George McCutchen McBride papers, 1942-1949 [bulk dates 1906-1952]

Finding aid prepared by Mitchell Erzinger, April 2014; machine-readable finding aid created by Caroline Cubé.
UCLA Library Special Collections
Room A1713, Charles E. Young Research Library
Box 951575
Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1575
(310) 825-4988
spec-coll@library.ucla.edu
©2015 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.


Title: George McCutchen McBride papers
Collection number: 2240
Contributing Institution: UCLA Library Special Collections
Language of Material: English
Physical Description: 3.5 linear ft. (1 oversize box, 3 oversize boxed rolls, 7 map folders)
Date (inclusive): 1942-1949 [bulk dates 1906-1952]
Abstract: George McBride was the chair of the Geography department at UCLA from 1923 until 1942, subsequently serving in South America as the Technical Advisor to the Ecuador-Peru Mixed Boundary Demarcation Commission from 1942-1949. The collection is comprised of materials created and compiled by McBride during his tenure on the boundary commission, in which he followed closely the activities of the commission while reporting directly to the Secretary of State on the border demarcation process.
Physical location: Stored off-site at SRLF. Advance notice is required for access to the collection. Please contact UCLA Library Special Collections for paging information.
Creator: McBride, George McCutchen, 1876-1971

Restrictions on Access

Open for research. STORED OFF-SITE AT SRLF. Advance notice is required for access to the collection. Please contact UCLA Library Special Collections for paging information.

Restrictions on Use and Reproduction

Property rights to the physical object belong to the UC Regents. Literary rights, including copyright, are retained by the creators and their heirs. It is the responsibility of the researcher to determine who holds the copyright and pursue the copyright owner or his or her heir for permission to publish where The UC Regents do not hold the copyright.

Provenance/Source of Acquisition

Gift of Professor George M. McBride, 19 March 1956.

Processing Note

Processed by Mitchell Erzinger, April 2014.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], George McCutchen McBride Papers (Collection 2240). UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles.

Biography

Dr. George McCutchen McBride was born on October 11, 1876 in Benton, Kansas. Graduating from Park College Academy and Park College in Parkville, Missouri, he went on to receive a D.D. from Auburn Theological Seminary in New York, subsequently beginning the first phase of his career as a missionary teacher in South America from 1901-1915, where he taught in high schools in Santiago, Chile and La Paz, Bolivia. During this time, McBride achieved fluency in Spanish and began to develop his ideals and interests through a firsthand understanding of traditional rural and urban life across the economic, social, and political strata.
McBride returned to the United States in 1915 to pursue graduate work in geography at Yale, becoming an Assistant Librarian and Research Associate for the American Geographical Society in 1917, and receiving his Ph.D. in Geography from Yale in 1921 with a dissertation on the "Land Systems of Mexico." In 1922, McBride accepted a position in the Geography department at UCLA (then still named the University of California, Southern Branch). Integral to its expansion, he served as chairman of the department from 1923 until 1942, at which point he was called to serve as the United States technical advisor to the Ecuador-Peru Mixed Boundary Demarcation Commission until 1949. In this role, he followed closely the activities of the commission, preparing multiple reports for the US Department of State on the progress of the border demarcation, in addition to supervising the aerial photography of the border line conducted by the US Army Air Force.
In 1956, McBride was awarded for his work in South America by the American Geographical Society with the David Livingstone Centenary Medal for "scientific achievement in the field of geography in the southern hemisphere." In 1961, he was awarded an honorary doctor of law degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. George McBride died in Claremont, California on October 7, 1971, just shy of his 95th birthday. His scholarly publications and journal articles have since appeared in print in both English and Spanish, and are recognized as classics in the field.

Historical Note

The border conflict between Ecuador and Peru was one of the longest running border conflicts in the Western Hemisphere, rooted in the imprecise borders and shifting territories of viceroyalties and administrative districts during the Spanish colonization that had begun in the 16th century. After a broad series of disputes, major escalation of the conflict occurred in 1941 when Peru invaded Ecuador after alleging that Ecuador had incurred on Peruvian territory, resulting in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War from July 5-31. A cease fire was subsequently agreed upon, and on January 29, 1942, the Protocol of Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries - also known as the Rio Protocol - was ratified in Rio de Janeiro, formally addressing the border dispute between Ecuador and Peru. The treaty designated a mixed boundary commission comprised of representatives from both countries, in addition to representatives from the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States - mediating parties tasked with being the guarantors of the treaty - to collaborate as needed to resolve disagreements during the boundary demarcation process.
Mapping of the Ecuador-Peru border was completed in 1947, and was met with near unanimous approval from both Ecuador and Peru. However, in 1948, the government of Ecuador cited a geographical error in the Rio Protocol, wherein a single watershed between the Zamora and Santiago rivers in the Cordillera del Condor region was identified, when in fact the geographical surveys had revealed two watersheds. This nullity thesis reopened Ecuador's aspirations for a sovereign outlet to the Amazon, and in turn reignited the border conflict over the subsequent decades, culminating in a month-long military clash in January 1995 known as the Cenepa War. In February 1995, a cease-fire - the Declaracion de Paz de Itamaraty - was produced, providing for demobilization and continued bilateral talks between Ecuador and Peru and the guarantor states of the Rio Protocol. The result was a definitive peace agreement, the Brasilia Presidential Act, ratified on 26 October 1998.

Scope and Content

The collection is comprised of materials created and compiled during the period of McBride's service in South America from 1942-1949 as the technical advisor to the Ecuador-Peru Mixed Boundary Demarcation Commission, as put into place by the Rio Protocol. The material includes copies of the final report to the Secretary of State as prepared by George McBride, notes, periodic reports, and supplemental research materials such as article clippings and publications used during demarcation and in the drafting of the final report, in addition to official memorandums and McBride's professional correspondences with the Department of State and various members of the boundary commission. Also included are a variety of maps utilized in and produced during the demarcation process, comprised of general, political, and topographic maps, aeronautical charts and detail sketches, aerial photography and maps of the border region conducted and prepared by the US Army Air Force, and McBride's own holograph maps and sketches. Collection material is in English and Spanish.

Organization and Arrangement

Arranged in the following series:
  1. Clippings collected by McBride
  2. Correspondence
  3. Maps
  4. Memoranda
  5. Notes and Research
  6. Photographs
  7. Posters
  8. Reports
The collection is organized by type of material and chronology. Box/folder contents and titles from boxes 1-7 are taken from McBride's original description and personal organization of the material, indicated by quotations. Alternate arrangements and titles/additions from the processor are denoted in brackets. Maps have been separated and ordered based on size and/or production, where applicable. The following is a summary of container contents:
  • Box 1: Final Report to the Secretary of State on the Ecuador-Peru Boundary dispute.
  • Box 2: Bibliographic cards, notes, reports, memos, correspondence and other research materials applicable to the boundary commission, written and/or collected by McBride for the preparation of the Final Report.
  • Box 3: Official memorandums and related documents from the Technical Advisor to the Ambassador and other officials of the demarcation commission.
  • Box 4: Official correspondence of George McBride, including letters sent and received from 1942-1949.
  • Box 5: Notes, clippings, memos, reports and publications related to the Ecuador-Peru boundary dispute, including aerial survey notes and maps.
  • Box 6: Reports and publications from the Republic of Ecuador, Peru, and neutral military parties regarding the Ecuador-Peru boundary.
  • Box 7: Clippings collected by McBride regarding the Ecuador-Peru boundary dispute, from 1942-1944.
  • Box 8: Aerial trimetrogon photography of the Ecuador-Peru border region conducted by the US Army Air Force.
  • Box 9: Graphic posters from Ecuador and Peru.
  • Box 10-18: Maps.

Items Removed from the Collection

One poster - Newsmap for the Armed Forces, Overseas edition, from 1945 - has been removed to the Poster Collection (Collection Number 95), as it remains contextually and thematically unassociated with the rest of the content in this collection.

UCLA Catalog Record ID

UCLA Catalog Record ID: 7414610 

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Aerial views.
Boundary disputes-20th century.
Condor Range (Ecuador and Peru)
Ecuador-Peru Conflict, 1941
Geography
Latin America-Boundaries.
Maps.
Newspapers.
Photographs.

Container List

 

Reports

Box 1, Folder 1

"Original Copies" [Incomplete copies of Final Report to the Secretary of State, with corrections]

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph copies with corrections.
Box 1, Folder 2

"Incomplete copy of Report by G.M. McBride" [Incomplete copy of Final Report to the Secretary of State]

Box 1, Folder 3

"Complete copy (except for one penciled change)" [Copy of Final Report to the Secretary of State]

Box 1, Folder 4

[Final Report to the Secretary of State on Ecuador-Peru Boundary Settlement]

Scope and Content Note

Copy originally bound in black binder dated 3-3-52.
Box 3, Folder 8

"Reports 1-6 of Technical Advisor [George McBride] on Ecuadoran-Peruvian Boundary, 14 July 1942 - 23 Aug 1945"

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports with holograph notes.
Box 6, Folder 1

[General Report of neutral military observers on the Ecuadorian side, from the initiation of hostilities to the ratification of the Rio Protocol]

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports in Spanish, dated 1941-1942.
Box 6, Folder 2

Asuntos Internacionales [International Affairs], 1943-44

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports on International affairs, from the Republic of Ecuador.
Box 6, Folder 3

Asuntos Internacionales [International Affairs], Jan 1944 - Sep 1944

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports on International affairs, from the Republic of Ecuador.
Box 6, Folder 4

Asuntos Internacionales [International Affairs], Oct 1944 - Nov 1944

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports on International affairs, from the Republic of Ecuador.
Box 6, Folder 5

Asuntos Internacionales [International Affairs], 1945

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports on International affairs, from the Republic of Ecuador.
Box 6, Folder 6

Boletin Informativo. [Quito, Ecuador publication 1945-46]

Scope and Content Note

Bulletin of the external relations office, Republic of Ecuador.
 

Notes and research

Box 2, Folder 1

[Bibliographic cards]

Scope and Content Note

Catalog cards of McBride's personal research materials and references.
Box 2, Folder 2

"Final Report - additions, etc."

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes for additions to the Final Report.
Box 2, Folder 3

"Final Report - Status Quo 1936"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 4

"Final Report - Demarcation (Desacuerdo)"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, including holograph maps, assorted clippings.
Box 2, Folder 5

"Final Report - Talera agreement"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes; typed report on Talera agreement and its significance in the Rio Protocol.
Box 2, Folder 6

"Final Report - Navigation Rights"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 7

"Final Report - Aguiar's (reward[?])"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; assorted clippings; typed report of Brazilian Technical expert regarding boundary demarcation.
Box 2, Folder 8

"Final Report - Ecuador's Amazonian Aspirations"

Scope and Content Note

Typed notes.
Box 2, Folder 9

"Final Report - 1940-41 Developments"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; memos and reports.
Box 2, Folder 10

"Final Report - Photographs"

Scope and Content Note

Air views of the boundary; river views; postcards; includes holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 11

"Final Report - Outline, etc."

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes for general outline of Final Report.
Box 2, Folder 12

"Final Report - Historical Data"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; clippings.
Box 2, Folder 13

"Final Report - Mediation Procedure"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; memos and correspondence.
Box 2, Folder 14

"Final Report - Zones of occupation"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 15

"Final Report - 1924-38 Negotiations"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 16

"Final Report - Rubber in upper Putumayo"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 17

"Final Report - British Bondholders Concession, 1854, 1887"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 18

"Final Report - Maynas, Jaen, [Tunbez?]"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 19

"Final Report - Demarcation (incidents) and attitudes"

Scope and Content Note

Clippings, press summaries.
Box 2, Folder 20

"Final Report - Demarcation Personnel

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, clippings.
Box 2, Folder 21

"Final Report - Demarcation (Process)"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, memos.
Box 2, Folder 22

"Final Report - Zucumbios, upper Gueppi"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, including holograph map.
Box 2, Folder 23

"Final Report - Development of [Amazonia?] Resulting from settlement. Oil, Gold, Roads, airfields, colonies"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes.
Box 2, Folder 24

"Final Report - Misc. Data"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, clippings, correspondence; includes treaties applicable to the boundary commission.
Box 3, Folder 9

"Notes on Ecuador-Peru Boundary"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes Study of Historical Documents from 1941.
Box 3, Folder 10

[Notes]

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes.
Box 5, Folder 3

"Press comments" [1942-43]

Scope and Content Note

Typed notes and summaries of press comments regarding the border dispute, with holograph notes; includes clippings
Box 5, Folder 4

"Notes on Sector Occidental"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, clippings.
Box 5, Folder 5

"Notes on Sector Oriental"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes clippings and photographs
Box 5, Folder 6

"General notes"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes map list.
Box 5, Folder 7

"Revision + notes"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph memos and notes; includes clippings [1947-48]
Box 5, Folder 8

"Recent clippings on boundary"

Scope and Content Note

Clippings, including holograph notes.
Box 5, Folder 9

"Cordillera del Condor"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes.
Box 5, Folder 10

"Zarumilla Canal"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, clippings.
Box 5, Folder 11

"Lagartococha"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes clippings, report (in Spanish) from the Peruvian government dated May 1947.
Box 5, Folder 12

"Apru altitude"

Scope and Content Note

Holograph notes, clippings.
Box 5, Folder 13

"The Protocol"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes, including extracts from the Rio Protocol.
Box 5, Folder 14

"Hitos - Demarcation"

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes photographs.
Box 5, Folder 15

"Aerial Survey" [Folder 1 of 2]

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; include maps.
Box 5, Folder 16

"Aerial Survey" [Folder 2 of 2]

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes; includes maps.
Box 5, Folder 17

[Notes and holograph maps]

Scope and Content Note

Includes McBride's holograph maps and sketches, notes and lists; photographs. Material originally housed with large maps.
 

Memoranda

Box 3, Folder 1

[1942]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes
Box 3, Folder 2

[1943]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes
Box 3, Folder 3

[1944]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes; includes maps.
Box 3, Folder 4

[1945]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes.
Box 3, Folder 5

[1946-1948]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes.
Box 3, Folder 6

[1947]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes.
Box 3, Folder 7

[1948]

Scope and Content Note

Typed memos with holograph notes.
Box 5, Folder 1

"Strictly Confidential - Peruvian-Ecuadoran relations"

Scope and Content Note

Typed reports, memos; includes maps, and publication dated 1938.
Box 5, Folder 2

[Memorandum publication by Rafael Alvarado, director of Ecuadoran embassy in Rio de Janeiro, 1938]

Scope and Content Note

In Spanish.
 

Correspondence

Box 4, Folder 1

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1942]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 2

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1943]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 3

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1944]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 4

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1945]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 5

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1946]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 6

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1947]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 7

[Official letters sent by McBride, 1948]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters with holograph notes.
Box 4, Folder 8

[Official letters received by McBride, 1942]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 9

[Official letters received by McBride, 1943]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 10

[Official letters received by McBride, 1944]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 11

[Official letters received by McBride, 1945]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 12

[Official letters received by McBride, 1946]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 13

[Official letters received by McBride, 1947]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 14

[Official letters received by McBride, 1948]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 15

[Official letters received by McBride, 1949]

Scope and Content Note

Typed letters.
Box 4, Folder 16

"Aides-Memoires" [May 1945 - Jan 1949]

Scope and Content Note

Typed and holograph notes and memos; includes some corresondence.
 

Clippings collected by McBride

Box 7, Folder 1

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 1 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 2

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 2 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 3

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 3 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 4

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 4 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 5

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 5 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 6

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 6 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 7

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 7 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 8

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 8 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 9

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 9 of 10)
Box 7, Folder 10

"McBride's Clippings RE: Peru-Ecuador Boundary Dispute (1942-1944)"

Scope and Content Note

Majority of clippings in Spanish. (folder 10 of 10)
 

Photographs

Box 8

[Aerial photos]

Scope and Content Note

92 aerial trimetrogon photographs of the Ecuador-Peru border region taken by US Army Air Force [AAF].
 

Posters

Box 9

[Peruvian solidarity posters, and WWII graphic posters from Ecuador and Peru].

Scope and Content Note

In Spanish.
 

Maps

Box 10

[Small Maps (1 of 2)]

Scope and Content Note

Includes McBride's holograph maps and sketches.
Box 11

[Small Maps (2 of 2)]

Box 12

[Maps prepared by the US AAF]

Scope and Content Note

Maps prepared from trimetrogon photographs by the US Army Air Force.
Box 13

[Large Maps (1 of 2)]

Scope and Content Note

Includes maps prepared by the Shell Company of Ecuador.
Box 14

[Large Maps (2 of 2)]

Scope and Content Note

Includes maps prepared by the American Geographical Society of New York.
Box 15

[Oversize Maps]

Box 16

[Oversize Maps]

Scope and Content Note

Boxed roll.
Box 17

[Oversize Maps]

Scope and Content Note

Boxed roll.
Box 18

[Oversize Maps]

Scope and Content Note

Boxed roll.