirs sometime after his death in 1900.

Biographical Note

Carleton E. Watkins (1829-1916) was born in 1829 in Oneonta, New York. In 1851, he migrated to Sacramento, California in the company of businessman Collis P. Huntington and several other residents of Oneonta. He began his photographic career as an apprentice to established San Francisco Bay area studio photographers Robert H. Vance (1825–1876) and James May Ford (c. 1827–1877).
Watkins photographed Yosemite for the first time in 1861. His large-scale images inspired President Abraham Lincoln and the United States Congress to declare Yosemite the nation's first national preserve in 1864. By the end of the American Civil War, the photographer had become one of the medium's leading lights, winning prestigious commissions and international awards.
Over the course of his career, Watkins operated studios at various Montgomery Street addresses in San Francisco. Around 1869, he purchased Alfred A. Hart's stereographic negatives documenting the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad. Watkins subsequently published Hart's negatives under the series title: "Watkins Central Pacific Railroad."
Watkins suffered severe financial reverses in 1875, losing his negative inventory to competitor Isaiah H. Taber. From that point onward, Watkins published negatives under the "New Series" heading.
In 1879, Watkins married Frances Henrietta Snead. The couple had two children, Julia (1881–1977) and Collis (1883–1965). By the early 1890s, declining health forced Watkins to curtail his activities. He took his last major commission in 1894, photographing the Phoebe Apperson Hearst residence, Hacienda del Pozo de Verona, in Pleasanton, California. The earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed Watkins's San Francisco studio and its contents. Shortly thereafter, he entered the Napa State Asylum for the Insane in Napa, California, where he died in 1916.

Scope and Content

This collection contains four albums of mammoth plate photographs made approximately 1876-1889 by photographer Carleton E. Watkins (1829-1916). Prints are mounted on boards and are accompanied by labels with titles, descriptions, and Watkins' imprint. The albums are described briefly here, with expanded descriptions and photograph titles in the contents list:
  1. Photographic Views of Kern County, California (39 prints), approximately 1881-1889, focuses on agricultural production in California's Central Valley. Views include crops, details of irrigation dams built on a river, livestock, farm workers in the field, farming company ranch houses, and farm owners. Some views depict everyday farm work, such as men harvesting wheat and alfalfa with the aid of horses, tools, and large machinery.
  2. The Central Pacific Railroad and Views Adjacent (48 prints), approximately 1876-1880s, contains photographs of trains, lodging and scenery along the California-Nevada route of the Central Pacific Railroad, from ports in the San Francisco Bay Area to the Sierra Nevada mountain range.
  3. Summits of the Sierra (41 prints), 1879, contains photographs of the vistas, mountain peaks, lakes, and topography of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Watkins took the photographs in the summer of 1879 while accompanying a government survey team.
  4. Arizona and Views Adjacent to the Southern Pacific Railroad (46 prints), 1880, includes views of mining camps, railroad depots, towns, desert landscapes, cactus, and the Spanish colonial mission San Xavier del Bac. There are several views of mines near Tombstone, Arizona, and the railroad bridge spanning the Colorado River at Fort Yuma. Native Americans and others are seen posed with a large steam locomotive in the desert, and there are several views of the ancient stone ruins at Casa Grande.

Related materials in the Huntington Library

  1. Carleton E. Watkins Photograph Collection (photCL 74)  
  2. Carleton E. Watkins Stereograph Collection (photST Watkins)  
  3. Watkins, Carleton E. [Collection of mammoth plate photographs of Yosemite, New Almaden Mine and the Mendocino Coast, 1863-1864] (379010 v. 1-2)  
  4. Watkins, Carleton E. Scenes in Yosemite photograph album (photCL 409)  
  5. Watkins, Carleton E. Sunny Slope. San Gabriel, Cal. photograph album (photCL 522)  
  6. Watkins, Carleton E. Album of the Yo-semite Valley, California (New York : D. Appleton, 1866) (406039)  
  7. See the Huntington Library catalog  for additional Carleton Watkins photographs.

Arrangement

The albums were assigned call numbers in an arbitrary sequence by the Library, and are listed here in that order:
  1. Photographic Views of Kern County, California (137500)
  2. Central Pacific Railroad and Views Adjacent (137501)
  3. Summits of the Sierras (137502)
  4. Arizona and Views Adjacent to the Southern Pacific Railroad (137503)

Sources consulted

Green, Tyler. Carleton Watkins: Making the West American (University of California Press, 2018)
Naef, Weston J. and Christine Hult-Lewis. Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011)
Palmquist, Peter E. Carleton E. Watkins: Photographer of the American West (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983)

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Agriculture -- California -- Photographs.
Agricultural exhibitions -- California -- Photographs.
Agricultural laborers -- California -- Photographs.
Farms -- California -- Kern County -- Photographs.
Irrigation -- California -- Kern County -- Photographs.
Orchards -- California -- Kern County -- Photographs.
Locomotives -- Photographs.
Railroad construction workers -- Photographs.
Railroad trains -- Photographs.
Railroads -- United States -- History -- 19th century -- Photographs.
Train ferries -- Photographs.
Boats and boating -- Photographs.
Foreign workers, Chinese -- West (U.S.)-- Photographs.
Hotels -- California -- 1880-1910 -- Photographs.
Lakes -- California -- Photographs.
Landscapes -- West (U.S.)-- Photographs.
Logging -- Photographs.
Mountains -- California -- Photographs.
Surveying -- Instruments -- Photographs.
Trestles -- Design and construction -- Photographs.
Cactus -- Photographs.
Frontier and pioneer life -- West (U.S.) -- Photographs.
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New -- Photographs.
Mines and mineral resources -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Mines and mineral resources -- West (U.S.) -- Photographs.
Missions, Spanish -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Silver mines and mining -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Tohono O'odham Indians -- Photographs.
Bakersfield (Calif.)-- Buildings, structures, etc. -- Photographs.
Kern County (Calif.)-- Photographs.
Alameda (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Donner Pass (Calif.) -- Photographs.
California -- Photographs.
Nevada -- Photographs.
Placer County (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Reno (Nev.) -- Photographs.
Sierra Nevada (Calif. and Nev.) -- Photographs.
Sierra Nevada (Calif. and Nev.) -- Surveys
Soda Springs (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Tahoe, Lake (Calif. and Nev.) -- Photographs.
West (U.S.) -- Surveys -- Photographs.
Arizona -- Photographs.
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Fort Yuma Reservation (Ariz. and Calif.) -- Photographs.
Tombstone (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Tucson (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
West (U.S.) -- Photographs.
Yuma (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Albumen prints.
Mammoth plate.
Landscape photographs.
Photograph albums.
Photographs
Southern Pacific Railroad Company -- Photographs.

Box Call no. 137500

Photographic Views of Kern County, California [1881-1889]

Physical Description: 39 Photographic Prints (1 album: albumen prints; album 50 x 69 cm (19 ¾ x 27 ¼ in.). Size of prints varies; approximately 36 x 53 cm (14 ¼ x 21 in.))

Conditions Governing Access

Due to the fragility of the album, access is granted only by permission of the Curator of Photographs. Copy prints of the photographs are available for reference use.

Scope and Contents

The 39 photographs in this album illustrate the agricultural industry of Kern County, California, and were made by Watkins on multiple trips to the area between 1881 and 1889. The album itself is not dated, but based on the dates of the photographs, it was most likely assembled in the early 1890s. Views include landscapes of agricultural crops, details of irrigation dams built on a river, livestock, farm workers in the field, farming company ranch houses, and farm owners. Some views depict everyday farm work, such as men harvesting wheat and alfalfa with the aid of horses, tools, and large machinery. Other photographs of note are a detail view of peaches in a crate, and men posed with a steam locomotive built at the Southern Pacific Railroad Shops in Kern County. The first two photographs in the album are interior views of promotional displays of Kern County produce and grains, exhibited in San Francisco in 1889.

General

All photograph titles are from the album. Watkins' numbers and dates are also taken from the album, except those in brackets, which are from the catalog raisonné by Weston Naef and Christine Hult-Lewis, Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum), 2011. (Cited below as Naef.)
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 1

Kern County Exhibit. Twenty-Fourth Industrial Fair of the Mechanics' Institute, 1889

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 927. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: In San Francisco. Naef no. 971.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 2

Kern County Exhibit. Twenty-Fourth Industrial Fair of the Mechanics' Institute, 1889

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 928. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: In San Francisco. Naef no. 973.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 3

Kern County Groups, [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series, Watkins no. 924. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Collage of 16 agricultural and livestock views. Naef no. 969.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 4

Kern County Groups, [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series, Watkins no. 925. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Collage of 14 agricultural and livestock views. Naef no. 970.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 5

Southern Hotel, Bakersfield, (B. McDougall & Son, Architects, S.F.), Kern County, Calif., [1888-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 941. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 968.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 6

Bellevue, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 946. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 1008.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 7

Farm House in Kern County. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 972. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1007.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 8

Farm House in Kern County. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 971. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/2 in.
Note: Naef no. 1006.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 9

Headquarters Buena Vista Farm, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 983. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1010.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 10

Headquarters Buena Vista Farm, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 984. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1009.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 11

Wible's Peach Orchard, Bakersfield, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 942. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 980.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 12

Late George Cling Peaches [1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 931. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Printed on label after title: "These peaches were picked from my young orchard, four miles south of Bakersfield, planted in the months of February and March, 1888. The trees consequently have been but eighteen months planted, and as they were but one year old from the bud at the time of planting, the total age of the trees is but thirty months. A photograph of the orchard accompanying will show the size and thriftiness of the trees. S. W. Wibble [sic] / We hereby certify that we are well acquainted with the orchard from which the peaches above refer to were picked, and we know the above statement from Mr. Wibble [sic] to be correct. / C. Brower, President / W. E. Houghton, Secretary / Kern County Board of Trade." [Correct spelling is Wible.] Naef no. 975.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 13

Orange Cling Peach, Natural Size, Maul Orchard, Kern County, California [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 934. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 978.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 14

Orange Cling Peach, Natural Size, Maul Orchard, Kern County, California [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 933. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 977.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 15

Fig Tree, Tejon Ranch, Kern Co., Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [964]. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [964] is from Naef.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 16

Alfalfa Fields, Kern County [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 970. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1015.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 17

Alfalfa Fields, Kern County [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 969. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1014.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 18

Haying at Buena Vista Farm, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 982. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1011.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 19

Harvesting. Wheat and Alfalfa Fields, Jackson's, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 949. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1012.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 20

Harvesting. Wheat and Alfalfa Fields, Jackson's, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 950. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1013.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 21

Ditching and Checking, near Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 944. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1016.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 22

View Down Kern River, From Bluff Above the Water Gates [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [965]. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/2 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [965] is from Naef, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 23

View Up Kern River, From Bluff Above the Water Gates [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [none]. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/2 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number and none is given in Naef, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 24

Irrigating Alfalfa Fields, on the Kern, Kern County, Cal. [1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 940. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 992.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 25

View Up Kern River, Showing Head of Ditch, Kern County, Cal. [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 939. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 989, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 26

View Down Kern River, From the Mouth of the Cottonwood, Kern County, Cal. [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 938. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 988, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 27

View Up Kern River, Near the Mouth of the Canyon, Kern County, Cal. [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 937. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 986, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 28

Mouth of Kern Canyon, Kern County, Cal. [1880-1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 936. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 987, dated 1881; Green dates 1880-1881 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 29

Pioneer Head Gate, and Bridge, Kern River, Cal. [1881 or 1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 962. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 997, dated 1881; Green dates 1886-1889 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 30

Pioneer Bridge and Wier [sic], Kern River, Cal. [1881 or 1886-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 961. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 995.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 31

Calloway Head Gate and Wier [sic], Kern River, Cal. [1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 960. Image size: 13 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 994.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 32

Calloway Wier [sic], Kern River, Kern County, Cal. [1881]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 959. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 993.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 33

View on the Calloway, Near Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1887-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 956. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1002.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 34

View on the Calloway, Near Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1887-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 951. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 998.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 35

View on the Calloway, Near Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1887-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 953. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1000.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 36

View on the Calloway, Near Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1887-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 954. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1001.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 37

Calloway Canal, at Poso, Kern County, Cal. [1887-1888]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 963. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1003.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 38

Alfalfa Fields and Stock, Kern Co., Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [967?]. Image size: 14 5/8 x 20 1/2 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [967?] is from Naef.
Box Call no. 137500, Item Plate 39

El Gobernador. Built at S.P.R.R. Shops, Sac., Cal. [1886-1889]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [none]. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: View of men posed with a steam locomotive. Printed on label after title: "Drain of Cylinder, 21 inch. Stroke, 36 inch. Total weight of engine, 73 tons. Weight on drivers, 64 tons. Diam. of drivers, 4 ft., 9 in. Weight of tender, light, 50, 650 lbs. Total length of engine and tender, 65 ft., 5 in. Driving Wheel Base, 19 ft., 7 in. Rigid Wheel Base, 14 ft., 7 in. Water capacity of tender, 3600 gals." The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number and none is given in Naef, dated 1887-1889; Green dates 1886-1889 in correspondence June 12, 2019.
Box Call no. 137501

Central Pacific Railroad and Views Adjacent [chiefly 1876; a few approximately 1879-1880s].

Physical Description: 48 Photographic Prints (1 album: albumen prints, album 50 x 69 cm (19 ¾ x 27 ¼ in.). Size of prints varies; approximately 36 x 53 cm (14 ¼ x 21 in.))

Conditions Governing Access

Due to the fragility of the album, access is granted only by permission of the Curator of Photographs. Copy prints of the photographs are available for reference use.

Scope and Contents

This album contains photographs made along the California-Nevada route of the Central Pacific Railroad, from ports in the San Francisco Bay Area to the Sierra Nevada mountain passes. The majority of views were made in 1876, with a few made later, approximately 1879-1880s. The album begins with a photograph of a locomotive that has just traveled across the continent and has arrived at the Oakland Long Wharf, followed by scenes of a train and its passengers being transported on a railroad ferry. Other Central Pacific Railroad views depict a massive wooden bridge being built over the American River, with one view prominently featuring Chinese workers hauling rock in wheelbarrows. Trains are shown navigating through a mountain pass at Cape Horn, and railroad workers are seen posed with locomotives. Other scenes on the Central Pacific route include Soda Springs recreation area, with views of Mark Hopkins' cabin, a man and two women under a gazebo, and a croquet game set up in a meadow. There are a series of views of Lake Tahoe, including two hotels with people posed outside; scenic views of the mountains, lake and surroundings from multiple viewpoints; Emerald Bay; Fallen Leaf Lake; boats and docks; and a lumber mill on the shore at Glenbrook. A narrow-gauge lumber railroad is shown in the mountains near Spooner Summit, and there are two bird's-eye-views of the town of Reno, Nevada, that include the train station, buildings and boardwalks.
It is unclear whether these photographs were made under commission from the Central Pacific, but many of the 1876 railroad and landscape views were used, uncredited, in the railroad's official guidebook, The Pacific Tourist (Green, p. 323).

General

All photograph titles are from the album. Watkins' numbers and dates are also taken from the album, except those in brackets, which are from the catalog raisonné by Weston Naef and Christine Hult-Lewis, Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum), 2011. (Cited below as Naef.)
Note on dates for Plate nos. 5-8, 10-18, 20-22, and 44-48: Naef dates these "approximately" 1876, but Tyler Green dates them firmly 1876 in correspondence June 12, 2019. They are dated 1876 below.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 1

Farrell [sic] & Palmer's Lightning Express. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 614. Image size:14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Correct name is Jarrett & Palmer. On June 4, 1876, theatrical promoters Jarrett & Palmer organized a transcontinental train trip that crossed the country in 83 hours, arriving at the Oakland Long Wharf in Alameda (pictured). Naef no. 939.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 2

C.P.R.R. Transfer Boat "Solano," Port Costa / Waiting for the Train [approximately 1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [681]. Image size: 14 5/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [681] is from Naef.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 3

C.P.R.R. Transfer Boat "Solano," Port Costa / Waiting for the Train [approximately 1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [682]. Image size: 14 5/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [682] is from Naef, who dates it 1876, however the "Solano" did not start carrying trains until 1879. ("The Largest Ferryboat in the World" by H. E. Wright, Scientific American, March 4, 1905.)
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 4

C.P.R.R. Transfer Boat "Solano," Port Costa / Discharging the Train [approximately 1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [683]. Image size: 14 5/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: The label for this print does not have Watkins' photograph number; [683] is from Naef.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 5

Filling in Secret Town Trestle / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1115. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 951.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 6

Filling in Secret Town Trestle / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. [1116 Alt.]. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Label says Watkins no. 1115 (same as previous photograph), but Naef says this is a printing mistake and identifies the number as 1116 Alt.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 7

Rounding Cape Horn. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1112. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 948.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 8

Rounding Cape Horn. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1113. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 949.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 9

The Canon of the American River / From Cape Horn, C.P.R.R. [1880s]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1114. Image size: 14 1/8 x 20 7/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 950.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 10

Soda Springs / Near the Summit C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1104. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 829.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 11

Soda Springs / Near the Summit C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1105. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 830.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 12

Mark Hopkins' Cottage, Soda Springs [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1106. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 828.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 13

Cascades at Soda Springs [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1109. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 833.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 14

Cascades at Soda Springs [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1110. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 827.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 15

Berkeley and Anderson Peaks, Soda Springs [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1107. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 831.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 16

Summit Valley, Castle Peak and Snow Sheds. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1117. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 835.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 17

Summit Valley and Donner Peak / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1118. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 836.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 18

Weston Engine at Summit Valley. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1121. Image size:14 1/4 x 20 3/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 945.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 19

Summit Station with West End of Tunnel. / C.P.R.R. [approximately 1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1120. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 953.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 20

Lake Mary—Summit, / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1119. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 837.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 21

Donner Lake. / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1122. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 839.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 22

Donner Lake—Evening View, / C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1123. Image size:14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 838.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 23

Grand Central Hotel—Tahoe City, / Lake Tahoe [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1001. Image size:14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 810.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 24

Lake Tahoe from Tahoe City. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1002. Image size:14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 807.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 25

Lake Tahoe, View from Tahoe City. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1003. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 939.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 26

Lake Tahoe / View from Artists' Rocks. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1004. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 809.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 27

Warm Springs, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1005. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Includes a bathing house and the "Gov. Stanford" ferry boat. Naef no. 811.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 28

Lake Tahoe, View from Warm Springs. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1006. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 812.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 29

Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe / View from the Cascade. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1007. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 814.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 30

Emerald Bay from the Island, Lake Tahoe [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1008. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 815.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 31

Tallac House, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1009. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 821.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 32

Larch Grove—Tallac House, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1010. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 822.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 33

Mt. Tallac / Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1011. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 819.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 34

Lake Tahoe / View from Fallen Leaf Lake. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1012. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 817.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 35

Fallen Leaf Lake / Near Lake Tahoe. [1883]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1013. Image size: 14 x 20 5/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 818.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 36

Fallen Leaf Lake / Near Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1014. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 820.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 37

Glenbrook Bay, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1020. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 825.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 38

Glenbrook, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1017. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Includes Pray's Mill, a lumber mill. Naef no. 824.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 39

Shakespeare Rock—Glenbrook, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1019. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 823.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 40

Cave Rock, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1015. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 813.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 41

A Storm on Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series; Watkins no. 1016. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 826.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 42

Z Railroad from Glenbrook to Summit, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1022. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 956.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 43

Z Railroad from Glenbrook to Summit, Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1021. Image size:14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 954.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 44

Reno—View East, C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1124. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 962.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 45

Reno—View West, C.P.R.R. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1125. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 963.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 46

Cascades, Emerald Bay. / Lake Tahoe. [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1038. Image size:14 1/8 x 20 5/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 816.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 47

Cascades at Soda Springs [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1108. Image size:14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 834.
Box Call no. 137501, Item Plate 48

Soda Spring House [1876]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1111. Image size:14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 832.
Box Call no. 137502

Summits of the Sierras [1879]

Physical Description: 41 Photographic Prints (1 album: albumen prints, album 50 x 69 cm (19 ¾ x 27 ¼ in.). Size of prints varies; approximately 36 x 53 cm (14 ¼ x 21 in.))

Conditions Governing Access

Due to the fragility of the album, access is granted only by permission of the Curator of Photographs. Copy prints of the photographs are available for reference use.

Scope and Contents

In 1879, Watkins was commissioned to travel to the peaks of California's Sierra Nevada mountains to photograph the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey led by George Davidson (1825-1911). The photographs in this album were made during that commission, in the summer of 1879. The album opens with a scene of people positioned in front of a hotel on the shore of Lake Independence, followed by views across the lake looking up toward Mount Lola. Watkins then ascended to the survey base at the top of Mount Lola (9,148 ft.), where he made several photographs of the vistas and details of the rocky terrain, including trees, rivers, canyons, and lakes. He also climbed to the summit of Round Top (10,381 ft.), and made several photographs from that viewpoint, including one carefully orchestrated view of Davidson and his team posed with their instruments and an observation hut on the craggy summit. Occasional figures appear on ridgelines in the photographs, and tents and wooden huts erected by the survey team are seen in some views.

General

All photograph titles are from the album. Watkins' numbers and dates are also taken from the album, except those in brackets, which are from the catalog raisonné by Weston Naef and Christine Hult-Lewis, Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum), 2011. (Cited below as Naef.)
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 1

Lake Independence / Foot of Trail to Mt. Lola. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1250. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: View of Independence Lake House (hotel). Naef no. 840.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 2

Mt. Lola / From Lake Independence, Sphinx Head and North Head, to left and right of center, respectively. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1251. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 842.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 3

Mt. Lola / From Lake Independence, Sphinx Head to left of center, western extremity of the Lake in foreground, North Head on extreme right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1252. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 841.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 4

Mt. Lola / Looking N. E. from under North Head. Lake Independence in center, Washoe Peak and Valley of Truckee to right of center in distance. South Head on extreme right in foreground. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1254. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 844.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 5

Mt. Lola / Looking east from point 400 ft. below Azimuth. Camp on left; next is Lola, Azimuth, Sphinx Head, Lake Independence. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1255. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 843.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 6

Mt. Lola / From Sphinx Head looking W. N. W. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1256. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 847.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 7

Mt. Lola / From E. S. E. under North Head. Sphinx Head and Station Camp show [sic] to right of middle. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1257. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 848.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 8

Summit of Mount Lola / 9280 ft. high. Middle left is Heliotropers' Stone Hut; middle background is the North Summit. Picture shows the effect of wind on the trees. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1259. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 849.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 9

Lake Edna / Looking west from point 400 ft. below station. Lake Edna shows in center. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1260. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 850.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 10

From Mt. Lola / Looking toward Lake Tahoe, Truckee Valley on left. Round Top on distant ridge to right of center. Castle Mountain on rear ridge. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1261. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 851.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 11

From Mt. Lola / Looking toward Round Top. On farthest ridge near center counting from the left, are Mt. Tallac, Round Top, and Pyramid; to right of center in middle ridge is Castle Mountain. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1262. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 852.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 12

From Mt. Lola / Looking toward Round Top (not visable [sic]), South Head on left foreground; Castle Peak to right of center in distance. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1263. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1 /4 in.
Note: A papermaker's watermark is faintly visible across top of print: "B. F. K. Rives, No. 74, N. P. A." B. F. K. Rives was a maker of printing paper in Rives, France. Naef no. 853.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 13

From Mt. Lola / North Head on left, wide trail along snow. To right of same is Lake Independence. Sphinx Head in middle foreground. South Head on the right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1264. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 854.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 14

From Mt. Lola / Looking N. W. Downieville, Buttes and Weber Mountain to right of center in distance. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1265. Image size: 14 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 855.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 15

From Mt. Lola / Looking to N. N. W. from station. Downieville, Buttes and Weber Mountain on extreme left. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1266. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 856.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 16

Round Top. / From Point on road near Carson Pass looking S. S. W. 3 miles. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1267. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 857.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 17

Round Top. / From Lake Winnemucca (1370 ft.) looking S. W. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1268. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 862.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 18

Round Top. / From Lake Winnemucca (1370 ft.) looking S. W. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1269. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 861.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 19

Round Top. / 3 1/2 miles distant looking from W. N. W. over Upper Twin Lake (2800 ft.) [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1270. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 859.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 20

Round Top / 4 miles distant looking from W. S. W. over Lower Twin Lake. Blue Rock shows to left of Round Top in middle distance. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1271. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 858.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 21

Round Top. / 4 miles distant looking E. S. E. from lower end of Twin Lakes. The Elephant in left background, Blue Rock to left of Round Top in middle distance. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1272. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 860.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 22

Round Top. / Azimuth from west across chasm. Instruments from left as follows:—Man holding bitimeter rod; Solar Radiator; Plane table; Verticle [sic] Circle House; Prof. Davidson with large Heliotrope; Reconnoitering Telescope; The Odolete House, Azimuth; Refraction Station; Astronomical Observatory. In lower right corner are steps leading to bridge over chasm with life lines. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1273. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Prof. George Davidson and five other members of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey are positioned with instruments on the summit. Naef no. 863.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 23

Round Top. / Look from E. N. E. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1274. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 864.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 24

Round Top. / From western part of ridge: Cory's Peak on upper left; Summit City middle right; Lake Winnemucca on lower left; Azimuth 10,645 ft. elevation. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1275. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 865.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 25

View from Round Top. / From a point S. S. W. of summit looking east. Summit City in middle of middle distance. Silver Mountain back of Summit City. Blue Lake to the right of last. Mokelumne Canon in right foreground. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1277. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 870.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 26

Round Top. / From western ridge looking east. Trail (blasted out) on extreme left foreground. Station Observations etc. in same. Summit City in middle of middle distance. To right of middle distance lie Blue Lake. Mokelumne Canon winding to foreground on left. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1278. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 868.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 27

View from Round Top. / From western ridge looking toward the N. W. The Saddle in left middle distance. Clear Lake in center, immediately to left of which is the western extremity of Round Top. Twin Lakes in the middle right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1279. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 871.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 28

View from Round Top. / Looking W. N. W. Twin Lakes in the middle right distance. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1280. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 873.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 29

View from Round Top. / Looking westward. Pyramid, Round Top Proper, Azimuth Mark in left background. Mt. Tallac in middle background. Woods Lake in foreground under it. Lake Tahoe to right of Mt. Tallac. Red Mountain and Carson Pass on extreme right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1281. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 874.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 30

View from Round Top. / Looking to N. W. Red Mountain in extreme left middle distance. Hope Valley, Job's Peak, and Carson Pass in middle distance on left. Lake Collonna in left middle distance. In foreground is Lake Winnemucca and back of it the hill called the Elephant. Cory's Peak in right background. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1282. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 872.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 31

View from Round Top. / Looking along south side of ridge. Mokelumne River in left foreground. Trail on face of ridge. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1283. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 866.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 32

View from Round Top. / Looking S. W. Mokelumne Canon winding from middle distance foreground. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1284. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 876.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 33

View from Round Top. / From a point just below Azimuth. Stanislaus Mountain toward Mt. Dana in left background. Mokelumne Mountain in distance over the cleft in foreground. Three Brothers in distance over the sharp, higher pinacle to right cleft in foreground. Mokelumne Canon (2800 ft. high) winding from middle distance to foreground. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1285. Image size: 14 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 875.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 34

View from Round Top. / Looking east, left foreground, vertical walls just east of Azimuth. Cory's Peak left of center in background. Summit City in middle of middle distance. Silver Mountain in background to right of Silver City. Blue Lakes in middle distance on right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1286. Image size: 14 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 877.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 35

View from Round Top. / Cloud Scene looking east from Azimuth. Vertical wall just west of Azimuth in foreground. Blue Lakes on right. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1287. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 3/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 878.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 36

Conglomerate Formations. / Below Twin Lakes. Road to Jackson's in the right foreground. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1288. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 881.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 37

Conglomerate Formations. / On road to Jackson's, below Twin Lakes. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1289. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 880.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 38

Conglomerate Formations. / On road to Jackson's, below Twin Lakes. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1290. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 879.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 39

Round Top. / From S. W. (instruments pointing upwards) Debris at angle of 45 degrees. Huts in chasm. [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1276. Image size: 14 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 867.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 40

Lake Independence / Looking eastward from under Sphinx Head and showing Lake Independence 2,100 ft. high [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1253. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 845.
Box Call no. 137502, Item Plate 41

Mt. Lola / Looking toward Azimuth from under Sphinx Head [1879]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1258. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 846.
Box Call no. 137503

Arizona and Views Adjacent to the Southern Pacific Railroad [1880]

Physical Description: 46 Photographic Prints (1 album: albumen prints, album 50 x 69 cm (19 ¾ x 27 ¼ in.). Size of prints varies; approximately 36 x 53 cm (14 ¼ x 21 in.))

Conditions Governing Access

Due to the fragility of the album, access is granted only by permission of the Curator of Photographs. Copy prints of the photographs are available for reference use.

Scope and Contents

The photographs in this album were made in 1880, mostly in Arizona Territory, with occasional views in California. They include mining sites, depots and bridges of the Southern Pacific Railroad, towns, desert landscapes, cactus, and the Spanish colonial mission San Xavier del Bac. Mining scenes are mostly overviews showing buildings, mine shafts, stamping mills, equipment, water reservoirs, and workers. There are several views of the Contention, Tough-nut and Lucky Cuss mines of the Tombstone Mill and Mining Company, established by prospector Edward Schieffelin, the founder of Tombstone, Arizona. A scene of the railroad roundhouse in Yuma prominently features a large locomotive with Native Americans and others posed next to the engine and an engine house in the background. There are a series of views of the railroad bridge over the Colorado River at Yuma that includes views of the U.S. Army's Fort Yuma on the California side of the river, along with Native American huts near the river. A group of unidentified men in western garb are posed in front of the Yuma railroad office, and a few figures and railcars are shown at Dos Palmas Station in the Colorado Desert. Other subjects include a bird's-eye-view of Tucson; architectural details and an interior view of Mission San Xavier del Bac; prehistoric stone ruins at Casa Grande; and a few railroad crossings.

General

All photograph titles are from the album. Watkins' numbers and dates are also taken from the album, except those in brackets, which are from the catalog raisonné by Weston Naef and Christine Hult-Lewis, Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum), 2011.(Cited below as Naef.)
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 1

Tombstone Companies' 10-Stamp Water Mill and Tailings Dam. Town of Charleston, with Huachuca Mountains in the Distance, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1301. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1207.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 2

Rear View of Tombstone M. & M. Companies' 10-Stamp Water Mill, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1302. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1212.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 3

General View of Tombstone M. & M. Companies' 10-Stamp Water Mill and Office. 20-Stamp Steam Mill in back-ground, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1303. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1211.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 4

Millville, Arizona. General View of Tombstone M. & M. Companies' Reduction Works. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1304. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1206.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 5

Tombstone M. & M. Companies' Dam, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1305. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1210.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 6

Tombstone M. & M. Companies' 20-Stamp Steam Mill, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1306. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1213.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 7

Rear View of Tombstone M. & M. Companies' 20-Stamp Steam Mill, looking up San Pedro Valley, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1307. Image size: 13 3/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1208.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 8

Lucky Cuss Mine and Hill, Arizona. Monument on Summit of Lucky Cuss Hill is initial point for all District Surveys. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1308. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1209.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 9

Hoisting Works, Northwest Shaft, Tough-nut mine. Hoisting Works, Main Shaft in near back-ground, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1309. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 1214.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 10

Old South Shaft Ore Quarry, Tough-nut Mine. Part of Town of Tombstone. Dragoon Mountains, with Cachise [sic] Stronghold in back-ground, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1310. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Refers to Chiricahua Apache chief Cochise (correct spelling). Naef no. 1215.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 11

Hoisting Works, Main Shaft, Tough-nut Mine. Whitestone Mountains on the left, Santa Caterina Mountains on the right, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1311. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1216.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 12

General View of Town of Tombstone, Arizona, from the North. Tombstone Hills in back-ground. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1312. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 923.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 13

Town of Tombstone, Arizona. Santa Caterina Mountains on left, Dragoon Mountains on right. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1313. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 924.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 14

Contention Hoisting Works and Ore Dump, Town of Tombstone, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1314. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1219.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 15

Contention Hoisting Works and Ore Dump, from below, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1315. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1220.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 16

Profile View of the Contention Works and Mine, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1316. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1218.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 17

General View of Contention Works and Mine, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1317. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1217.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 18

San Pedro Valley from the Contention Mill, Contention, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1318. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1221.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 19

San Pedro Valley from Contention Mill, showing R. R. Crossing of the Southern Pacific of Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1319. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1222.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 20

Contention Mill, Contention, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1322. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 1225.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 21

Pantano, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1323. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: View includes a Southern Pacific train stopped at Pantano Station, a construction camp for the railroad. Naef no. 1205.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 22

In the Cienega, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1324. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 925.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 23

City of Tucson. / S.P.R.R., Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1325. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 926.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 24

San Xavier Mission, near Tucson. / Papago Indian Village. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1326. Image size: 14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: The number 1331 is crossed out on the label and 1326 written over it in ink. Naef no. 790.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 25

San Xavier Mission, near Tucson, A. T. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1328. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 791.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 26

Casa Grande, Pre-Historic Ruins, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1331. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 927.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 27

Casa Grande, Pre-Historic Ruins, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1332. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 928.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 28

Casa Grande, Pre-Historic Ruins, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1333. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 929.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 29

Casa Grande, Pre-Historic Ruins, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1334. Image size: 15 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 930.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 30

Cereus Giganteus. / S.P.R.R., Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1336. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: View of saguaro cactus. Naef no. 932.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 31

Cereus Giganteus, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1337. Image size: 15 1/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 933.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 32

Desert Cactus, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1339. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 935.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 33

Palo Verde, Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1340. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 936.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 34

Round House, Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1341. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: View of Southern Pacific locomotive no. 10 with "S.P.R.R. of Arizona" on side, with another locomotive in background. Three Native Americans posed in photograph along with others. Naef no. 946.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 35

Yuma, from the Fort. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1342. Image size: 15 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 916.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 36

Bridge over the Colorado, at Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1343. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Native Americans and others on a ferry boat. Naef no. 917.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 37

Bridge over the Colorado, at Yuma. / S.P.R.R., Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1344. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Native American huts in view. Naef no. 918.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 38

Bridge over the Colorado, at Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1345. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Native American huts in view. Naef no. 919.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 39

Bridge over the Colorado. / From Fort Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1346. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: View of U.S. Army barracks made of adobe bricks. Naef no. 920.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 40

Fort Yuma, from the Arizona Side. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1347. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 921.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 41

The Gila River, at Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1348. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: Naef no. 922.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 42

Railroad Office, Yuma. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1349. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Men posed in front of Southern Pacific Railroad office. Naef no. 915.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 43

Dos Palmas, Colorado Desert. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1350. Image size: 14 1/4 x 21 1/4 in.
Note: In what is now Riverside County, California. Naef no. 1067.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 44

Cereus Giganteus. / S.P.R.R., Arizona. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1336. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 931.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 45

San Xavier Mission, Near Tucson. / "Facade" [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins no. 1329. Image size: 14 3/8 x 21 1/8 in.
Note: Naef no. 792.
Box Call no. 137503, Item Plate 46

Interior San Xavier Mission, Near Tucson, A. T. [1880]

Scope and Contents

Watkins' New Series. Watkins no. 1330. Image size: 14 1/8 x 21 in.
Note: Naef no. 793.