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Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California Records
BANC MSS C-A 360  
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Collection Details
 
Table of contents What's This?
  • Conditions Governing Access
  • Conditions Governing Use
  • Immediate Source of Acquisition
  • Preferred Citation
  • Processing Information
  • Separated Materials
  • Biographical / Historical
  • Scope and Content

  • Language of Material: English
    Contributing Institution: The Bancroft Library
    Title: Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California records
    Creator: Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California
    Creator: Collier, John
    Creator: Atwood, Stella M.
    Creator: Indian Defense Association of Santa Barbara
    Creator: American Indian Defense Association
    Identifier/Call Number: BANC MSS C-A 360
    Physical Description: 17 Linear Feet 12 cartons, 2 boxes, 2 oversize boxes, 2 cardfile boxes
    Date (inclusive): approximately 1915-1939
    Abstract: The records of the Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California, an Indian reform organization operating from 1923 until 1938.
    Physical Location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.
    Language of Material: Collection materials are in English.

    Conditions Governing Access

    Collection is open for research.

    Conditions Governing Use

    Materials in this collection may be protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.). In addition, the reproduction of some materials may be restricted by terms of University of California gift or purchase agreements, donor restrictions, privacy and publicity rights, licensing and trademarks. Transmission or reproduction of materials protected by copyright beyond that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of without permission of the copyright owner. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user.
    All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the Head of Public Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 94720-6000. See: http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/reference/permissions.html.

    Immediate Source of Acquisition

    The Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California records were gifted to the Bancroft Library by the California League for American Indians in 1962.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California records, BANC MSS C-A 360, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

    Processing Information

    Collection processed by Lara Michels in 2015.

    Separated Materials

    Photographs transfered to the Pictorial Collections of the Bancroft Library (BANC PIC 1962.020--PIC).

    Biographical / Historical

    The Indian Defense Association was founded in 1923 by John Collier, an emerging critic of the federal Indian policies that had taken shape in the wake of the 1887 Dawes General Allotment Act. In 1920, Mabel Dodge Luhan invited Collier, then a social worker and adult educator in California, to Taos, New Mexico, where he observed Pueblo Indian culture and developed a strong interest in its preservation. Shortly after his stay in Taos, Collier was appointed field worker for the General Federation of Women's Club's Committee on Indian Welfare, a position that allowed him both to investigate the living conditions of Indians in the Southwest and in California and to formulate ideas for reforming Indian policy. The Indian Defense Association was founded, with initial funding from prominent women in the Caliofrnia women's club movement, to investigate and educate the public about Indian living conditions as well as to promote government policies that, in the words of the IDA, "would permit the Indian to remain spiritually and physically on this earth" (see founding documents in carton 4, folder 15). Collier and the IDA sought to protect Indian rights to their land as well as their rights to practice their own religions. The IDA would over the course of its existence advocate and lobby on issues relating to all aspects of Indian life in the United States, including land, religion, housing, health, and education. The IDA had its main headquarters in Washington, D.C., where it could be close to the government bodies and agencies that shaped Indian policy. The Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California (with offices in San Francisco) acted as a west coast headquarters. The IDA also had other California branches in Santa Barbara and Los Angeles. The California branches were active in issues relating to California Indians but were also crucial advocates for Indians throughout the Southwest.

    Scope and Content

    The records of the Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California consist of seven series: correspondence, administrative materials, legislative files, publications and publicity, assorted manuscripts, subject files, and clippings scrapbooks.
    The correspondence, which is arranged chronologically by year from 1923 to 1938, consists of a mixture of incoming and outgoing letters to and from various officials in the Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California, including a large amount of correspondence to and from John Collier. The correspondence documents all of the major areas of work of the organization and includes some letters from prominent figures such as Mary Austin. Some correspondence from the IDA branches in Santa Barbara and Los Angeles is included.
    Adminstrative files include founding documents, scattered meeting minutes, financial records, and other materials. Legislative files document the involvement of the IDA in legislative work on behalf of Indians in California and throughout the nation. The publications and publicity series consists of bulletins written by John Collier about developments relating to Indian policy in Washington, D.C. as well as other IDA publications and press releases.
    The subject files, which arranged alphabetically, are a rich source of information on a range of issues relating to Indian life in California and other states during the 1920s and 1930s.

    Subjects and Indexing Terms

    Indian Defense Association of Central and Northern California
    Collier, John
    United States. Indian Reorganization Act
    United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs
    Atwood, Stella M.
    Indian Defense Association of Santa Barbara
    American Indian Defense Association
    Indians of North America -- California
    Pueblo Indians
    Pueblo Indians -- Government relations
    Pueblo Indians -- Religion
    Pueblo Indians -- Land tenure
    Indians, Treatment of -- North America
    Indians of North America -- Health and hygiene
    Indians of North America -- Social Conditions
    Indians of North America -- Land tenure
    Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.