Guide to the Robert (Bob) Bemer papers X3054.2005

Finding aid prepared by Jack Doran and Sara Chabino Lott
Processing of this collection was made possible through generous funding from the National Archives’ National Historical Publications & Records Commission: Access to Historical Records grant.
Computer History Museum
1401 N. Shoreline Blvd.
Mountain View, CA, 94043
(650) 810-1010
October 2018

Title: Robert (Bob) Bemer papers
Identifier/Call Number: X3054.2005
Contributing Institution: Computer History Museum
Language of Material: English
Physical Description: 5.42 Linear feet 4 record cartons, 1 manuscript box
Date (bulk): Bulk, 1955-1999
Date (inclusive): 1943-2002
Abstract: The Robert (Bob) Bemer papers, ranging in date from 1943 to 2001, with the bulk between 1955 and 1959, trace Bemer’s career in programming at IBM, Rand Corporation, General Electric, and Honeywell, Inc., as well as his personal interest in documenting, sharing and preserving information about the history of computing. Bemer was responsible for developing six ASCII characters, played a key role in the development of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), and identified what became known as the Y2K problem. Materials include correspondence, memoranda, published papers and articles, speeches, newspaper clippings, and technical documentation. Roughly one-fourth of the collection relates to Bemer’s discovery of the Y2K problem and his subsequent work to solve it. The remaining three-fourths of the collection relates to Bemer’s work on programming languages and standards, and among these documents are what Bemer called “vignettes” about the history of computing and software, as remembered by Bemer and his contemporaries.
creator: Bemer, R. W., 1920-2004

Processing Information

Collection surveyed by Rita Wang and Sydney Gulbronson Olson, 2017. Collection processed by Jack Doran, 2018.

Access Restrictions

The collection is open for research.

Publication Rights

The Computer History Museum (CHM) can only claim physical ownership of the collection. Users are responsible for satisfying any claims of the copyright holder. Requests for copying and permission to publish, quote, or reproduce any portion of the Computer History Museum’s collection must be obtained jointly from both the copyright holder (if applicable) and the Computer History Museum.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of Item], [Date], Robert (Bob) Bemer papers, Lot X3054.2005, Box [#], Computer History Museum.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gift of Bettie Bemer, 2004.

Biographical/Historical Note

Robert “Bob” William Bemer was born February 8, 1920 in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Known among his colleagues and contemporaries as “the father of ASCII,” he was a member of the American Standards Association committee that defined the “ASCII” character-encoding standard for electronic telecommunications and computing. Bemer was responsible for six characters in ASCII, most notably the escape and backslash characters. He later played a key role in the development of the COBOL programming language, which drew on aspects of Bemer’s COMTRAN programming language developed at IBM. Bemer is credited with the first public identification of the Y2K problem, publishing in 1971 his concern that the standard representation of the year in calendar dates within computer programs by the last two digits rather than the full four digits would cause serious errors in confusing the year 2000 with the year 1900.
After receiving his B.A. in mathematics from Albion College and his certificate in aeronautical engineering from Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute of Aeronautics, he took a job as an aerodynamicist at the Douglas Aircraft Company. Several other jobs followed, including manager of the numerical analysis group at Marquardt Aircraft and manager of the mathematical analysis department at Lockheed Missile Systems division before he took a position as assistant manager of programming research at the IBM Corporation in 1955. It was at IBM that Bemer worked on both COBOL and ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). In the following years at IBM, he worked on a team that developed FORTRAN and then helped develop the first load-and-go printing system called PRINT I. Bemer then took a job at the Sperry Rand Corporation’s Univac Division in 1962 before moving to France in 1965 to work at Bull General Electric as General Manager. He returned to the U.S. as the manager for systems and software engineering integration at General Electric, and it was in this capacity that he developed the ideas around what he would call the “Software Factory” as a solution to the so-called “software crisis” that was a major concern in late-1960’s computing. After GE computer division’s acquisition of Honeywell, Inc., Bemer stayed on in several successive positions before retiring as senior consulting engineer in 1982.
Bemer worked tirelessly to publicize and try to compel the United States Government to address the Y2K problem from the early stages of its discovery. He campaigned unsuccessfully to have the Nixon Administration deem 1970 “The Year of the Computer,” and in 1971, published, “What’s the Date?” in the Honeywell Computer Journal. A much wider-circulated Interface Age Magazine published another article by Bemer titled, “Time and the Computer” in 1979. In 1997, he founded BMR Software. With growing concern about the Y2K problem, Bemer made numerous media appearances, and eventually sold BMR Software to BigiSoft.
In 2002, Bemer received the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award for his lifetime achievements, namely “meeting the world’s needs for variant character sets and other symbols, via ASCII, ASCII-alternate sets, and escape sequences.”
Bemer passed away on June 22, 2004 at his home in Possum Kingdom Lake, Texas after a battle with cancer.

Scope and Content of the Collection

The Robert (Bob) Bemer papers consist of materials created over the course of Bemer’s career in various software and management positions at IBM, Rand Corporation, General Electric, and Honeywell, Inc. The collection represents his work related to programming and code standards, text processing and the Y2K problem, and spans from 1943 to 2002, with the bulk of the collection ranging from 1955 to 1999.
Materials related to the Y2K problem consist of several public relations files Bemer kept where he either appeared in interviews or was mentioned in articles concerned with what is variously called the Y2K problem or millennium bug. There is also some correspondence and a collection of web publications written by other experts, as well as one folder on a Y2K conference held in Washington, DC in 1998.
Much of the collection’s remaining content concerns Bemer’s activities related to programming standards such as ASCII, COBOL and FORTRAN, as well as his work with character sets, text processing, printer technology and OCR. These materials are made up of technical papers, specifications, manuals, correspondence, memoranda, meeting minutes, and conference proceedings. Some of these folders also contain activities and histories in computing (what Bemer deemed “vignettes”) that were contemporary to Bemer’s work, but which he may not have been directly involved with.
The collection’s original order is a mix of arrangement by either form or subject, and this arrangement has been retained. Bemer’s notable accomplishments and professional activities are sometimes arranged by name (as is the case for character sets, escape sequences, programming standards, and Y2K problem), but the researcher will also find materials related to these activities in the memoirs, published papers, scrapbooks, and speeches and papers folders. The folder list is arranged alphabetically.


The collection is arranged into one series:
Series 1, Papers, 1943-2002; bulk 1955-1999

Separated Material

A slide rule was separated from the main collection. To view catalog records for separated material search the CHM catalog at .

Subjects and Indexing Terms

ASCII (Character set)
Assembly languages (Electronic computers)
COBOL (Computer program language)
Electronic data processing
FORTRAN (Computer program language)
Year 2000 date conversion (Computer systems)


Papers, Series 1, Bulk, 1955-1999 1943-2002


102785361 Anecdotes of mistakes in computing design and management 1967; 1970-1972


102785362 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM 70) 1970


102785363 Biographical papers 1943-1973; 1990-1992


102785364 Character sets - general 1964-1974


102785366 Character sets - International Organization for Standardization TC 46/SC 4 1972-1978


102785369 Code and text processing - International Organizatino for Standardization 1967-1972


102785370 College reunion 1985; 1995-1996


102785372 Correspondence 1958-1989; bulk 1967-1979


102785376 Escape sequences 1965-1969


102785380 Historical file 1959-1999; undated


102785385 IBM 650 - Annals of the History of Computing special issue 1985-1986


102785386 IBM 650 - Flair system 1955


102785388 IBM 650 - lab book 1952-1955


102785389 IBM 650 - photographs and clippings 1955-1964; 1979


102785390 IBM lawsuit 1987-1988


102785391 Meeting minutes - International Organization for Standardization and European Computer Manufacturers Association 1965-1983


102785392 Memoirs - applied programming 1957-1962; 1984


102785393 Memoirs - collating sequence, optical character recognition, "gang agley" 1964-1971


102785394 Memoirs - computing prior to Fortran 1955-1957; 1982-1987


102785395 Memoirs - printers, 0 and O, square root, X-3.4.5 1962-1975


102785396 Memoirs - timesharing, Federal Aviation Administration, compression, 3-D, Approximation, polynomia, Print I system 1953-1989; bulk 1960-1969


102785397 Memoirs - Various 1962-2000


102785398 Optical character recognition 1967-1970; 1990; bulk 1969


102785615 Presentation slides 1970-1978


102785420 Programming standards 1957-1985


102785423 Published papers 1951-1999


102785426 Reports - Rand Corporation 1953-1954


102785427 Scrapbooks 1955-1982


102785429 Screen Environment 1986-1992


102785430 Speeches and papers 1955-1982


102785435 Text processing - Text Executive Processor (TEX) 1977-1983


102785436 Text processing - various materials 1957-1978; 1982-1991


102785437 Text Reckoning and Compiling (TRAC) language 1966-2002


102785439 Universal Time Engine - project planning/technical specifications/programs 2000


102785440 Universal Time Engine - project summary 2001


102785441 Universal Time Engine - proposal 2001


102785442 Universal Time Engine - specifications (excerpt) 2001


102785438 Universal Time Engine/program language 2000-2001


102785447 Y2K problem - articles and presentations on the bug and fixes 1997-2000


102785444 Y2K problem - articles on projection and potential impact of Y2K problem 1998


102785443 Y2K problem - articles on public reaction 1999


102785448 Y2K problem - BMR Software logos ca. 1997


102785449 Y2K problem - correspondence with Capers Jones 1998


102785450 Y2K problem - government Y2K conference 1997-1998


102785459 Y2K problem - historical file 1959-2000


102785451 Y2K problem - North, Gary 1999-2000


102785453 Y2K problem - patent for method of solving millennium problems of some application programs 1997-2000


102785454 Y2K problem - public relations 1997-2000


102785457 Y2K problem - website articles and links ca. 1997-2000


102785458 Y2K problem - website directory printouts 1997