Finding Aid to the Diegueño Vocabulary MS.860

Holly Rose Larson
Library and Archives at the Autry
2012 December 12
210 South Victory Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91502

Contributing Institution: Library and Archives at the Autry
Title: Diegueño Vocabulary
Creator: Hayes, Benjamin Ignatius
Creator: Panto, Captain of San Pasqual
Identifier/Call Number: MS.860
Physical Description: 0.1 Linear Feet (1 folder)
Date (inclusive): circa 1939
Abstract: This collection consists of two typed sheets of Diegueño vocabulary furnished by Panto, a captain of San Pasqual, to Benjamin Hayes at an unknown date.
Language of Material: Materials are in Diegueño (Cochimi) and English language.

Scope and Contents

This collection consists of two typed sheets of Diegueño vocabulary furnished by Panto, a captain of San Pasqual, to Benjamin Hayes at an unknown date. Diegueño words syllabified, English to Diegueño, except geographic locations, which are Diegueño to English. Note from Frederick Webb Hodge: See article by Arthur Woodward in The Masterkey, 1934 September.

Preferred Citation

Diegueño Vocabulary, circa 1939, Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum of the American West, Los Angeles; MS.860.

Processing History

Processed by Library staff before 1981. Finding aid completed by Holly Rose Larson, NHPRC Processing Archivist, 2012 December 12, made possible through grant funding from the National Historical Publications and Records Commissions (NHPRC).


Donated by Frederick Webb Hodge, 1939.

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright has not been assigned to the Autry Museum of the American West. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Head of Research Services and Archives. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Autry Museum of the American West as the custodian of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

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Biographical Note

Benjamin Ignatius Hayes (1815–1877) was a lawyer and the first Judge of the Southern District of California from 1852-1864 and writer and collector of historical information about early California.
Benjamin Hayes came overland via the Santa Fe Trail and Southern Emigrant Trail to Los Angeles in February, 1850. In 1852, he was elected as the first Judge of the Southern District of California, an office he held until January 1, 1864. This District included Los Angeles County, San Diego County, and, soon after, San Bernardino County.
Over the years Hayes had accumulated a series of scrapbooks of clippings and wrote notes on events in Southern California for his first wife to read and later, for his son. The books were later collected by Hubert Howe Bancroft, and the notes were formed into the book, Pioneer Notes From the Diaries of Judge Benjamin Hayes, 1849-1875. After spending many years in San Diego, he returned to live in the Hotel Lafayette in Los Angeles and died there on August 4, 1877.

Biographical Note

Jose Panto, Capitan of San Pasqual (circa 1815 to 1874) was the chief of the San Pasqual Band of Diegueño Indians.
The San Pascual Indian Pueblo came into existence subsequent to the secularization of Mission San Diego de Alcala; the Indians were awarded virtually the whole valley of San Pasqual bordering Rancho San Bernardo on the west. Although the village was initially organized as a civil pueblo with an Indian alcalde named Juan Cuerpo, at some point prior to September 1837 the man who came to be known as the Capitan of San Pascual Pueblo and who retained the title until his death on April 27, 1874, arrived on the scene. His name was Panto. He was baptized as Pedro Jose Panto Escarcar on January 11, 1817 at the age of fourteen with a group of Indians from the place known as Santa Isabel.
Mention of the pueblo of San Pascual appears only sporadically in the records following its establishment. In an official report dated September 1, 1837, concerning the Indian attacks in San Diego County in that year, it was stated that Indians from San Pascual Pueblo attacked a group of "heathen" Indians led by a non-Christian Indian called Claudio. According to reports, Panto, chief of the Indians at San Pascual, pursued Claudio, the head of the raiding party on the Jamul Rancho, and succeeded in killing a large number of his warriors.
Years later, on December 6, 1846, the village of San Pasqual was a focal point of the initial skirmish between the U.S. and Californio troops at the Battle of San Pasqual. Capitan Panto, as chief of the San Pasqual band, is said to have aided General Kearny against the Mexican force commanded by Andres Pico.
On January 7, 1852, Panto was one of a number of chiefs who signed a "treaty of peace and friendship between the United States...and the captains and headmen of the nation of Dieguino [sic] Indians." Panto headed the list of twenty-two "headmen" of the Diegueño Indians. In the 1860 U.S. Census, Panto is still listed as captain of the San Pasqual Indians and his age is given as fifty, but in the 1870 U.S. Census Panto's age is given as 65. Panto was actively involved in the activities of late 1860s and early 1870s to get the U.S. government to recognize the rights of Indians. He also prepared to go to Washington to plead his case. Before he could accomplish this, Panto died April 27, 1874 at San Pasqual.

Publication note

"Notes on the Indians of San Diego County: from the manuscripts of Judge Benjamin Hayes" / foreword and notes by Arthur Woodward, The Masterkey, September 1934.

Subjects and Indexing Terms

San Pasqual Valley (Calif.)
Diegueño Indians.
Diegueño language -- Vocabulary