Federico Gómez de Orozco Collection on the Establishment of Spanish Missions in California, New Mexico, and other Southwest Territories MS.1929.008

Finding aid by Chanel Viera
William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
2520 Cimarron Street
Los Angeles 90018

Contributing Institution: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
Title: Federico Gómez de Orozco Collection on the Establishment of Spanish Missions in California, New Mexico, and Other Southwest Territories
source: Rosenbach Company
source: Gómez de Orozco, Federico
Identifier/Call Number: MS.1929.008
Physical Description: 2 boxes (.83 linear feet)
Date (inclusive): 1595-1829
Language of Material: Spanish; Castilian .

Scope and Contents

The Federico Gómez de Orozco collection contains manuscripts and maps dating from 1595-1829 regarding the Spanish settlement and colonization of California, New Mexico, and other portions of what was once New Spain. Most documents here were written by Franciscans and other European officials, and this collection includes detailed accounts of mission expansions in Alta and Baja California, as well as voyages made throughout Mexico in support of Spanish colonial rule and Christianization of native peoples.
This collection also includes various descriptions of interactions between Spanish officials and missionaries with local Indigenous communities, such as the Pima, Ute (Yuca), Comanche, Moqui, Navajo (Dine), and Kumeyaay (Diegueno). Within the collection, there are many accounts of successful Indigenous uprisings against European settlers.

Biographical / Historical

Historian and bibliophile Federico Gómez de Orozco was born in Tlalpan, Mexico in 1891 and died on July 18, 1962 in Tizapán, D.F. He was a recognized researcher and professor at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM) and taught 16th-17th century Spanish colonial history as well as paleography at UNAM and at the School of Anthropology. With great interest in European colonization in the West and Southwest territories, he built a large collection on the history of Mexico and California. His personal library in his home in Tizapán contained pictographs and documents in relation to Indigenous and European colonial history.
Gómez de Orozco was great friends with colleague Manual Toussaint, a Mexican art historian and academic with whom he founded the Art Laboratory of the UNAM. He was also a member of important national societies such as the Sociedad de Geografía y Estadística, Society of America, and Société des Americanistes y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
Most of his published works include scholarly articles, monographs, prologues, bibliographies, and magazine articles. The documents in this collection come from an early collection of Gómez de Orozco, but he collected more material over the course his life. Most of his collections remain in Mexico and are kept in the Biblioteca del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

Custodial History

This collection was acquired by the Clark Library in December 1929 from bookseller A.S.W. Rosenbach. Rosenbach had purchased the collection earlier that year from scholar Federico Gómez de Orozco, through an intermediary.

Processing Information

This collection was previously physically processed and cataloged in a paper inventory at the Clark Library sometime before 1995. Until 2023, it was known by the call number "Mss Mexican" and the collection name "Mexican Manuscripts" and there was no online finding aid to the collection.
The collection was fully reprocessed and described by Chanel Viera in 2023.

Existence and Location of Copies

Digitized material from this collection is available via Calisphere, but has not been recataloged or redescribed. Calisphere records may contain inaccurate descriptions of the material and/or offensive terminology. For Calisphere collection, click here. 

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Rosenbach Company
Gómez de Orozco, Federico

box 1, Folder 1

Fray Jose Ignazio Maria Alegre y Capetillo: A Memorandum of his Voyage from Queretaro, Mexico (1771-1773) // Derrotiero que hize Fr. Jose Ignazio María Alegre y Capetillo con particular Razon de todos los acaecimientos y cosas dignas de memoria del viaje, que hize con Don Hugo de Oconor… 1771-1773

Scope and Contents

Fray Jose Ignazio Maria Alegre y Capetillo accounts in a personal journal of his voyage with Don Hugo de Oconor, a previous European colonel, and the company of other missionaries. Alegre y Capetillo departed on October 10, 1771, from current day Santiago de Queretaro, and arrived at La Hacienda de Santa Catarina on June 24, 1773. Throughout his journey, he visits various established missions and describes numerous violent encounters with Indigenous Rio Grande populations, as well as their resistance to European settlement in their territories. 
box 1, Folder 2

The Discoveries of Lower and Upper California from 1769-1776 // El Ap[ostoli]co Colegio de Señor Fernando de Mexico, da cuenta a V.R.M. de los nuevo descrubim[ien]tos hechos con felicidad (sobre los antiguamente conquistado de la California) desde el ano de 1769, hasta el presente de 1776, contenido entre los grados 30 y 26, y 57 y 18, m de latitude 1776

Scope and Contents

In brief descriptions of the Spanish monarchy and the necessity of amplifying Christianity, Apostle Senor San Fernando describes the settlement of European missionaries in California and the various resources they were able to acquire through indigenous peoples. In subduing Indigenous tribes for European expansion, Franciscans were able to gather new territory for missions, spices, herbs, and other food sources for survival. Additionally, he details the architecture and people of various missions, such as San Diego, San Gabriel Arcangel, and San Antonio de Padua.
box 1, Folder 3

Pima Nation Uprising (1751-1766) // Convite, Evangelico a compassion, y socorro de la Viña del Señor, destrozada, y conculcada con el Alzamiento de la Pimeria Alta, desde el dia 21 de Noviembre del Año de 1751, y sus lastimosos progresos en la siguiente Decada, hasta el año de 1768. November 21, 1751-1776

Scope and Contents

An overview of the Pima Revolt, or O'odham Uprising in Pimeria Alta and all of its following events from November 21, 1751–1766. There is an account of frequent conflict between the Pima Nation and missionaries in the area, resulting in vast numbers of deaths from both populations.
box 1, Folder 4

A Letter from Miguel José de Azanza to Don Diego de Agreda, April 13, 1799 // El Vergantin Galan, con 128 Toneladas, al respecto de la Fragata Guadalupe de 350 q[ue] recive 119 carg[os] April 13, 1799

Scope and Contents

Miguel Jose de Azanza sends a commission to De Agreda in regards to a voyage from Acapulco, Mexico, to Alta California in a brig called "El Galan" with captain Juan de Antepara. In a separate letter, he outlines the commission's terms and costs, including payment to all brig workers and instructions on where and how to pay. There is also an explanation of the justification of these prices and recommendations for shelter.
box 1, Folder 5

Architectural Floor Plans and Other Descriptions of the Moctezuma Palace // Descripcion Ignografica del Palacio llamado bulgarmente e inoropzmente Moctezuma, situado en el Rio de Gila en altura de treinta y tres grados y cinco minuta, segun las table/ con que en el dia no diriginos. Undated

Scope and Contents

The first leaf is an architectural floor plan of the palace. The second and third leaves describe the details of the floor plan, ranging from exterior and interior features and the measurements of each room.
box 1, Folder 6

A Report from Reverend Father Fray Juan Calzada to the Viceroy of the Missions of Alta California // Respuesta del R.P. Guardian F. Juan Calzada al Exmo Señor Viery dando ;as razones por q[ue] no se han entregado a la Jurisdicion Orclinaria Eclecianica las Misiones de Alta California August 7, 1818

Scope and Contents

Fray Juan Calzada reports on the management and operations of up to nineteen missions during 1815–1818. In this report, he details the delay in entrusting the missions to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction and the vital importance of indigenous people converting to Catholicism. Furthermore, Calzada describes the Franciscans in charge of administering the established missions as well as continuing to expand their provinces further west. At the end of the report, there are two statistical reports on the indigenous inhabitants of selected missions, and their monetary gains from the planting and harvesting of different food sources.
Note: The document is accompanied by two tables of statistics: one a folding double-page, the other, a single page, laid in.
box 1, Folder 7

Map of the Capital Bodega Port 1775

Scope and Contents

Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra outlines a double-page map of the "Port of the Capitan Bodega" discovered in the schooner Sonora under his command on the third day of October. This is the next large bay above San Francisco. (pen and ink)
box 1, Folder 8

Map of the San Francisco Bay Entrance 1779

Scope and Contents

Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra outlines a single page map of the San Francisco bay entrance, outlining the entrance to the bay charted in the map of the Port of the Captain Bodega.
box 1, Folder 9

Notices given by Juan Cadelaria on the Founding of New Spain Settlements // Noticias que da Juan Cadelaria, vecino de esta Villa de San Francisco Javier de Alburquerque de edad de 84 años nacio el año de 1692. 1777

Scope and Contents

Juan Candelaria dictates the founding history of almost all pueblos (villages) and presidios (military settlements) in the New Spain settlement, now modern-day New Mexico. Along these lines are the counties of Bernadillo, Alameda, Valencia, Tome, Cienega, Belen, and Santa Fe. In addition, there are details about uprisings and wars from Native nations in the area, including Isleta Pueblo and Sandia peoples. Towards the end of these historical accounts, there is a page dedicated to a series of past governors from these settlements.
box 1, Folder 10

The Legacy of the Alta California Missions and the Native Uprisings // Misiones y Sublevaciones de Indios: Legado de Misiones y Sublevaciones 1775-1781

Scope and Contents

This collection of papers describes the established missions in the Rivers of Colorado and Gila (both in Arizona) and contains a selection of five documents that detail the amplification of communication in the west towards California and plans for expansion on more missions in the Rivers of Colorado and Gila.
A. Don Hugo Oconor writes a summary of the established missions and imprisonments throughout the Colorado and Gila Rivers In addition, he mentions ideas for expanding communication with New Mexico, from Sonora to Monterrey. The Pima and Apache peoples are mentioned as having been subjugated under Spanish colonial forces in New Mexico.
B. A document index on mission executions along the Colorado and Gila Rivers, as well as nearby prisons and communication operations spanning Sonora, Monterrey, and New Mexico.
C. Useful papers on communications with the new establishments along the Colorado and Gila rivers. A description of the Moqui Peoples and other territories. This paper was presented to the Viceroy, and it was later sent to court. The native nations that are mentioned are the Cocopah (Cocomaricopas), Akimiel O'odham (Pima), and Quechuan (Yuma).
D.  The Uprising of the Yumas. The letter was written on October 26, 1981, and mentions the disappearances of the bodies of four Frays: Juan Marcelo Diaz, Francisco Tomas Hermenegildo Garces, Juan Antonio Barreneche, and Jose Matias Moreno. 
E. An account of statistical data on deaths and captivities of Spaniards from the Comanche Revolt on August 15, 1820. 
F. 1 leaf in which explains the contents of each attached document and their usefulness for study and further research. It is also stated that although there was an original copy of one document, there is another one that was written more neatly and concisely for clarification. signed by Senor D. Melchor. 
box 1, Folder 11

Letter of Fernando de la Concha // Explicacion de la Cruz y Caracteres Presedentes q[ue] en una Camina, y a nombre de la Nacion Yuta me entrego, e hizo su respectivo Gial Muguisachi… 1787

Scope and Contents

A description written by Governor Fernando de la Concha of the conduct and precedents of mediating with the Comanche and Yuta Nations as governor of the province of New Mexico. Through this alliance, he establishes peaceful relations with the generals and captains of these nations, including Parqunarimuco, Muguisachi, and Hisampapi. The second-to-last page includes a diagram in correlation to the first page of the document and was signed on November 10, 1787.
box 1, Folder 12

Diary of the Entrance to Tiburon Island in 1750 // Diario de la Entrada a la Isla de Tiburon en 1750 1750

Scope and Contents

Francisco Antonio Pimentel accounts of the armed expedition to Tiburon Island with Don Diego Ortiz Parilla, governor and captain of the provinces of Sinaloa, Ostimuri, and Sonora. This voyage included armed captains, soldiers, and large groups of Pimas and Jesuits whose primary intent was to forcefully remove and displace the Seri [Yoris] Nation and establish a Jesuit mission program. At the end of the diary, Pimentel includes a romanticized poem about Tiburon Island.
box 1, Folder 13

Instructions Formed by Virtue of Royal Order for the Government of the Commander in Chief of Internal Provinces in the Year 1786 //Instruccion formada en virtud de Real orden, para govierno del Señor Comandante General de Provincias Internas, en el año de 1786 1786

Scope and Contents

Concerned about the invasions of the intern provinces of the East, Viceroy Bernardo de Galvez issues a set of regulations requiring the intern provinces under the jurisdiction of Juan de Ugalde and Jacobo Ugarte to strictly adhere to them. The articles specify an account of all affairs and news concerning the provinces, the costs and extractions that are made, the observance of all territories and their frontiers, and the killing of any Indigenous person as a crime against the Spanish crown. The document concludes with a joint party of signatures from past and current governors and colonels who have managed the internal provinces of the East and West and who collectively agree to obey all of the regulations ordered by the King and of Spain.
box 1, Folder 14

Letter of Fray Francisco Atanacio Dominguez to Don Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta // El Domingo 24 de este mes de Noviembre arribamos con Felicidad, gracias a Dios, a esta Mision de Nueva Señora de Guadalupe de Zuñi… November 25, 1776

Scope and Contents

A.L.S. to Don Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta, governor of New Mexico, on November 25, 1776. Fray Francisco Dominguez recounts his journey with Fray Silvestre de Escalante, most commonly known as the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition, and their arrival at the Nueva Señora de Guadalupe de Zuni Mission. In this journey, they report their success in converting multiple indigenous nations to Christianity and having 2 Laguna translators on their expedition. They also detail their encounter with the Moqui people and the ongoing war between them and the Navajos and Ute [Yuca] Indigenous tribe.
box 1, Folder 15

The Civil and Militant Governments of Alta and Baja California // Territorio de la Alta California September 22, 1829

Scope and Contents

Jose Maria de Echeandia's secretary, Agustin Juan Vicente Zamorano, wrote this document, which outlines the civil and militant governments within the territories of Alta and Baja California. The document enlists territorial disputes, military government and its dependents, standing artillery corps, engineers, permanent cavalry, active artillery militia, open ports, public estates, commissioners, and courts of justice.
box 1, Folder 16

Letter of the 1775 Revolt at the Mission San Diego de Alcala // N.P. Presidente Fray Junipero Serra: Tener Maria y Jph Mi siempre venerado Padre. Con el m[ay]or sentimiento de mi alma, es preciso comunicar a V.R. los lastimosos entragos de esta abrasada Mision… November 28, 1775

Scope and Contents

In a letter sent to Junipero Serra from Fray Vicente Ferrer, describes the revolt of the Kumeyaay (Diegueno) people against the Mission San Diego de Alcala on the morning of November 5, 1775. He mentions how the Kumeyaay set fire to wooden structures, ransacked churches, and shot multiple arrows at militants and priests. Ferrer requests that more priests be sent to the San Diego Mission, as well as financial assistance for damaged goods. He also requests that Captain Don Fernando Riviera be sent and act as a mediator with the Kumeyaay people to prevent further conflict.
box 2, Folder 1

Instructions made for the Governor and Troops of the New Establishments of California // Instruccion hecha p[ar]a el Govern[ad]or y tropa de los nuevos establecimientos de California May 6, 1773

Scope and Contents

Instructions for the cavalry, troops, and militants who guarded California's established missions in 1773 are included in a list of seventeen directives. Instructions clarify that all soldiers must be accompanied while patrolling on mission grounds and when they must leave the premise for any reason. They must also accompany Franciscans if they leave the missions in groups of 5. Their duties include the maintenance and protection of all livestock, correspondence, and safeguarding day and night. Lastly, there is mention of knowing the differences in punishments for mission soldiers and mission dependents who engage in consensual intercourse or rape against Indigenous women. In the note section, it is mentioned that all of these directives were written for Fray Junipero Serra on May 6, 1773.
box 2, Folder 2

Relation of the voyage made by the lieutenant Don Ignacio de Arteaga, to the coasts of California with Don Francisco Antonio Mourelle // Relacion del viage que en el año de 1779 hizo el teninente de Navi[gacion] D. Br Ignacio de Arteaga a la costas sepentrional a California… February 11-November 21, 1779

Scope and Contents

This manuscript, written by Francisco Antonio Mourelle, describes the 1779 Northwest voyage led by Lieutenant Ignacio de Arteaga. They departed on February 11, 1779, from the port of San Blas and headed to the Northwest Coast of America, with stops along Alta California. There are several encounters with Indigenous people along the journey, as well as details of position at sea, weather, and location details. The ships returned to San Blas on November 21, 1779.
box 2, Folder 3

New Ruling for the Old and New Establishments of California in the year of 1781 // Nuevo Reglamento Para El Antiguo y Nuevos Establecimiento de Californias, Año 1781 1781

Scope and Contents

Felipe de Neve enlists the financial expenses of the cavalry and settlers in Old and New California throughout the missions of Monterrey, San Carlos, San Antonio, San Luis (provisional regulations), San Diego, San Gabriel, San Capistrano, and San Francisco. Summarized through thetotal costs in pesos, there is an account of the tariffs for armor, transportation, cattle and calves, and rations between single and full households. Additionally, there are a total of fifteen provisional laws with subsidiary laws, detailing the uniforms of soldiers, the wages based on military rank and positions, armor, dealings and treatment with Indigenous peoples and enemies of the Spanish crown, governor duties, and obligations and instructions for local inhabitants of each province.
box 2, Folder 4

Notices and reflections on the war against the Apache Indians in the Provinces of New Spain // Noticias y Reflexiones sobre la Guerra que tiene con los Indios Apaches en las Provincias de la Nueba España, Caracter de los Indios 1790

Scope and Contents

Bernardo de Galvez writes about his thoughts on the Apache Indian War in New Spain and how the Apache population has positive and negative qualities during a time of war. The accountability that is remarked on their natural way of being is mostly positive, with explanation of their violence towards Spaniards. He discusses their use of weapons in a time of war and their militant strategy as superior to that of the Spanish military. He mentions the strengths and weaknesses of the Conchos, Taragaumares, Tepeguales, Norteños, Cholomes, Sumas, Yaquis, Pimas, and Opatas tribes.
box 2, Folder 5

Contract Between Don Juan de Oñate Señor and Don Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of this New Spain 1595 //Aliento que Don Juan de Oñate Vez de cacatecas saze con el Rey n[uest]ró señor sobre el descubrimiento y población del nuevo Mexico. Echa por el S[eñor] Don Luis De Velazco Virrey de la nueva españa 1595 1595

Scope and Contents

Provides in detail the quantitative provisions provided by Don Juan de Oñate on the journey to New Mexico, and what laws were to be governed by him as leader of the expedition. Each section describes the viceroy's and Don Juan de Onate's agreements, with instructions based on arrests of civilians or enemies, subjugation of Indigenous tribes, and duties as appointed governor of New Spain.
box 2, Folder 6

Official Documents Signed by the Count Paredes, Viceroy of New Spain, dated May 21, 1681 // Don Thomas Antonio Lorenzo Manuel Manrrique de la Cerda… May 21, 1681

Scope and Contents

The Viceroy of New Spain Tomás de la Cerda, more commonly known as Count de Paredes, transmits information from the Royal Officials of Vera Cruz as to the first expenses for the purchase and transportation of the sails, rigging, and other supplies for outfitting the ships being built in Sinaloa for the conversion and settlement of California. The amount was 7,976 pesos and 20 tomines of gold, which were supplied by the Royal Treasuries of Yucatan and Guatemala.
box 2, Folder 7

Letter Signed by Count de Paredes, Viceroy of New Spain, dated May 21, 1681 // Don Thomas Antonio Lorenzo Manuel Manrrique de la Cerda… May 21, 1681

Scope and Contents

The Viceroy of New Spain Tomás de la Cerda, more commonly known as Count de Paredes, transmits information from the Royal Officials of Vera Cruz as to the total expenses for the conversion and settlement in California. He attributes the attainment of carpenters, sailors, and fishers in the Sinaloa port to the coast of California.
box 2, Folder 8

Survey of the Coasts of California in 1774 // Reconociniento de las Costas de la California 1775

Scope and Contents

In this reflective report, the writer discusses the expedition that was made on the frigate S.M. in June of 1774 to the coasts of California. On each embarkation that was made along the coast, there is mention of interactions with Indigenous populations, traded goods, and the conditions of the Monterrey Missions, including the Missions of San Diego, San Gabriel, San Luis, San Antonio, and San Carlos.
box 2, Folder 9

Land Survey of the District of La Feliciana in 1802 // Luisiana, año 1802 Districto de la Feliciana July 3, 1802

Scope and Contents

Charles Laveau Trudeau, more commonly known as Don Carlos Trudeau, was a royal surveyor of lands for Spanish Louisiana and Florida in the early nineteenth century. In this original land survey, he describes the province of La Feliciana and all of its measuring lines and angles, boundaries, and property lines. He also mentions that this land was previously surveyed by Don Vicente Sebastian Pintado, a Spanish military officer and land surveyor of Spanish Louisiana.
box 2, Folder 10

The Strategies and Attacks Against the Pimas, Ceris (Seris) and Yaquis Nations // Relacion de el attaque que las tropas de S.M. dieron a los enemigos Indios Pimas, Ceris, y Yaquis en el caron de la Palma de la Sierra de Santa Rosa, llamada vulgarmente. Cerro Prietto el 25 de Noviembre de 1768 November 25, 1768

Scope and Contents

Under the troops of Don Juan de Mendoza, Spanish colonists attacked the Pima, Ceris (Seris), and Yaquis Nations for the surrender of Cerro Prieto territory on November 25, 1768. After these Indigenous nations refused to concede their lands, Spanish troops began to spy on them and plan strategic ambushes against them. They attacked all three nations with offensive fire, demolitions, and firearms. The document accounts for the total number of stolen goods, kidnappings, and deaths of Indigenous men, women, and children.
box 2, Folder 11

A Report on the Developments and Reforms of Abuses in Alta California or Nueva Albion // Informe Sobre fomento y reforma de abusos en la California Alta o Nueva Albion May 20, 1814 (Copy made on July 5, 1814)

Scope and Contents

In this report, Don Francisco de Paula Tamariz describes the failures and successes of the mines surrounding the missions in Alta California. In addition, he proposes to open trade in California due to a high supply of food from the farm work being done in various California missions and the success of converting local indigenous communities to Catholicism. There is also mention of Jose Joaquin de Arrilaga's surveillance of the provinces of missions, the maintenance of cattle, Indigenous peoples, and the export of furs and other material goods. Continuation: Commentary on the report written by Don Francisco de Paula Tamariz and how there are various gaps in the accuracy of the estimates of cattle and material goods, as well as a lack of mention of the rotation of soldiers on each mission. Fray Juan Rivas also critiques his perspectives on the proposal of open trade and the insufficient amount of expertise on the New Albion and all of its provinces.