Scope and Content of Collection
Title: Mexican carte-de-visite portrait album from the era of Maximilian and Napoleon
Date (inclusive): between 1854 and 1870
(113 photographic prints)
The Getty Research Institute
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100
Los Angeles 90049-1688
The album of carte-de-visite portraits
was compiled by an unidentified person, most likely of French nationality, during or shortly
after the period known as the French intervention in Mexico (1861-1867) when the French
invaded and ruled that country, establishing Maximilien, Archduke of Austria, as Emperor of
Mexico. It includes photographs by several photographers active in France or Mexico such as
François Aubert and André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri.
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Language: Collection material is in French
The album was compiled by an unidentified person, most likely of French nationality, during
or shortly after the time of the French Intervention in Mexico.
Open for use by qualified researchers.
Mexican carte-de-visite portrait album from the era of Maximilian and Napoleon III, between
1854 and 1870, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, Accession no. 92.R.8
Acquired in 1992.
Processed and cataloged by Beth Ann Guynn; finding aid encoded by Holly Larson with grant
funding from the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR). Guynn expanded the
finding aid in 2021.
Scope and Content of Collection
The album of 112 albumen cartes-de-visite and one cabinet card features portraits of
Emperor Maximilian, Empress Carlota, and Napoleon III, as well as other key figures in the
period known as the French intervention in Mexico (1861-1867) when the French invaded Mexico
and ultimately installed Ferdinand Maximilian Archduke of Austria as Maximilian I Emperor of
Mexico. Many portraits are of French and Mexican political and military leaders such as
General Élie Frédéric Forey, the original commanding general of the French expeditionary
corps to Mexico and his successor, Marshall Achille Bazaine; and Generals Miguel Negrete, a
hero of the first Battle of Puebla and Jesús González Ortega, who played a key role in the
second battle of Puebla.
Mexican heads of state depicted include Agustín de Iturbide I, Emperor of Mexico and seven
presidents: Antonio López de Santa Anna; José Mariano de Salas; Mariano Arista; Juan
Álvarez; Ignacio Commonfort; Miguel Miramón; and Benito Juárez. Photographic reproductions
of portraits of figures related to the first Mexican Empire and the Mexican War of
Independence include Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla; Agustín de Iturbide; José María Morelos; and
Other portraits are of diplomats to Mexico from Austria, England, Spain, and Belgium.
Members of the Maximilan's court and Mexican elites are also represented. Portraits of
cultural figures include novelist and poet Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and journalist and
political and military leader V. Riva Palacio.
A group of photographs by François Aubert taken at Querétaro, a posed group portrait of the
firing squad taken after Maximilian's execution, and three images of Maximilian's
bullet-riddled clothing (one of his jacket and two of his vest). There is a portrait of
Colonel Miguel López, the Mexican officer and courtier who betrayed Maximilian at Querétaro,
and one of General Miguel Miramón, was executed along with Maximilian and General Tomás
Mejía. Several views of Querétaro and other sites are also included.
Photographers represented in the album include: G. Malovich; Pierre-Louis Pierson; Agustín
Peraire; L. Lebert; Augustin-Aimé- Joseph Le Jeune; Serge Lvovich Levitsky; François Aubert;
G. Jägermayer; André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri; and Robert J. Bingham.
The album is bound in black leather album with a silver clasp and cover shield; five
cabinet card openings are empty. Titles for the individual images are from the French
captions written below the images, unless otherwise noted. The information on the versos of
the mounts, or under the openings is not recorded, as access to it is obscured.
Mexican Suite: A History of Photography in
. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
Planteaux, Serge. "Agustin Peraire: Documenting the Execution of Emperor Maximilian."
Weekly transmisison 43-2017.
Wilson-Bareau, J. et al.
Manet: The Execution of Maximilian:
Painting, Politics and Censorship
. London: The National Gallery, 1992.
The collection is arranged in a single series:
Series I. Mexican carte-de-visite portrait album from the era of
Maximilian and Napoleon IIII, between 1854 and 1870.
Subjects - Names
Bingham, Robert J.
Le Jeune, Augustin-Aimée-Joseph, active 1865-1880
Subjects - Topics
Executions and executioners -- Mexico -- Querétaro
Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel, 1753-1811 -- Portraits
Guerrero, Vicente, 1782-1831 -- Portraits
Juárez, Benito, 1806-1872 -- Portraits
Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824 -- Portraits
Altamirano, Ignacio Manuel, 1834-1893 -- Portraits
Generals -- Mexico -- Portraits
Carlota, Empress, consort of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1840-1927
Bazaine, François-Achille, 1811-1888 -- Portraits
Santa Anna, Antonio López de, 1794?-1876 -- Portraits
Diplomats -- Mexico -- Portraits
Morelos, José María, 1765-1815 -- Portraits
Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, 1808-1873 -- Portraits
López, Miguel, 1825-1891 -- Portraits
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1832-1867 -- Portraits
Subjects - Places
Querétaro (Mexico) -- History -- Siege, 1867
Mexico -- Biography -- Portraits
Mexico -- History -- 1821-1861 -- Portraits
France -- History -- Second Empire, 1852-1870 -- Portraits
Mexico -- History -- European intervention, 1861-1867 --
Genres and Forms of Material
Cartes-de-visite -- Mexico -- 19th century
Cartes-de-visite -- France -- 19th century
Cartes-de-visite -- Belgium -- 19th century
Cabinet photographs -France -- 19th century
Albumen prints -- France -- 19th century
Albumen prints -- Mexico -- 19th century
Cartes-de-visite -- Germany -- 19th century
Studio portraits -- Mexico -- 19th century
Photograph albums -- Mexico -- 19th century
Studio portraits -- France -- 19th century