The collection comprises issues of the internal bulletin of the Johnson-Forest Tendency, a Marxist-Humanist tendency within
the Workers Party and the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) led by C.L.R. James, Raya Dunayevskaya, and Grace Lee Boggs.
The Johnson-Forest Tendency was a Marxist-Humanist tendency, first of the Workers Party and then of the Socialist Workers
Party (SWP) founded by C.L.R. James and Raya Dunayevskaya. In the late 1930s, a minority faction of the SWP began to reject
Trotsky's definition of the Soviet Union as a "degenerated workers' state" which warranted "unconditional defense" from Soviet-sympathizing
organizations. In 1940, James and Dunayevskaya left the SWP with other members of the minority faction led by Max Shachtman
to form the Workers Party. The majority in the Workers Party, led by Shachtman, believed that the class structure of the Soviet
Union could be characterized by "bureaucratic collectivism," whereas a minority led by James and Dunayevskaya, along with
Grace Lee Boggs, believed the Soviet Union was capitalist. This dissenting view led the minority to rejoin the SWP in 1947,
where the tendency maintained its minority identity by advocating for an emphasis on Marxism within the Trotskyist SWP. The
tendency remained in the SWP until 1950 when it left to establish its own organization called Correspondence. The Johnson-Forest
Tendency was named after C.L.R. James's pseudonym, J.R. Johnson, and Raya Dunayevskaya's pseudonym, Freddie Forest.
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and Special Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical
materials and not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.