Finding aid for the Harry K. Wolff Jr. papers 6128

Sue Luftschein
USC Libraries Special Collections
2016 November
Doheny Memorial Library 206
3550 Trousdale Parkway
Los Angeles, California 90089-0189

Language of Material: English
Contributing Institution: USC Libraries Special Collections
Title: Harry K. Wolff Jr. papers
creator: Wolff, Harry K., Jr.
Identifier/Call Number: 6128
Physical Description: 9.39 Linear Feet 10 boxes
Date (inclusive): 1929-1945
Date (bulk): 1944-1945
Language of Material: English
Abstract: Harry K. Wolff Jr. was a Jewish lawyer from San Francisco who was a member of "C" Battery 120 AAA Gun Batallion, 3rd Army. His unit was initially under the command of General Omar Bradley, and ultimately General George Patton. Wolff was also called upon to represent American soldiers in military tribunal proceedings as a Judge Advocate, bore witness to the aftermath found at both Ohrdruf and Dachau concentration camps, and was one of the officers responsible for over 30,000 Nazi soldiers and SS officers held at Dachau after its liberation who were awaiting trial before war crimes tribunals held at Dachau and nearby Nuremberg. The Harry K. Wolff Jr. papers document Wolff's experiences in the United States Army from 1942-1945. The papers include the letters sent by Wolff to his new wife, Natalie, that describe his experiences from basic training to combat to his time spent at Dachau guarding German prisoners and attending the War Crimes Trials. The papers also include the many souvenirs (realia, ephemera, and books) Wolff collected throughout these experiences, many of which are referred to in the letters, and often referred to by Wolff as "junk"; and photographs documenting his tour of service across France and Germany.

Biographical / Historical

Harry K. Wolff Jr. was a Jewish lawyer from San Francisco who was a member of "C" Battery 120 AAA Gun Batallion, 3rd Army. His unit was initially under the command of General Omar Bradley, and ultimately General George Patton. Wolff was also called upon to represent American soldiers in military tribunal proceedings as a Judge Advocate, bore witness to the aftermath found at both Ohrdruf and Dachau concentration camps, and was one of the officers responsible for over 30,000 Nazi soldiers and SS officers held at Dachau after its liberation who were awaiting trial before war crimes tribunals held at Dachau and nearby Nuremberg.
[Adapted from a Wolff family narrative]

Content Description

The Harry K. Wolff Jr. papers document Lt. Wolff's experiences as a member of "C" Battery 120 AAA Gun Battalion, 3rd Army, 1942-1945. The papers include the letters sent by Wolff to his new wife, Natalie, that describe his experiences from basic training to combat to his time spent at Dachau guarding German prisoners and attending the War Crimes Trials. Wolff's nearly 500, virtually unredacted letters to his wife, included in the papers, describe in great detail his personal experiences, and provide context and provenance for the other items in the papers. In the letters, Wolff expresses a great ability to maintain a sense of warmth and calm in even the most extreme situations, always appears in control, sensitive to the needs of others, and yet manages to keep things light. He describes capturing Germans, painting swastikas on US military equipment to fool Germans, shooting down German planes, warm greetings by the French, life in Dachau, and his visit to the crematorium there. The papers also include the many souvenirs (realia, ephemera, and books) Wolff collected throughout these experiences, many of which are referred to in the letters, and often referred to by Wolff as "junk"; and photographs documenting his tour of service across France and Germany.
[Adapted from a Wolff family narrative]

Conditions Governing Access

Advance notice required for access.

Conditions Governing Use

All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Manuscripts Librarian. Permission for publication is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.

Preferred Citation

[Box/folder no. or item name], Harry K. Wolff Jr. papers, Collection no. 6128, Special Collections, USC Libraries, University of Southern California

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gift of Andrea and David Stanley, October 13, 2016.

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Soldiers -- 20th century -- Photographs
Soldiers -- United States -- 20th century -- Archival resources
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives
World War, 1939-1945 -- Photographs
United States. Army -- Military life -- Archival resources
Wolff, Harry K., Jr. -- Archives



Box 1, Folder 1

[Correspondence] 1942 September

Scope and Contents

9/5/42- Postcard to Nettie Rosow from Tucson.
Box 1, Folder 2

[Correspondence] 1943 December

Scope and Contents

1. 12/8/43-On train. 2. 12/14/43–On East coast. Tour of Rockefeller Center. 3. 12/15/43–On East coast. Has to censor other servicemen's letters. 4. 12/19/43–Visited a cousin in NY. 5. 12/20/43–Love letter. Sweet. Rcv'd 12/24/44–Telegram. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. 9. 12/28/44–V-mail from ship (turned out to be the Queen Mary). 10. 12/28/43–V-mail on ship. Very rocky trip on the ship. 11. 12/30/43-In Europe somewhere. Trying to figure out foreign currency.
Box 1, Folder 3

[Correspondence] circa 1943 December

Scope and Contents

6. no postmark or date-On Camp Haan, Calif. stationery. 7. no postmark or date–Enclosed in envelope: Postcard from Jack Dempsey's restaurant in NY. 8. no date. Telegram. "All well and safe."
Box 1, Folder 4

[Correspondence] 1944 January

Scope and Contents

12. 1/4/44–England. APO 597 cable address. Code word AMURAY. 13. 1/5/44–England. 14. 1/6/44-England. Was in advance party to the boat in NY. Was in England and Scotland. Saw bombed buildings and Victory Gardens. 15. 1/9/44–England. Bought two Zippo lighters at the PX. 16. 1/8/44–England. V-mail. Kids make "V" sign or "thumbs up" to the servicemen. 17. 1/11/43–England. Great detail about a variety show at the camp. Enclosed in envelope: poem "Lines to an Absent Husband." 18. 1/12/44–England. Carries silver photo case with photos of her, his parents, and his brother, Norman. 19. rcv'd 1/31/44–England. Telegram. He's been in England and Wales. Misses her. 20. 1/17/44–England. V-mail. Has been all over England and Wales and now back in camp. 21. 1/18/44–England. Powdered eggs and powdered milk. Description of bombed buildings in Bristol. Enclosed in envelope: articles from Stars and Stripes. 22. 1/22/44–England. Had been in London. Stayed at a Red Cross club for officers. Very descriptive. 23. 1/23/44–England. Visited London cinema. More about his stay at the Red Cross club. Very descriptive account of his visit to the High Court. 24. 1/25/44–England. V-mail. Misses her. Freezing there. 25. 1/27/44–England. Wrote that he sent the program from the Variety show he had seen. 26. 1/28/44–England. Bought himself an Officer's Field overcoat. 27. 1/28/44–England. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes.
Box 1, Folder 5

[Correspondence] 1944 February

Scope and Contents

28. 2/3/44-England. V-mail. Loves her. 29. rcv'd 2/21/44-England. Telegram. Said they have stock phrases to pick from for the telegrams. 30. 2/3/44-England. Disappointed he didn't get a promotion. She had asked why he didn't number his envelopes to her and he said he couldn't because of censorship rules. 31. 2/6/44-England. Went to an Orthodox temple service. 32. 2/7/44-England. V-mail. Misses her. 33. 2/8/44-England. Asked the Colonel to transfer him to Judge Advocate General's dept. Colonel said fine. 34. 2/11/44-England. Hasn't written. Very busy. When he gets home to the USA, he wants to "see the open theater for auto parking customers." 35. 2/15/44-England. Beautiful, newsy love letter. 36. 2/16/44-England. "Thrilled" to see #10 Downing Street. No longer in envelope: Sad Sack cartoons from The Yank. 37. 2/17/44-England. Reference to her Valentine card. Forbidden to mark his letters with "x's and o's" because it could be considered a code. No longer in envelope: clippings about English people giving road directions. Said it was very accurate. 38. 2/20/44-England. Asked her to knit him a "snood" hat and made a little drawing. It's cold there. Comments about Red Cross being great. 39. 2/21/44-England. Wants to name his jeep "Little Shrimp" after his nickname for her. 40. 2/22/44-England. Saw play "Angel Street" at the camp. Sent her the program (no longer in envelope). Wrote someday his children would read these letters and see how much he loved her. 41. Rcv'd 3/3/44- England. Envelope empty. Maybe sent Stars and Stripes? 42. 2/25/44-England. Tomorrow will be naming the jeep "Little Shrimp." 43. 2/26/44-England. Thoughts on Hitler, the Gestapho. Description of English villages.
Box 1, Folder 6

[Correspondence] 1944 March

Scope and Contents

44. rcv'd 3/13/44-England. Telegram. All is well. 45. 3/4/44-England. Appreciated the photos of her that she had sent. Just been called to try two Court Martials because he is a Trial Judge Advocate. 46. 3/8/44-England. Back from somewhere, but now saw Winchester, Guildford, Folkestone and Dover. There was an alert in Dover while he was there that he thinks she probably heard about. 47. 3/8/44-England. Army life. 48. 3/10/44-England. He was sent on "jaunts" around the country in his jeep. He writes about Piccadilly prostitutes. 48. (same number twice). rcv'd 3/26/44-England. Telegram. All is well. 49. 3/19/44-England. V-mail. Battalion moved. Stationed in a "hot spot". They "man the guns almost every night". He couldn't write her so had sent the "all is well" telegram. 50. 3/21/44-England. New APO is 171. They are staying in tents. Humorous description that he is living "like Lincoln" except he has a kerosene lantern. Loved photo Natalie had sent of her with his family at the "Troc" in San Francisco. 51. 3/23/44-England. They bathe out of tin cans or their helmets. The latrines are coal buckets with a removable wood seat. There are some "fine English people" who have a lovely home and are allowing the officers to bathe in their home. He used the word "shower" and the woman had no idea what that was and after he described one to her, she thought it was a fine idea. 52. 3/25/44-England. They are busy firing the guns at German planes. He heard an anti-semetic German broadcast about South American Jews taking over the South American countries. Said the theory was that Germany wanted South American countries to join with them and revolt against the USA so the USA would have to bring their troops home to protect the USA. 53. 3/28/44-England. It was hard to write daily because they are busy during the day and then they are busy all night firing at the German planes. 54. 3/30/44-England. Red Cross canteen mobile arrived. The Colonel has ignored his transfer request to the Judge Advocate Corps and no paperwork was filed. 55. 3/31/44-England. Met a retired English Barrister and had tea at his home.
Box 1, Folder 7

[Correspondence] 1944 April

Scope and Contents

56. 4/1/44-England. Tired. May go to town for a drink. 57. 4/2/44-England. Wrote that English girls are looking for American husbands. 58. 4/3/44-England. Description of Army life. 59. 4/5/44-England. Went to a movie-"Young Ideas." 60. 4/8/44-England. He and another officer were ordered to go to the Colonel's party. Then afterwards were asked to pay for it. Description of the Woman's Land Army, which is a group of young girls who tend sheep, watch over farm land, and deliver milk. 61. 4/11/44-England. Another 2nd Lt. was promoted, he wasn't. 62. 4/16/44-England. APO changed to 654. Invited for "sherry" at the Barrister's home. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes articles. 63. 4/17/44-England. Discussion of the English people. Said were very nice, and happy to have the Battery there. 64. 4/19/44-England. Baseball game between the Battery and the British Royal Marines. Discussion of differences between USA and English houses. 65. 4/24/44 - England. Detailed comparison of US and England. Asked mom to send him an engraved ID bracelet. 66. 4/24/44-England. Recounted their wedding. 67. 4/28/44-England. Listened to "Germany Calling" on radio with fake news reports. Received the fur-lined gloves. Perfect for the cold weather. Enclosed in envelope: Cartoon. 68. 4/29/44-England. She sent him a record of her speaking. He hasn't found a phonograph yet. Toured Henry VIII's castle. Saw Queen Victoria's room and where the Duke of Wellington died. Went to Canterbury.
Box 1, Folder 8

[Correspondence] 1944 May

Scope and Contents

69. 5/1/44-England. It's "Double Summertime"-stays light until 10:30 or 11pm. Bought a book on Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Bought some Barling pipes for $45 at Ravensgate. rcv'd 5/10/44-Telegram to Grandma Rosow for Mother's Day. 70. rcv'd 5/10/44-Telegram to Natalie for Mother's Day (even though she wasn't a mother yet). 71. 5/4/44-England. Went to the post office to buy two of every kind of stamp they had for himself and his brother, Norman. Woman behind counter asked him twice if he really wanted to do that. Added that he ought to have a guardian! Went to the dentist, who used a foot pump for the drill. 72. 5/6/44-England. Thanked mom for the package she sent that contained cookies and wicks for his lighter. 73. 5/11/44-England. Wondering when invasion will start. Nice weather in England that day. No longer in envelope: articles from Stars and Stripes- one on court martials. Rcv'd 6/8/44-England. 74. 5/19/44-England. Couldn't write. Grandpa Wolff hoping for 1st Vice President of International B'nai B'rith. Sending her some books of the places he has visited. 75. 5/20/44-England. Had fresh eggs! Very descriptive letter about the food they eat. Tried fish and chips. Went to High Holiday services in Bournsemouth. After the services. they went looking around for a Jewish family to have dinner and talk with people of their own faith. The Jewish families live in a group of hotels. Four different families turned down the servicemen to let them join their meal or even sit down and talk with them. 76. 5/22/44-England. Harry Sr. elected unanimously to the position of 1st VP Supreme Lodge of B'nai B'rith. 77. 5/23/44-England. German propaganda radio about Roosevelt and "his Jewish cohorts" running the government and the Germans were giving the American soldiers one last chance to repent. He said all the servicemen had a good laugh about that comment. Mom had sent him article "Doomability". He was in Dover at the time so said the article was very true. 78. 5/24/44-England. Enclosed in envelope: a letter he received from a retired English barrister who had become a Welfare Officer for a certain area. The barrister loans games and other things to the soldiers. 79. 5/25/44-England. Sorry to be missing her birthday. No longer in envelope: a cartoon. 80. 5/27/44-England. He's a Field Judge Advocate, but doesn't have cases right now. 81. 5/30/44-England. Got a pass and went to Winchester. Saw Cathedral. No longer in envelope: photos and information on it. For her birthday, he bought her a 12" high Sheffield silver plate crystal decanter that was around 70 years old with a Sheffield handle and spout. 5/29/44–Birthday card to Natalie. 5/30/44–Another birthday card to Natalie. 82. 5/31/44–England. He is sending mom a bracelet of English coins that one of the men in the Battery made for him. "Thruptny bits"–three penny coins, small silver coins each with a face of a different English ruler. Larger coins are 6 pence pieces. (Dad is a coin collector so he finds this very interesting).
Box 1, Folder 9

[Correspondence] 1944 June

Scope and Contents

83. 6/1/44-England. All of the men got their hair cut short in preparation for the invasion. More about the coin bracelet: the small coin in the center is Greek. Also sending a "crown" coin. Said very rare coin over here, equivalent of a $1.00. Paid "a premium" for it. 84. 6/3/44-England. Did the haircuts in an "assembly line method". Very entertaining description of the process. Saw elderly men in Winchester in purple robes and flat hats. Wrote that they were formerly wealthy men who were now destitute who live in a special home. No longer in envelope: a list of California men who are in his Battery. 85. 6/5/44-England. Captured Italian prisoners work on some of the farms. Enclosed in envelope: a lovely letter written to him by Alex and Camille Pollack, Audrey's grandparents who lived at 535 Broderick Street in San Francisco. 86. 6/6/44-England. D-Day!!! Heard Gen. Eisenhower, Gen. Montgomery, several PM's, and the King on the radio. Expects to take an active part in the invasion. Told her he probably won't be able to write, so not to worry. No longer in envelope: cartoons from the New Yorker. 87. 6/7/44-England. Sent her more coins: a rare silver 3-pence. Since the war, they are now copper and worth about 5 cents. The farthing is 1/4 of a pence and very rare. Shilling is worth 20 cents. 6 pence worth 40 cents. 1/2 crown worth 50 cents. Now that he's proficient on English money, he has to "start all over again and learn French money." 88. 6/8/44 –England. Discussed buying himself some pipes. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes announcing the invasion. 89. 6/9/44-England. ID bracelet she sent him arrived. He hasn't sent her photos because they are printed by the Theater Censor and it takes a minimum of 6 weeks. No longer in envelope: his ETO ribbon, which is given after 30 days in the ETO. 90. 6/10/44-England. They are playing baseball games against other Batteries and also playing horseshoes waiting for their invasion date. 91. 6/21/44-France. Short letter, first he's written since he arrived there. "Things are quite hot" there. 92. 6/22/44-France. Now can write that when he was in England, he was in Dover and Deal. When he first arrived, he was at Blandford near Bournsmouth. The people who let them bathe in their home were in Deal. They are cooking their own food now. Very descriptive account of their food and living conditions. 93. 6/23/44-France. A little girl ran up to his jeep, handed him a rose as a token of friendship. Descriptions of ruined cities. Has to destroy Natalie's letters now because they are on the move a lot. 95. 6/24/44-France. Very descriptive letter. No longer in envelope: the menu that comes with the "10 in 1" rations. Enough food for 10 men, three meals. Also one of the leaflets our troops dropped warning the French to watch out for mine fields and the invasion. The other side is a Polish translation.
Box 1, Folder 10

[Correspondence] 1944 July

Scope and Contents

94. 7/2/44-Normandy, France. (Date of letter is out of order, but the envelope is numbered 94) They have captured 50 Germans, who "don't look like Superman" to him. Is using the French translation book Army gave before the invasion. He's writing in pencil because he ran out of ink. Someone took his knife, fork and spoon, so he found a German combination spoon and fork. No longer in envelope: the shoulder strap from one of those prisoners. Also will be sending a Nazi flag, parachute material from D-Day, belt buckle and some "other odds and ends." Has a belt, bayonet, rifle, "Burp" gun, canteen-all German. 96. 7/4/44-France. No longer in envelope: some photos the Germans took and left behind; a German skull and crossbones "which is ordinarily attached to a metal stake" to denote a mine or booby trap; "patches used on German hats and a patch of an eagle and the swastika." 97. 7/7/44-France. Got some fresh vegetables from a garden kept by a German headquarters. No longer in envelope: some cartoons and articles by Ernie Pyle; a German newspaper which is for their solders dated 6/14/44. 98. 7/9/44-Normandy, France. Seen the destruction of war. Arrived D-Day plus 9 days. Off shore on June 15th, landed June 16th. Climbed over side of a Liberty ship to a waiting Rino. No longer in envelope: French invasion money that is printed and backed by the US. Also no longer in the envelope, a comic strip. 99. 7/10/44-France. Has a Nazi belt buckle with the inscription "Gott Mit Uns". One of the boys in his Battery made a belt out of parachute shrouds from D-Day and attached it to the buckle. No longer in envelope: pictures of the invasion. 7/19/44-V-mail to Russ (Natalie's brother) with a bit about the invasion and German prisoners. 7/19/44-V-mail to Grandpa and Grandma Rosow with similar information. 100. 7/11/44-France. Very descriptive letter about the war. No longer in envelope: copy of a program for the A.E.F. Radio station in England. 101. 7/13/44-France. Informative letter. Sending home a wooden nose from a German shell and a shoulder strap from a German prisoner. 102. 7/15/44-France. Moving to a hidden room in the middle of a German mine field. 103. 7/16/44-France. Interesting letter about food and location. No longer in envelope: picture of a cab in London. 104. 7/17/44-France. More comments on food and army life. 105. 7/19/44-France. Bathroom habits of the French. 106. 7/22/44-France. Interesting letter. Attempt on Hitler's life. No longer in envelope: "Pony" edition of Time magazine about the invasion. 107. 7/23/44-France. He misses her.
Box 1, Folder 11

[Correspondence] 1944 August

Scope and Contents

116. 8/14/44-France. Lots of bees, even in food. Bit into a bee that was in his food, and the bee stung his lip. No longer in envelope: article on Los Angeles and a card from the men of Pacific Lodge. 117. 8//15/44-France. Description of an interesting dinner with a French family. No longer in envelope: a leaflet-he wondered if it was an invitation to the Germans to surrender. 118. Rcv'd 9/6/44-France. Telegram. Happy Anniversary. 119. 8/25/44-France. Happy Anniversary. Germans retreating. He is at the front. 120. 8/26/44-France. Interesting letter. Battery has received many commendations. Did their job bringing down planes. Four Germans came in to surrender. Got a compass from one of the Germans. Enclosed in envelope: a newspaper article in German, cartoons, and a piece of paper printed with a swastika and eagle. 121. 8/28/44-France. Out of the hedgerows. French people welcome them when they arrive. Interesting description. 122. 8/29/44-France. Still moving towards Germany from France.
Box 1, Folder 12

[Correspondence] 1944 September

Scope and Contents

123. 9/3/44-France. Happy to be following Patton. Received the package Natalie sent him with a comb, nail file and cigarette case. 124. 9/4/44-France. They are painting swastikas on their equipment to fool the Luftwaffe. French townspeople strip and cut hair and march naked through the streets some of the "German lovers"-French girls who willingly slept with Germans. Enclosed in envelope: article on this situation and other articles. 125. 9/6/44-France. Received photos mom sent him. Still no promotion. Enclosed in envelope: a cartoon and a little poem. 126. 9/16/44-France. Telegram. Fit and well. 127. 9/9/44-France. Musings about war. Saw cemeteries from WWI. Bought postcards of cemeteries and monuments (in Verdun). 128. 9/8/44-France. Thoughts on Hitler. Sent her a white rabbit fur jacket found in a German warehouse. He was called back from the front to Battalion to try court-martials. Will send her a German helmet and bayonet and a German medal of "some sort." 130. 9/9/44-France. Misses her. Thanks for sending him photos of her. Not at the front at the moment. They are at rest. Time moves quickly at the front. 131. 9/10/44-France. Roughest night of the war for them. Battery shot down 6 planes. Battery receiving commendations. They are the leading anti-aircraft unit over there and have shot down more planes than other Batteries. 132. 9/11/44-France. Bought a book in town on WWI fighting. Turned out to be in French. Went back to the down and bought a second copy, but in English. In envelope: comics and photo of French women doing laundry. No longer in envelope: a German's bank statement. 133. 9/14/44-Handled more court-martials. Enclosed in envelope: articles from Stars and Stripes. 134. 9/15/44-Red Cross van came with donuts, coffee and music. Enclosed in envelope: Stars and Stripes 9/14/44. 135. 9/16/44-France. Saw largest American Cemetery from WWI. Where to go for High Holy days? There is a temple in the town, but it was bombed. Very interesting letter. 136. 9/17/44-France. Description of sleeping conditions. Enclosed in envelope: Stars and Stripes articles. 137. 9/18/44-France. Went to Temple services for Rosh Hashanah in a bombed temple. Interesting story of the history of the temple. Used as a restaurant. Enclosed in envelope: German bank statement. 138. 9/19/44-France. Went to temple again for the Jewish New Year. Around 200 Jewish servicemen came to the service. Enclosed in envelope: 9/18/44 edition of Stars and Stripes on bursting the Siegfried Line. Also single sheet of paper in German. 139. 9/21/44-France. Colonel stalling on promotion. Nothing to buy for Natalie in town. Enclosed in envelope: "Wolf cartoon" and an article on 3rd Army uncovering a big flying bomb plant in a French iron mine near the Luxemburg border. Also an article on a German battle. 140. 9/24/44-France. No longer in envelope: photos he had taken of himself at a Photomatan machine wearing a tie. All officers have to wear a tie per Patton's "request." His group joined the 3rd Army at Cherbourg. Was part of the 1st Army before that. Currently at a historic place that was important in WWI. The Battery is doing great and received a commendation. Enclosed in envelope: a small French flag and a poem. 141. 9/25/44-France. Writing by candlelight. Still with Patton's 3rd Army and are ready to get into Germany. Enclosed in envelope: Happy birthday greetings cable sent by mom and a little poem/story. 142. 9/26/44-France. Muddy and cold. Mens' overcoats were taken away in England before the invasion. He has his overcoat, but won't wear his until the men receive their overcoats. 143. 9/27/44-France. Battery received "a beautiful" commendation from General Patton. 144. 9/27/44-France. Went to temple for Yom Kippur. Chaplain didn't come so some of the Orthodox men conducted the service, all in Hebrew. About 300 men attended. At some point he went into town and saw Lana Turner in "Slightly Dangerous." 145. 9/28/44-France. French women wash the servicemen's clothes in exchange for candy and cigarettes. Went to the movies and saw "Footlight Serenade." 146. 9/30/44-France. Finally able to tell her where they had fought battles: "the invasion proper", Cherbourg, Averanches, Laval, Fountenblau, and others.
Box 1, Folder 13

[Correspondence] 1944 October

Scope and Contents

129. 10/3/44-(out of order)-Telegram. Happy Jewish New Year. 147. 10/1/44-France. Wet and cold. Still no overcoats. Presently at rear area at rest. Lots of traffic rules. Enclosed in envelope: a Sad Sack cartoon. 148. 10/4/44-France. General Hershey made a speech about discharge of veterans, which disgusted the troops. Sent her a Stars and Stripes on this point, but not in envelope. 149. 10/5/44-France. Battery has been officially credited with bringing down 6 German planes in an hour on the 1st day they arrived "here." Can't say where "here" is. "Believes they hold record for bringing down more planes than any other gun Battery in France." Very cold. Men are building shacks like they did at Cherbourg. 150. 10/6/44-France. No longer in envelope: 7 photos from Cherbourg, Laval and Montebourg: One photo of soldier whose shoulder strap with the "pip" he sent home to her. Photo of dead German soldier taken just before they entered the city of Monteburg. Photo of the Nazi flag he sent home and five postcards from Cherbourg. 151. 10/8/44-France. Enclosed in envelope: cartoons. No longer in envelope: map from the Stars and Stripes to follow him and see where the "lines" are. 152. 10/14/44-France. Doing court-martials. No longer in envelope: 10 photos from Deal, England, Laval, and Normandy. Letter explains the photos. Enclosed in envelope: a little joke. 153. 10/18/44-France. Interesting story about German radio broadcasts. Bad weather. Fought in Cherbourg and at Averanches, where a 500 pound bomb fell around them. Story about Fountenblau. No longer in envelope: photos of their swimming hole and the chateau in Laval. 154. 10/20/44-France. It's rainy, wet, cold and muddy, but he still has to wear a tie. 155. 10/21/44-France. Family news. 156. 10/23/44-France. Story about a funny bridge game with other officers. 157. 10/24/44-France. "Spam" ribbon and a few stars on it represent participation in major battles. They are still in the same place. No action. More explanation: They were attached to the 1st Army under General Bradley for the invasion, even though they were 3rd Army troops. They came with the 1st until Patton arrived and then joined up with him. Positive and interesting comments on Patton. No longer in envelope: German invasion money. It's American-German money. Its value is 10cents per mark. 10/24/44-V-Mail to Russ Rosow, Natalie's older brother. 158. 10/25/44-France. Going to see a Laurel and Hardy movie. Received a "grab bag package" from her with everything from food to foot powder. 159. 10/26/44-France. Met up with a ZBT brother. Germany is surrounded so should lose the war. 160. 10/27/44-France. Rain and mud. Explanation of the job of a Duty Officer. Explains life there. "My Day." 161. 10/28/44-France. Cold and muddy. No longer in envelope: "mud situation" and some cartoons. 162. 10/29/44 and 10/30/44 -France. Writing by candlelight. She thought he was in Reims. Not currently, but were some time back when "we first took the city." Passed through Epernay, known for their champagne. Best reception there. Someone ran up and gave him a bottle of champagne. Also tremendous welcome in St. Menehould. Someone ran up and hugged him and stole a pair of his gold bars! Dad said he had some relatives in Germany, but assumed they were dead now. Thoughtful comments about how good it feels to do something "worthwhile" especially when he sees the liberated French crying with happiness.
Box 2, Folder 1

[Correspondence] 1944 November

Scope and Contents

163. 11/1/44-France. Many of the men have built "shanties" since they are still at the same position. Observations on their location. US election-voted on a "soldiers' ballot". Some of the men too young to vote. Others first time they voted. 164. 11/2/44-France. Got some combat boots. Don't have to wear "leggins." He will soon be a witness at a General Court Martial, which is the highest court. He's a Trial Judge Advocate for the 2nd highest court. No longer in envelope: Invasion money used by the armed forces in Luxembourg and Belgium. 165. 11/6/44-France. Went to city of Nancy. 166. 11/7/44-France. Description of city of Nancy. 167. 11/11/44-France. Didn't get the promotion. Interesting story about not going to Paris on a pass. 168. 11/2/44 - France. General Patton starting up again. Thoughtful letter on how hard it will be to "wipe out Hitlerism" because of the children. 169. 11/13/44-France. Received package with socks and hankies from her parents. Interesting comment about the war. 170. 11/14/44-France. No longer in envelope: "Residue on the Beach"-photo taken by others of men from his Battery who didn't come over on D-Day 9 with them. Met up with them before Cherbourg. Other photos are of their position at Laval, the large machine gun he found in a German depot. She received the Tri-color flag and the medal he sent. He was given the flag going though one town. He thinks the medal is the 2nd highest award next to the Iron Cross. 171. 11/16/44-France. No longer in envelope: Laval in August. Photos of the pull boat they used to cross the river where they swam and drank champagne. Another photo is of their "dressing room." They washed themselves in the river-the only bath available to them. They trade soap to locals who wash their clothes. 172. 11/7/44-France. Thoughts on Germans and their attitude towards the Jews. Still waiting to move out. No longer in envelope: article on Himmler. 173. 11/18/44-France. Yesterday was called in the morning to try a court martial after lunch the same day. They built a mobile command post out a German trailer they picked up in Cherbourg. 174. 11/20/44-France. Chaplain and his assistant took photos in London. He is having prints made of those photos. Playing bridge with the other officers. 175. 11/22/44-France. They received 13 turkeys for Thanksgiving. Men laughed when listening to German radio propaganda. There was a dance for the officers, but he drank too much and fell asleep. 176. 11/23/44-France. Presidential order changed the date of Thanksgiving. He has a German helmet from Cherbourg. Sent her a German parka and a little coat. Enclosed in envelope: a Christmas card to her. 177. 11/24/44-France. They have been at this location for three months. No excitement, except when they first arrived. 178. 11/25/44-France. Saw a very clever show which was a series of skits with enlisted men in it entitled "You've Had It.". They made a theater out of a barn. Very detailed description of the barn. No longer in envelope: the program from the show. Enclosed in envelope: Christmas card to her. 179. 11/27/44-France. As combat troops, they get 5-7 packs of cigarettes a week. Other troops only get 2 packs a week. Enclosed in envelope: a French Merry Christmas postcard. 180. 11/28/44-France. Went into town and had his photo taken. One is him standing with his helmet off, and one sitting with his helmet on. 181. 11/30/44-France. He is Duty Officer tonight. Which means he has to remain awake all night and handle the firing of the guns if the need arises. No longer in envelope: Sent her a comical letter of Indoctrination of Troops returning to the US; also "The Ballad of Dorothy Parker" and an article on Law #5 of the Supreme Commander posted declaring the Nazi Party illegal. 182. 11/30/44-France. Making hot cakes in the evening from a mix sent to one of the men from his wife. Mentioned that when they first arrived in Europe, they landed in Scotland on New Year's Eve.
Box 2, Folder 2

[Correspondence] 1944 December

Scope and Contents

183. 12/1/44-France. The Colonel joked about his performance at the party where he went to sleep. 184. 12/3/44-France. Duty Officer tonight. No longer in envelope: picture taken at Cherbourg of a coastal defense gun. 185. 12/11/44-France. Acknowledged to her that he had been at Verdun. Tried another court martial. No longer in envelope: Photographer's card (photos he took of him weren't ready yet); photos of some cemeteries and monuments he took on some of his tours of the countryside. 186. 12/12/44-France. Battery office is an abandoned home with no roof. 187. 12/13/44-France. Pitched some large squad tents and found some stoves to keep the men warm. Thoughts on how America has conveniences like steam heat and how French homes are heated with fireplaces. 188. 12/14/44-France. Went into town to a French shower room (douche room) for a shower. 189. 12/15/44-France. People in town trying to repair their homes. No longer in envelope: photos of the Trench of Bayonets-trench full of men who were buried alive. Also duplicates of Laval, the cemetery at Verdun, and the Shanty Town they built at Verdun. Postmark 12/5/44-Christmas card to Natalie. Postmark 12/22/44-Christmas greetings to Natalie's parents. 190. 12/23/44-France. Moved a lot and seeing some action so hard to write. No longer in envelope: some of the commendations the Battery has received. 191. 12/25/44-France. One page of the letter is burned up! First page was not burned. Envelope and letter are inside another envelope that is addressed to "Mrs. A. Jessey Wolff, Jr." at Natalie's address. Moving through France. Blasted their way through the Maginot Line and are sheltering in a nearby house. No longer in envelope: photo of the monument erected to Andre Maginot. 192. 12/26/44-France. Explanation of why the first page of the previous letter wasn't burnt: mixed up 1st pages and originally sent her the first page of his letter to his brother, Norman. Told her to tear up Norman's page and add this one. 193. 12/29/44-France. Received package she sent containing cookies and orange juice. 194. 12/31/44-France. Drank a toast of the orange juice for the New Year. Marking dates: landed in Scotland 1 year ago. 14 months ago said goodbye to her. 13 months ago left the shores of the USA. Almost 17 months ago they were married by Rabbi Harris. Almost 7 months came to France. Is Duty Officer. Heard Hitler's speech on the radio at "five past midnight." Hitler said that they will fight on. And that "there will always be a five after twelve for Germany." He had no idea what that meant. He is in France, but the people speak German more than French. Shop signs all German names. Staying in a home with a pro-French family. Lots of pro-German spirit in the town. No longer in envelope: cartoon about French latrines and 2 pictures of Verdun.
Box 2, Folder 3

[Correspondence] 1945 January

Scope and Contents

195. 1/1/45-France. New Year's Day. They sent turkeys to the front line troops. 196. 1/2/45-France. They are in a "hot spot". Lots of firing, but not like at Averanches or Verdun. They call it a Spam ribbon "because they have been fed so much Spam". Actually, ribbon denotes service over seas in various locations. Stars denote major battles or operations declared by the War Dept. Enlisted men get points for each battle star, but the officers don't. It is 10 degrees outside. No longer in envelope: Photo from Time magazine of the beach landing in Normandy. Also photos of scenes of British streets taken by Chaplain Fichlin and his driver. 197. 1/3/45-France. No longer has "Little Shrimp" jeep. It went back to the Battalion. He is still waiting for a promotion. Got a battle star for Fontainebleau. They were the first heavy equipment to go across the Seine at that point on a pontoon bridge. Some information on the French family and home they are staying in. 198. 1/6/45-France. Staying with a family. The daughter's name is Peggy and she is 11 years old. She is teaching him German and he's teaching her English. She gave him a "Free French cross." 199. 1/7/45-France. Written on US Army Stationery that Natalie sent to him. Very fancy. He has a sore arm from shots. Saw the dentist and he has an infected tooth. 200. 1/8/45-France. It's snowing and the wet soaks through his shoes. Combat troops get five packs of cigarettes and candy a week. Girls will sell themselves for either, and even he has been propositioned. No longer in envelope: Paris Amusement Announcement from a British paper. Also clippings and a comic strip "Tomorrow the World." 201. 1/9/45 - France. Had ice cream tonight that was made in Luxemburg. Had a snowball "fight" with Peggy and her friends. 202. 1/13/45-France. Tooth still infected. 203. 1/14/45-France. Tooth still infected. Peggy hit him with a snowball while he was in bed. 204. 1/15/45-France. Saw a USO show "5 Pips & A Jerk." No longer in envelope: cartoons and a joke. 205. 1/16/45-France. No longer in envelope: clipping on mail situation and some cartoons, one about a chart room. Will be sending home a package with a German helmet, a "Jerry" bayonet, some professional photos of Verdun, Laval and Cherbourg. And he's sending her his fountain pen for repair. The Battery has 3 battle stars: Normandy Invasion, trip through northern France and the Battle of the German border. 206. 1//19/45-France. Had the flu. Peggy wrote a letter to Natalie, but she put her address on the letter so it couldn't be sent. 207. 1/20/45-France. Interesting story about one of the French family's older daughter's imprisonment at a labor camp in Germany. Dad was promoted to 1st Lt. Colonel requested and orders came from Patton. No silver bars there so he is going to see if solder will stick to brass. Asked her to send him 6 pairs of silver bars. He's hoping not to be sent to the Infantry now that he's a 1st Lt. No longer in envelope: article from Stars and Stripes on that topic. 208. 1/21/45-France. Dentist put mercury on his gold bars to make them look silver. Not a permanent solution, but at least something. 209. 1/22/45-France. Comment on how Germans treat our servicemen who are prisoners compared to how well the US treats the German prisoners. French family had a little party to celebrate his promotion. 210. 1/23/45-France. Red Cross Clubmobile was there with coffee and donuts. 211. 1/25/45-France. Lots of inspections. 212. 1/27/45-France. Problems with mail deliveries. Misses her. 213. 1/28/45-France. Surrounded by battle noises and flashes, but they aren't active unless a plane flies overhead. Enclosed in envelope: Cartoon. 214. 1/29/45-France. Got some silver bars. No longer in envelope: French newspaper. 215. 1/30/45-France. Snowing. No longer in envelope: photos of "D-day from Dover". "In the horizon you can see the boats coming from Scotland and you can also see the smoke screen set down to screen the activity from the French coast." Also a photo of a German cemetery in France. One photo is of a group of men in front of a building-he is in the back of the group. It was taken at the American Cemetery in front of the Visitors Building. Also pictures of American Cemetery at Thiancourt, France. 216. 1/31/45-France. Going to see Metz tomorrow.
Box 2, Folder 4

[Correspondence] 1945 February

Scope and Contents

217. 2/2/45-France. He just received a package from her dated Aug. 29, 1944!! He had thought the package was lost because some packages were lost from submarine attacks. The package was very beat up, but contained food and a bottle of ink. No longer in envelope: Photos of Peggy. Also a sales slip from Metz, where he bought Natalie some powder. He saw the Cathedral at Metz. 218. 2/5/45-France. Received the tie and Valentine that Natalie sent to him. 219. 2/5/45-France. (same date as previous letter) Funny story about a German officer and his white wine. 220. 2//6/45-No longer in envelope: cablegram from Natalie to him. Big inspection coming. 221. 2/7/45-France. Inspection went very well. No longer in envelope: photo of his communication section. 222. 2/8/45-France. No longer in envelope: photos "of the boys." 223. 2/10/45-France. Army stationery with a soldier on it. Gave lots of legal advice to men from different Batteries. The Battery Commanders made appointments for the men with him. He did wills, powers of attorney, and talked about marriage problems with the men. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes article on mail delivery. The Nazi armband that she had received "came off a very dead Jerry-one that'll never preach that hated "ism" again." 224. 2/11/45 - France. No longer in envelope: photos of him with his helmet on and with it off. The photos were taken in Verdun. 225. 2/12/45-France. No longer in envelope: another French newspaper. 226. 2/13/45-France. Thoughts about "Hitlerism." Visited a Maginot Line Fort. 227. 2/14/45-France. Received a package from Russ with a Parker 51 pen and pencil set. And a medicine bottle with the ink in it. No longer in envelope: Patton's Christmas card to the men. 228. 2/15/45-France. Eats breakfast with the French family. Fresh eggs. Little stories about the French family. 229. 2/17/45 - France. Received package from the Pacific Lodge of the Masons with toilet articles in it. He held a class on the GI Bill of Rights and there was a general discussion afterwards. Girls in French family borrowed the wallet Natalie had sent him. In the morning they measured it, and by evening they had made three similar wallets for themselves. The older sisters pull apart sweaters they get from the American Red cross and then re-knit new ones. 230. 2/18/45-France. No longer in envelope: a few postcards of Hitler in Lorraine, France. 231. 2/19/45-France. He's helping the men fill out applications and letters to take educational correspondence courses. 232. 2/19/45 (same date)-France. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes. First issue to the 3rd Army troops. Published in Nancy, France. 233. 2/20/45-France. After the war ends, they will conduct schools for the men waiting to go home. He will be a "Professor" for a class in business law and also other subjects. They got another Jewish man in the Battalion, so now there are four of them! He's using cloth bars until the silver ones arrive. 234. 2/23/45-France. Heard from Battalion Headquarters the he's to leave for Paris tomorrow to attend a school for a week. He was appointed Information and Education Officer. His classes at the school will be from 8:30 am-5:30 pm. On the way to Paris he will go to Luxembourg, then to Belgium to pick up another officer. Then they will drive to Reims and then on to Paris.
Box 2, Folder 5

[Correspondence] 1945 March

Scope and Contents

235. 3/4/45-France. Back from Paris. Tired. Will write again. 236. 3/5/45-France. His special course was at Paris University in connection with the Army's education program. The course he took was on how to train discussion leaders. He will give a 2 week course to officers and men who are discussion leaders of the Battalion. The goal is to make the men "think for themselves and make them good citizens when they return home." Saw friends from San Francisco while in Paris. No longer in envelope: tickets of the show he saw while he was there. A Vaudeville show put on for the Allied Forces. 237. 3/6/45-France. 3/7/45-"excitement" that lasted through the night so couldn't get back to the letter. Will tell her about it when he gets home because he can't write about it. He sent her $70 worth of perfume he bought when in Paris. He went to the London Ballet and saw Mrs. Anthony Eden (wife of Robert Anthony Eden, Earl of Avon who was the Foreign Secretary). She was wearing some kind of uniform. No longer in envelope: photo of him before he left for Paris. Also no longer in envelope a news item. No details about the news item. 238. 3/8/45-France. Comment about the burnt letter. Another man in the Battery had the same issue. Discussed the difference between London and Paris. Wrote that in Paris the women were very fashionable, had high hairdos, some were dyed dark blue. Lots of registered prostitutes. No longer in envelope: map of Paris from the American Red Cross that is printed on a captured German map. 239. 3/10/45-France. Held his first class. Each week, they have discussions on questions of interest in the Batteries and the men attending his class are the leaders of the discussion groups in all the Batteries. He's teaching the technique to get more effective discussions. This will be a daily class. No longer in envelope: photo of Maginot Line Fort he went through. 240. 3/11/45-France. While in Paris, he went to the Folies Bergere and the Casino de Paris. No longer in envelope: programs from the two shows. 241. 3/12/45-France. More about the Folies. 242. 3/13/45-France. Men in the Battalion put on a show for the men at the city theater. The men created the show called "Hi Buddy." No longer in envelope: program from the show. Also no longer in envelope: photos taken in various places he's been. Photo of bombed out city marked "It was a city" was "typical" of any number of the French cities he's been in. Photo of Cathedral at Metz is hazy. Also hazy photo of the Castle that is at the entrance to Luxembourg. Last photo is of a "sad end" for a German ambulance. 243. 3/14/45-France. Went to a range to fire the Bazooka. Enclosed in envelope: a small article on the delay of Army airmail. 244. 3/16/45-France. His class continues and is showing good results. Funny story about "fascinators". 245. 3/17/45-France. The officers (including dad) did an inspection of the Battery wearing their "pinks." 246. 3/20/45-"Somewhere in Luxembourg". Little Peggy wrote Natalie another letter. 247. 3/21/45-(no location indicated)-Went to an ice cream parlor and it felt like being home.
Box 2, Folder 6

[Correspondence] 1945 April

Scope and Contents

248. 4/1/45-Germany. He's been on the move so couldn't write. 249. 4/2/45-Germany. Very interesting letter. Houses have a white flag hanging outside. The people don't line the streets to wave. "can just feel their attitude towards you that's anything but friendly." They are coming as conquerors, not liberators. He celebrated Passover. A photo was taken with the Jewish Chaplain, a General and dad that he will try to get a copy of. This is the first Passover service conducted in Germany since the war. No longer in envelope: a few photos of McMullan and McClintoc wearing their new combat jackets and 2 letters from Peggy. 250. 4/3/45-Germany. Very interesting letter about the German people's attitude towards them. Yesterday the Battalion celebrated their 2nd anniversary. They were activated on 4/2/44. No longer in envelope: a photo taken as they entered Cherbourg on 6/28/45. The photo was taken by the company that makes the M4 tractor of Dad's convoy ("C" Battery). The small triangle on the front of the tractor is the mark of ID in the Battalion. 251. 4/4/45-Germany. He was at Cherbourg on reconnaissance several hours earlier than the photo he sent in the previous letter. When he was in town there were bodies strewn around. No longer in envelope: photos taken in Thionville, France. Also not in envelope, Belgium currency, photos of their gun ready for action, McMullan and Paul in their battle jackets, men on the equipment, Red Cross girls and their clubmobile, their own command post in the converted German trailer, their quad mount machine guns and a bombed town in France. 252. 4/6/45-Letter is on German stationery. No longer in envelope: photos from Thionville. He went from there to Luxembourg. 253. 4/7/45-Germany. He received 4 sets of silver bars from his parents. German people using milk cows, not oxen to pull their plows. Major wanted him to "volunteer" for a legal job (not Judge Advocate) in another branch. Only officer in Battalion to meet qualifications. Dad said no. No longer in envelope: picture of him and article from the National Jewish Monthly for Feb. '45 (B'nai B'rith publication). Also more photos from France. 254. missing letter. Postmark 4/10/45-Envelope contains two telegrams: One wishing Natalie's mother a happy Passover, and one to Natalie that he is well and safe. 255. 4/19/45-Germany. Hasn't written in a while. Been on the move through Germany. Will write later of his visit to "one of the slave labor camps." No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes printed in Germany. 256. 4/20/45-Germany. Description of the Rhine Valley, the farms there. Description of the liberated people on the highways. Said they were wearing the same striped clothes he saw at Ohrdurf. Story about how some of the "forced labor people" asked some Germans to give them some food, but were refused. So they shot a few hogs and took them. The Germans came to them to complain about how the forced labor people were behaving! No longer in envelope: photos taken at Verdun. 257. 4/21/45-Germany. Thoughts on how inhuman the German people are. 258. 4/22/45-Germany. Discussion of German people, despite their denials, living in their homes filed with evidence of "fanatic Nazi-ism". No longer in envelope: postcard picture of a "good German." Also French francs. 20 franc is French currency during Germany's occupation. 259. 4/23/45-Germany. Tomorrow he will write about Ohrdruf. No longer in envelope: he's returning the cartoon she sent to him about a list of fines in the 3rd Army area. He said it was true. Along the roads there are boards indicating offenses and fines. Also no longer in envelope: a few pictures from Yank magazine of trucks full of prisoners with the comment that the "one of the prisoners is seen daily by all of us." Also a picture of a pontoon bridge, one of the white flats that are in all the towns they have entered. 260. 4/24/45-Germany. Detailed description of his visit to Ohrdruf. No longer in envelope: article on the camp. 261. 4/28/45-Germany. Very interesting and descriptive letter about the German people. Sent Natalie two packages: one with medals from a General's Headquarters, some books on the Jews, a German canteen, and some other "odds and ends." Other package contained "two Nazi bayonets or a dress dagger." Also a "bunch of scrap metal which while it looks like junk is interesting because of its former significance", though he can't give her information on that yet. (later find out it is pieces of the swastika from the stadium in Nuremburg-story is in letter #265). No longer in envelope: photos of some guns, men and equipment of the German army. They were stereoscopic slides one of the men picked up, cut them in half and gave half to him. Also no longer in envelope: "Hubert" clipping. Sent Natalie package of perfume he bought in Paris. 262. 4/29/45-Germany. Now able to write that he took part in the assault on the Rhine at Oberwesel and crossed into St. Goarshausen. No longer in envelope: a few commendations, some stereoscopic scenes, scenes on the Rhine with vineyards on the cliffs and castles, and a picture of "a bunch of smiling Jerry officers" with a comment that if they had their photos taken now they wouldn't be smiling.
Box 2, Folder 7

[Correspondence] 1945 May

Scope and Contents

263. 5/2/45-Germany. Hitler was supposed to have died yesterday. School Dad went to in Paris was for an education program during and after the war. Soldiers can pay $2 and take a course in any subject and get their textbook and work sheets. He'll probably teach business law in the "after the war classes". He's sending her his mimeo'd hints for discussion leaders. The whole program is called the "Information and Education Program" (I&E). In the Battery discussion groups, they discuss world affairs or national affairs. No longer in envelope: German currency-"50 millions bucks". "It's one of those inflated bills following the last war." 264. 5/3/45-Germany. Beautiful tribute to Roosevelt, who just died. There are a lot of wooden road blocks made from trees that the Germans now are ordered to take down. No longer in envelope: five hundred million mark note. Also enclosed a pamphlet dropped by bomber announcing Hitler's death. Also no longer in envelope are postcards of German flags. 265. 5/4/45-Germany. He recounts being in Nuremburg for a short while. Very descriptive account of the stadium where Hitler gave his speeches and how Patton ordered the swastika and eagle blown off. He picked up some pieces of the metal from the swastika and is sending them home. He planned to make a paperweight out of part of the swastika with an inscription as to what it was. No longer in envelope: patches to be cut and sewn on German uniforms. Date on envelope 5/16/45-Germany. Two cables sent home for Mother's Day to Natalie and her mother. Mentioned in letter #265. 266. 5/6/45-Germany. Discussion of treatment of American soldiers liberated from PW camps. No longer in envelope: A few pictures from Yank Magazine of what he saw at Ohrdruf. 267. 5/7/45-Germany. Latest news reports say that Germany has surrendered unconditionally. As yet no official announcement from General Eisenhower or any other military official. Went to hospital for x-rays of his mouth and the infection portion. Found a large cyst in his jawbone that needs to be removed. It is eating his jawbone and will require surgery and a few weeks hospitalization. No longer in envelope: interesting headlines published in Germany. Not specific. 268. 5/8/45-Germany. Just heard Churchill's speech regarding Germany's unconditional surrender. VE Day!! No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes announcing the end of the war. 269. 5/13/45-Germany. After the war ended, all the Batteries moved to a central place. He has three battle stars: French and German campaigns and the Dover mission. Received points for all of those. No longer in envelope: article on the point system. 270. 5/14/45-Germany. Moved. Now in a wheat field in squad tents "lined up just so." Took former German delousing unit and made it into a shower. No longer in envelope: cartoon about houses with signs saying "friends of Americans"-but truth is the Germans booby trap something in the house. 271. 5/15/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: article on the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth ships. He came across on the Queen Mary and discussed it. 272. 5/16/45-Germany. Been through the central part of Germany. They were on the Danube awaiting movement orders when the war ended. No longer in envelope: poem from Stars and Stripes-"How I Miss You." 273. 5/17/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: armband from a trainsman. "Other emblem is for a uniform". 274. 5/20/45-Germany. He's gathering information to that he can write a short history of the Battery and Battalion since they left Camp Haan. Presently, they are at Pfaffenberg , which is about 30 miles southeast of Regensburg, which is on the Danube. Were here at end of war. It's about 50 miles from the Czech border. Went to Jewish services at an airfield in Straubing, which is east of his location. Interesting story about some Luftwaffe Major landed a large transport plane at the airport with his family, furniture, sheep and no other people. The Major wanted some gas to leave. That didn't happen. 275. 5/21/45-Germany. Checking all the records he can to help with the Battery history he is writing. No longer in envelope: Xmas greetings from the Colonel to the Battalion. Colonel gave to him to put with the history he is writing. 276. 5/22/45-Germany. Still working on Battery history. No longer in envelope: clipping about 1st draftee only has 48 points. 277. 5/23/45-Germany. Got a piece of German plasti-glass and is trying to make her silhouette. No longer in envelope: each bit of currency they use over there. All American invasion money, but not regular US currency. Sending: ½, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mark notes. 278. 5/24/45-Germany. Rumor that they are to lose the Battle Star for the Battle for Western Germany and in its place will be three battle stars: Battle of Metz, Battle of the Bulge, and Battle of Central Germany. No longer in envelope: cartoons. 279. 5/26/45-Germany. Went to Saturday services with other Jewish servicemen (there are now 8 of them in the Battery) to an airfield in Staubing for a service conducted by a Jewish chaplain. 11am service, then they eat at the airport. They received a Battle Star for Dover. Men want copies of his Battery history when it is completed. He needs to re-write it because they couldn't read it with his handwriting. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes clipping on battle participation stars. 280. 5/27/45-Germany. He's finished writing the Battery history and it's being typed for him. He's now thinking of making an ashtray out of a 90 mm shell. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes article on Japanese balloon bombs. 281. 5/28/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: picture of stadium at Nuremburg before the swastika was blown off. He hasn't yet sent his package with the pieces he has of the swastika. No longer in envelope: photo of bombed out Nuremberg. Also no longer in envelope: rough sketch of the travels they've had in Germany that he made on top of a picture from the NY Times. Censorship rules have relaxed so he's sketched the route from Thionville in France to Differdange in Luxembourg and into Germany through Trier. Crossed Rhine at St. Goar, headed east to the Autobahn just west of Erfurt. Got to Gera and almost to Chemnitz. Then west again then headed south through Baumberg and Nuremberg. They then crossed the Danube around Regensburg and then came to their present position at Pfaffenberg, just below Regensburg. 282. 5/29/45-Germany. Actually not in Pfaffenberg, but a mile or two south, closer to a small place called Lindhardt (?). Natalie had sent him an article about a "Nazi sex plot peril to US troops." Dad said it was true-one of his investigations was on that subject. German women have relations willingly with US servicemen and then yell "rape." Punishment for a guilty verdict is the death penalty. 283. 5/31/45-Germany. Stationery has a photo of "Nurnberg, Burg." Marlene Dietrich's USO show came that night. She sang three songs and then played the musical saw. She then pulled up her skirt and "exhibited her million dollar legs." No longer in envelope: another 500 million marks; a photo of the swastika and wreath at the stadium before it was destroyed; postcards of the city of Gera; a picture of the autobahn. 284. 5/31/45-Germany. (same date as letter #283) He sent her a German helmet that he found in a warehouse at St. Goarshausen on the Rhine. Said German soldier probably took it off during the assault that was fought there. No longer in envelope: picture postcard of Nuremberg-"a mess." Also no longer in envelope: a cute cartoon and a clipping about furloughs at home.
Box 2, Folder 8

[Correspondence] 1945 June

Scope and Contents

285. 6/1/45-Germany. Went to more Jewish services at Staubing. Young man typing up the Battery history for him acted as his secretary in drawing court-martial records. Young man was stationed at Battalion headquarters, but wasn't happy so dad helped him transfer to the Battery, and the young man was very thankful. 286. 6/2/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: clipping on officer discharge. 287. 6/4/45-Germany. Misses her. Not numbered-6/6/45. Telegram wishing Natalie a happy birthday. 288. 6/6/45-Germany. Day off as a celebration of the one year anniversary of D-Day. Has some court-martials to try tomorrow. 289. 6/7/45-Germany. Discusses an article in Stars and Stripes on legislation that passed the California Assembly that allows wives of servicemen who have "through their indiscretions had illegitimate children they might quietly dispose of through some agency and the subject dropped so far as the husband is concerned." This had the approval of the War Department. The California men in the Battery were angry and wrote Gov. Warren asking him to veto the bill. The Assemblyman from Berkeley who introduced the bill and said he was protecting the children. No longer in envelope: photo taken by a German of a German convoy; picture from Time Magazine of some "kids" in the Germany Army. He said the Battery caught some ages 13-16. 290. 6/10/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: death notice he found in Regensberg; membership card of a German woman in the Nazi Work Front. He occupied her home when he was in Nuremberg. 291. 6/9/45-Germany. Going tomorrow to Jewish services on Sunday instead of Saturday. The Chaplain was going to talk about the B'nai B'rith. They put up a flagpole at their present position and are now looking for an American flag. (Could this be the American flag he sent home?) 292. 6/10/45-Germany. Jewish service was good. 6/11/45-Yesterday went to the Battalion office. They were sending his name in to be Defense Counsel for the General Court-Martial Trials. Today he received a note that his name has also gone forward to Brigade to be Assistant Trial Judge Advocate. "That's even worse." Prosecute and draw up records. He prefers defense counsel. Has been a TJA of Special Courts for 2 years. No longer in envelope: clipping on where to send troops now that the war in Europe is over. 293. 6/12/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes article about the 3rd Army remaining in Europe. 294. 6/13/45-Germany. Went to an I&E class for instructors. No longer in envelope: Patton's speech to the troops before coming to France. Dad wasn't there for the speech because he was already on the continent with the 1st Army under Gen. Bradley. Also no longer in envelope: Clipping about the number of men who have 85 points. 295. 6/14/45-Germany. Went to Jewish services on a Thursday. He takes the men with him so he can't miss the services. 296. 6/16/45-Germany. Received news they are not going to be in the Army of Occupation. They will be placed in Category IV and leave to France and then home. This process will take 3-9 months. His wrist is taped up so it's hard to hold a pen and write. He's not sure how he injured his wrist. 297. 6/17/45-Germany. Tomorrow he plans to go to Munich. Wants to see Hitler's Beer Garden, Dachau and other historical sites. 298. 6/19/45-Germany. He's putting off the operation on his jaw to see about returning to the States. He doesn't want to be in the hospital in case the Battery is sent back to the US. Doctor said he can wait, but not too long. They will be removing a wisdom tooth and now found there is a cyst that is eating into his jawbone that needs to be removed. Has to take the Battalion on a tour of Hitler's Berchtesgaden tomorrow, which is a 400 mile round trip. 6/20/45-Germany. Telegram to Benjamin Rosow (Natalie's father) wishing him a Happy Father's Day. 299. 6/21/45-Germany. Been to Munich and Berchtesgaden. Extremely descriptive account of his trip on the road to Landshut. Discusses in detail the various groups of people on the roads. They have been dropped from the 3rd Army to be placed in Category IV and "now technically speaking" they are Communication Zone troops. 300. 6/22/45-Germany. Natalie received the bayonets. The one with the patent leather was a dress bayonet, the other an Officer's dress dagger with a silver finish that was worn off. He picked them up in Gera. The books came from a German General's office in Langensalza. 301. 6/23/45-Germany. Men put on a show with music and skits. No longer in envelope: program from the show. 302. 6/24/45-Germany. Continuation of description of his trip to Munich. No longer in envelope: postcard of Munich Square with "Hitler" buildings. 303. 6/25/45-Germany. Continuation of his tour of Munich and St. Ludwig's Church. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes photo of fireplace at Eagle's Nest. Also no longer in envelope: Life Magazine picture of Hitler's Beer Garden; picture postcard of Hitler's Beer Garden. 304. 6/27/45-Germany. Went to Nuremburg to Officer's PX. Bought "Hershey" bars-which is the nickname for overseas bars indicating length of time served overseas. He is entitled to wear sets of 3 bars. Nuremburg is large, crowded and ruined because of the bombing. Tonight the Colonel had them all dress in ties and field jackets and had their photos taken for the Battalion record. 305. 6/29/45-Germany. McMullan is putting Dad in to receive the Bronze Star Medal, but wants Dad to write the recommendation! "We" (Battery? Battalion?) received official credit for another battle participation star for Central Europe. 306. 6/30/45-Germany. Bronze Star recommendation has to be approved by the Colonel, so he doubts if it will be approved. Described his trip to Munich, Alps and Dachau. They are moving "slave labor people out as fast as they can." Toured the camp. More descriptions and comparisons to Orhdruf. No longer in envelope: a few mimeographed pages prepared by the Battalion, which indicate some idea "of our travels".
Box 3, Folder 1

[Correspondence] 1945 July

Scope and Contents

306. (same number as above) 7/1/45-Germany. Still uncertain of his future. Pondering if he should request transfer to the Judge Advocate Department. Natalie had sent him a program from an event she attended in Los Angeles. It was a reception for General Patton and General Doolittle. At the reception, an actress by the name of Ella Logan put on a skit. When he flew home from O.C.S. he was on the plane with Ella Logan. She was married to Hollywood producer Fred Finklehoffe and they were kind enough to let Dad spend a night at their home in Los Angeles. No longer in envelope: clipping of a friend from San Francisco who is also an "expert with plexi-glass." Dad made two hearts out of plexi-glass, put photos of Natalie between the two hearts. Also no longer in envelope: AFN radio program. 307. 7/5/45-Germany. Went to the hospital at the 101st Evacuation Hospital in Regensburg to check on his cyst. The dental surgeon recommended immediate attention. Seems he infection in his jaw has spread and is causing the problem in his wrist. He is scheduled for his operation tomorrow. 308. 7/7/45-Germany. Operation lasted 1 1/2 hours. Cyst located in lower left jaw at the rear and under the jawbone. Cyst almost had eaten through the jawbone. They are giving him sulphur pills and "this new drug penicillin." Had to cut the nerves controlling the left half of the lip and jaw so has no feeling. But they say it will come back (it doesn't). Received package from her with a can of lobster and a Parker 51 fountain pen. Recommendation for Bronze Star medal went through and is now up to the Board of the XII Corps. 309. 7/9/45-Germany. Lt. Colonel came into the ward to see another patient and turned out he went to Lowell High School and was on the debating team with Dad. He's receiving Penicillin shots every 3 hours. 4 pills every 4 hours-2 are a sulphur drug, but isn't sure what the other drug is. At 8:30 every night, the "ward boy" brings in a tray with shot glasses full of bourbon, one for each officer. If the ward isn't full, each officer gets two shots. 310. 7/10/45-Germany. Dentist who operated on his jaw and a consultant dental surgeon check on him daily. He's doing well. 311. 7/11/45-Germany. Someone in the ward received the Silver Star medal. 312. 7/13/45-Germany. He's out of the hospital and back at the Battery with a gauze drain in his mouth. 313. 7/14/45 - Germany. New CO-Major Adams. Colonel has been transferred. No longer in envelope: Stars and Stripes article on discharge program for officers. 314. 7/23/45-Germany. Western Union telegram-"operation over." 315. 7/15/45-Germany. Today they lifted the non-fraternization ban so he went to a German photographer and had photos taken. Photographer was going to fix the photo so that the side of his face wouldn't look so swollen. Sent her a package with the steel from the Nazi swastika from Nuremburg, a French bayonet, a few boxes, and 2 copies of his Battery history in a binder with a photo of all the officers in the Battery. 316. 7/16/45-Germany. Masclo-facial (sic) expert said his jaw is healing well. Battery preparing to leave for France. No longer in envelope: Had already sent photo, but was sending the negative given to him by the man who took the photo of him. Also no longer in envelope: photo of Hitler's Eagle's nest. Sent her a package of the khaki clothes he came over with, a trench coat, some foreign coins, the base of a 90 mm shell and the coon-skin hat that they wore at Camp Kilmer. 317. 7/18/45-Germany. Officers are being transferred out of the Battery. He was made Battery Commander, then got call he wasn't going to France. Instead was being transferred with seven other officers to the 38th AAA Brigade in Munich. Had lunch in Munich and were told they were to be transferred to the 27th AAA Group located around Bad Tolz, south of Munich. Arrived there and were told they were to be part of the Army of Occupation with the 398 AAA (AW) Battalion (SP) Battery "A" at Meisbach, about 15 miles east of Bad Tolz. AW = automatic weapons. SP = self-propelled. 318. 7/22/45-Germany. V-Mail. Back in hospital. Operated on again yesterday. Either didn't remove the entire cyst or an infection has set in. 319. 7/23/45-Germany. Was at the 104th Evacuation Hospital at the south eastern edge of Tegernsee. Detailed description of his jaw situation. Two hour surgery in operating room with original dentist and a masclo-facial (sic) expert. 320. 7/23/45-Germany. Recuperating. 321. 7/25/45-Hospital is in Bad Wiessee on the western side of Tegnersee, a beautiful small lake. 322. 7/26/45-Germany. Saw movie "Pillow to Post." Funny movie, but hard to laugh without hurting. Surgeon General of the Army from Washington came to inspect the hospital. 323. 7/27/45-Germany. Bought some postcards of the vicinity, which is very beautiful. 324. 7/29/45-Germany. Still in hospital. 325. 7/31/45-Germany. Still in hospital.
Box 3, Folder 2

[Correspondence] 1945 August

Scope and Contents

326. 8/1/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Saw a movie. 327. 8/3/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Played poker. 328. 8/4/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Trying to get a Bavarian dress made for Natalie. 329. 8/5/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Doctor said it will take a long time to cure his case since the jaw bone needs to re-grow. The wound is draining, but he's smoking his pipe!! 330. 8/7/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Another patient who is a French Warrant Officer shared his two bottles of champagne with him, one at lunch, one in the evening. 331. 8/8/45-Germany. Still in hospital. References the atomic bomb in Japan and hopes it will "bring Japan to its knees and begging for unconditional surrender." 332. 8/9/45-Germany. Still in hospital. More references to the atomic bombs. No longer in envelope: Time Magazine picture of pregnant women of Bad Wiessee where this hospital is located. 333. 8/10/45-Germany. Still in hospital. Heard on radio that the AP had monitored a Japanese broadcast to the Swiss and Swedish governments that Japan would accept the unconditional surrender terms providing that their Emperor retains his sovereign power. 334. Germany. Still in hospital. Been in hospital 3 weeks. Still no Japanese surrender. No longer in envelope: Stars & Stripes on some soldier's comments about going home. 335. 8/13/45-Germany. Still in hospital. No surrender yet. No longer in envelope: article on the elevator at Hitler's Eagle's Nest. Also a picture of Hitler's home. 336. 8/14/45-Germany. Still in hospital. No surrender yet. No longer in envelope: scenes of the town of Bad Wiessee. 337. 8/15/45-Germany. Still in hospital. The war is over and he's being discharged from the hospital. Will leave hospital tomorrow and return to the Battalion. No longer in envelope: photo of himself with his swollen jaw. 338. 8/16/45. Germany. Back at the Battery. 339. 8/17/45-Germany. Misses her and is sad to miss their second wedding anniversary. No longer in envelope: photo of himself. 340. 8/19/45-Germany. Put in charge of a group of men going to Munich. Went to the Officer's PX and got a robe and lightweight pj's. Had to take the men to register them with the MP's so they wouldn't be picked up on the streets. Turned out they weren't in proper uniform so couldn't be registered. They needed to wear helmet liners until 5pm and then you can wear "over-seas hats". It was 2pm so he took them to the Red Cross until 5pm. 341. 8/20/45-Germany. Finally found a Victrola to play the record of her voice that she sent in March of 1944. They are also listening to music on a German radio that picks up short-wave direct from the US. No longer in envelope: 2 postcard pictures of himself and 2 larger pictures. 342. 8/21/45-Germany. Went to Battalion Headquarters for a Retreat Parade. 343. 8/22/45-Germany. It's his and Natalie's second wedding anniversary. 344. 8/24/45-Germany. Another lieutenant in another Battery was in his Sunday School class. 345. 8/25/45-Germany. Was supposed to be transferred to another Battery that was short on officers, but the Captain asked him what he thought and he said he'd prefer to stay unless ordered to go. Captain didn't transfer him. 346. 8/26/45-Germany. Other lieutenant is transferring so Dad will become the Supply Officer for the Battery. And he "takes over the military government for a city of 6,000 inhabitants." The Battery has very poor living conditions. 347. 8/27/45-Germany. Tried to find quarters for the men. People who live in a large castle said no. 348. 8/2/9/45-Germany. Participated in a surprise raid where they searched some homes in a city around 20 miles from where he is now. He found a cat and nine tails hidden behind a door. The homeowner said he used it "to clean his clothes." He visited his "city" today and met the woman who will be his interpreter. No longer in envelope: article on "G.I. hairdos." 349. 8/30/45-Germany. Battalion will be moving to Dachau Concentration Camp. They will be relieving another outfit that has been there, but is now returning to the US. Gave an I & E class on the Judicial System in the US. No longer in envelope: Picture of the Eagle's Nest and a Stars & Stripes article on "How to Undress in Public."
Box 3, Folder 3

[Correspondence] 1945 September

Scope and Contents

350. 9/1/45-Germany. They are moving into the SS barracks at Dachau on Tuesday. Went to the Hospital at Bad Weissee on Tegernsee (lake) to have his jaw checked. Jaw is healing well. He was made Payroll Officer. The city he is in charge of is Hausham. Went there today and met with someone who had spent 3 years at Dachau as a prisoner. He was a musician by profession. Gave Dad a bottle of 1937 vintage wine and also his 25 caliber pistol. The Chief Inspector gave Dad a Nazi Red Cross weapon-"saw of some sort" to amputate on the battlefield. Also gave a ride to a young Jewish man who had survived Dachau. No longer in envelope: a program for a German vaudeville show that was performed at the Battery. 351. 9/2/45-Germany. V-J Day. Got up at 3am to hear the broadcast of the Japanese surrendering. 9/3/45-Germany. cable. Happy Anniversary to Natalie. 9/3/45-Germany. cable. "I have left the hospital." 352. 9/6/45-Germany. At Dachau. They eat in the former SS Officers' Mess Hall with the 135 AAA Gun Battalion. Prisoners' orchestra plays for them at lunch and dinner. White linen tablecloths. Detailed description of his quarters. No longer in envelope: a photo-didn't say of what but wrote that one of the fellows thought she'd "get a kick out of it." 353. 9/7/45-Germany. He is now the Supply Officer for the Battery and is trying to straighten it out. 354. 9/8/45-Germany. Officers have horses to ride. More detailed description of his quarters. 355. 9/9/45-Germany. Description of the Officers' Club at Dachau Concentration Camp. Now houses thousands of German prisoners, including the former commanders of Dachau and Buchenwald. The War Crimes Board is in "connection" with the Camp. He eats his meals with the members of the Board and when they found out he was an attorney, they suggested he request transfer to the Board. He said no thanks, would prefer to not be "essential personnel" and would like to go home. The former prisoners published a booklet on Dachau and he'll bring it home. 356. 9/11/45-Germany. He's officer of the Day and Officer of the Guard. Went to the crematorium, furnaces, etc. and writes a very detailed description. 357. 9/12/45-Germany. Still working on the supply mess. 358. 9/13/45-Germany. Men are transferring out, but not him. 359. 9/14/45-Germany. Saw Rita Hayworth movie. The Battle Star has been denied so won't get those points. Bronze Star medal recommendations were sent to the wrong place so doesn't know if that will ever happen. No longer in envelope: Couldn't attend war criminal hearing, so included the pass in the letter. 360. 9/15/45-Germany. Still straightening out the supply mess. Told Natalie it's ok for her to buy a silver fox coat. 361. 9/16/45-Germany. Lots of discussion about "points". His desk in his quarters faces the main entrance to the Dachau Concentration Camp and he's watching jeep after jeep arrive to tour the camp. 362. 9/17/45-Germany. Not much in letter. He misses Natalie. 363. 9/19/45-Germany. Detailed description of German stage show at the camp. Colonel came and was happy with the job Dad did straightening out the supply mess. No longer in envelope: picture of Hausham. 364. 9/20/45-Germany. Jaw healing well per new x-ray. PW is making him a case for his camera and one for his field glasses. 365. 9/21/45-Germany. Description of their officers' quarters. No longer in envelope: photo of quarters. 366. 9/22/45-Germany. Went to the Crematorium and was surprised to see that the PW's were making a "sort of shrine to honor the some 238,000 who were cremated there." They are making wax dummies to explain the Camp. Former prisoners are working as guides and are telling their stories in English. No longer in envelope: skull and crossbones of the SS troops, taken from a cap "here at Dachau." 367. 9/23/45-Germany. Discussion of point system. No longer in envelope: photos. 368. 9/25/45-Germany. Received the tobacco pouch and fountain pen. No longer in envelope: photo of the War Crimes Court and the accused. 369. 9/26/45-Germany. Doing a lot of horseback riding. No longer in envelope: more photos with information written on the back. 370. 9/28/45-Germany. New Battery Commander. Former Commander moving to Battalion Headquarters. Dad now commands the 2nd Platoon and handles supply for the Battery. 371. 9/29/45-Germany. They received a battle star for Dover, granted for "ground combat, defense of England." Should have had one for the Battle of the Bulge, but they haven't received it yet. No longer in envelope: photos (doesn't say of what). 372. 9/30/45-Germany. Had visitors from Battalion Headquarters today.
Box 3, Folder 4

[Correspondence] 1945 October

Scope and Contents

373. 10/1/45-Germany. Discussion of point system and new Commander. 374. 10/2/45-Germany. Captain told him that tomorrow he would be relieved of the supply "problem" and "would officially become the Investigating Officer and the Defense Council for Special Court Martials." No longer in envelope: Life Magazine article on sleeping on the Queen Mary. 375. 10/7/45-Germany. He's been at Battalion Headquarters in Nuremburg trying cases. 376. 10/8/45-Germany. Went on a tour of the Dachau Concentration Camp and took 36 photos. No longer in envelope: comics. 377. 10/9/45-Germany. Saw a movie in the Theater at the Dachau Concentration Camp. Bought some Shuko cars (like in the article) that he will be sending home, along with some perfume from Paris. He's having a pair of riding boots made at the Camp by a PW. No longer in envelope: photos of the main stadium at Nuremburg taken before the swastika was blown off. Also no longer in envelope, article about Nuremburg toys. 378. 10/10/45-Germany. Watched a movie. No longer in envelope: photos from his trip to the Finance Office in Rosenheim, Germany. The photo of the little girl is taken outside the Finance Office. Photo of door that says "Gemeinde Hausham" on it is the entrance to the City Hall of that community and is "where I performed my duties when I was there." Photo of Burger Brau Keller where the attempt was made on Hitler's life. It's now an American Red Cross canteen. Photo of Dachau Officers' Mess and a waiter. Photo of the autobahn. Photo of the outside of the War Crimes Court. Interior shots didn't turn out well. 379. 10/12/45-Germany. They have started a Summary Court on the post to try men for infractions of the uniform regulations, speeding, etc. 380. 10/13/45-Germany. Men shot a deer and they ate it for dinner. 381. 10/14/45-Germany. More discussion on the points system. 382. 10/15/45-Germany. Took the Chaplain on a tour to the solitary confinement cells that are housing the Commander of Auschwitz, the "bone crusher" and the head of the crematory. 383. 10/16/45-Germany. Riding boots almost ready. He might have a pair of riding breeches made. Went into Munich to take photos of the mausoleum of the first Nazi party members killed. No longer in envelope: article about the wax figures. 384. 10/17/45-Germany. Didn't get to go to Switzerland. 385. 10//19/45-Germany. Saw the New York Rockettes perform in Munich. 386. 10/20/45-Germany. Another officer leaves to go home, which puts him at the top of the list. No longer in envelope: pictures of camouflaged German planes that he says she should use a magnifying glass to see the planes hidden in the trees. Other pictures are self-explanatory or have notes on the back. 387. 10/22/45-Germany. Tonight O.D. again, where he has the responsibility for all "these thousands of PW's and SS troops." "A PW hung himself the other day and last night a number of them were shot trying to escape". "Last week an SS prisoner got away somehow or another and came back with a civilian presumably his brother. His explanation was that he went to check on how his brother would fare for the winter months." He brought the brother back to the prison so he could have food and shelter! The prisoner was locked back up and they sent the brother on his way. In the past few days, several thousand more SS men have been shipped to the prison. 388. 10/23/45-Germany. There are now around 30,000 people at the camp. German girl asked to see him personally and told him that her mother had just died and her father was an SS prisoner and she wanted Dad to release her father so he could go with her. Dad commented that had she asked an SS officer for such a request, she would have been placed in arrest or the father would have been killed in cold blood. But since he was an American and being "somewhat" human, he recommended that the father be permitted to attend the funeral under guard. The Colonel approved this recommendation. No longer in envelope: pictures of a square in Munich where the two mausoleums' of the bodies of the 16 original Nazis killed in the first Putsch, which failed. The bodies are no longer there since they were buried in steel coffins with swastikas on top and this represented a Nazi shrine. In one of the buildings, the Munich Pact was signed by Chamberlain. 389. 10/24/45-Germany. New Commanding officer has relieved him as Defense Counsel and made him TJA. He has a trial to prosecute next week in Nuremberg. 390. 10/25/45-Germany. Has to go up to Headquarters next week for the court martial. Received an order that they have to turn in some of their horses. They are supposed to only have 25 and they have 40. Will go out riding tomorrow and try out his new riding boots. 391. 10/26/45-Germany. O.D. again. Approximately 30,000 prisoners. Prisoners escape, even when he has been O.D. But the O.D. is relieved of the responsibility for their escape. No one knows how the prisoners escape. 392. 10/27/45-Germany. Has to go up to Battalion to sit on a Board of Officers to determine whether one of the men from another Battery is a "mental case" and should be sent to a mental institution and discharged from the Army. Seems he got drunk, "went out of his head and shot at several of the boys as well as others and then hit somebody over the head with a hammer." Men want him to organize a dance for them, so he has to find a place and an orchestra. Another service man asked him to represent him in his court martial. No longer in envelope: Said he enclosed in letter #391 photos of the camp. Photo was of the pill box which the SS used to guard prisoners in the enclosure. That enclosure is now the SS compound. No longer in this envelope: pictures of Nuremberg and the walled inner city.
Box 3, Folder 5

[Correspondence] 1945 November

Scope and Contents

393. 11/2/45-Germany. Went up to Battalion Headquarters for the hearing to decide if "the enlisted man should be discharged form the service due to having bad traits of character or habits tending to lower the morale and efficiency of the men of his Battery." Discharge would be a "blue discharge"-discharge without honor, which would make it difficult to get a job back in the States. Also had a Special Court Trial for boy who was found sleeping and drinking on guard duty. Sentence was 6 months at hard labor, and forfeiting 2/3 of his pay for 5 months - which was lucky because the crime calls for the death penalty! Went to the Nuremburg Opera House to see "The Magic Flute" and "nearly froze to death because there's no heat in the Opera House, few doors and plenty of holes from bullets and shells." No longer in envelope: Program in English from the performance. 394. 11/3/45-Germany. No longer in envelope: No longer in envelope: Forgot to enclose the program from the Nuremburg Opera in letter #393 so wrote that he had enclosed it in this envelope. 395. 11/4/45-Germany. Will be sending home some Schuco toy cars he bought for her and for friends' kids. Also bought some Molluriaux perfume for her (couldn't read his writing so not sure of the correct spelling). 396. 11/5/45-Germany. O.D. Sleeping in the guardhouse. No longer in envelope: sent pictures so she can "make believe she's touring this country" with him. No description of the pictures. 397. 11/6/45-Germany. New C.O. of the Battalion in Nuremburg wanted to transfer him to Headquarters, and make dad his Adjutant, and dad said no. No longer in envelope: pictures of Nuremburg of a Coliseum the Nazis were building. Around the Coliseum were stacked blocks of marble, which were never placed. The intent was to make this area a "top Nazi shrine." 398. 11/7/45-Germany. Tried to schedule a dance for the men, but girls wouldn't come so had to cancel it. 399. 11/8/45-Germany. Spent the day investigating a Court Martial. He'll be the Special Defense Counsel in the case in the Battalion at Dachau. 400. 11/9/45-Germany. Description of the Court Martial. 401. 11/10/45-Germany. Snow at Dachau. PW's make a box for him to send home presents. Plus a surprise-"the presents are inside of it." (Perhaps this is the little suitcase the PW made for him.) He enclosed seven bottles of perfume and some toys cars for her inside, with is bathrobe acting as a cushion. 402. 11/11/45-Germany. Had to drive up to Nuremburg in the snow. Freezing cold in the open jeep. Not sure how the German people will get through the winter, "but they brought it on themselves." A lot of the people have built crude shelters for themselves out of the debris. Wrote that "for some reason, the people haven't done much to help themselves or even try and fix up the city." 403. 11/13/45-Germany. In Nuremburg for a Court Martial, then asked to stay on longer to be on a Board of Officers to investigate a theft at the Nuremburg PX Sales Store. Asked the CO to be relieved of the TJA job since he had a lot of points and would be going home soon and it would be good to train someone else for the job. CO said ok. 404. 11/16/45-Germany. Back at Dachau. He's getting rid of his various jobs in anticipation of going home. No longer in envelope: pictures of himself in front of the Munich Pact building and one of him in the Captain's room looking at a book while seated on a cot with several other men. 405. 11/17/45-Germany. The War Crimes Trial of Dachau personnel started. He plans to go watch on Monday. The War Crimes group said they would be having about 200 visiting officers for the trials so needed a larger mess hall, and they took over what was had been Dad's mess hall and most of the orchestra, leaving them with a piano player and a violinist. Will be bringing home 125 photos of Dachau Camp, before and after liberation. "Some of them are pretty gruesome to say the least, but they give the story of this camp as it was and is." 406. 11/18/45-Germany. Received orders to come home!! 407. 11/20/45-Germany. He's being transferred to a Field Artillery Battalion in Munich proper. He's trying to get all his belongings into a Val Pac, a zipper bag, and a Musette Bag. He received his dress blouse back from the tailor with the 3rd Army patch and overseas stripes sewed on. He got a new camera, a Zeiss Ikon with a 4.5 lens. No longer in envelope: picture of Natalie's "pin up wall paper", a picture of the Hungarian orderly with "Dachau" the dog. 408. 11/11/45-Germany. V-mail in envelope with discontinued address. No longer in envelope: some views of Camp Dachau during the liberation and after. "Not so pleasant-but they're truthful." V-Mail 11/22/45-Germany. Sending Natalie his new address. 409. 11/22/45-Germany. Now in Munich. New address-"B" Battery-546 F.A.Battalion. The plan is to go to Camp Baltimore in France on November 30th. C.O. made him the Battery Commander so he is responsible for everything in the Battery for the return trip. 410. 11/24/45-Germany. Leaving tomorrow. He would like to go by truck convoy, not train. The colonel wants to make him Train Commander and he isn't interested. He would prefer to go by truck and when the convoy stops at Metz for a night he would like to see the family he stayed with in Thionville.
Box 3, Folder 6

[Correspondence] 1945 December

Scope and Contents

411. 12/2/45-France. Camp Baltimore. He came by truck and "was in charge of the second serial of the convoy." After leaving Munich, they traveled to Kaiserslautern for the first day and stayed overnight. They were to have a winterized camp when they arrived, but instead it was a large building with no heat, no lights, no cots, and few whole windows. Women were wandering around and Moroccan soldiers were stealing everything. Clothes were stolen and several duffel bags in the jeeps were slit open and all the clothes taken. Everyone is eating K-Rations but he's eating "ritzy"-items that Natalie had sent him. Then they traveled to Metz and the set up was "swell"-buildings, cots, heat and hot meals. Also Red Cross clubs, shower rooms, ping pong rooms and a theater. 412. 12/3/45-France. They drove into the camp to the strains of "White Christmas" being played over the camp loud speakers. The camp is a huge tent city. More details on the process needed to get ready to leave for home. 413. 12/4/45-France. More about getting ready to leave and the currency exchanges. 414. 12/5/45-France. Men are getting checked for VD. 415. 12/6/45-France. They are supposed to leave on Dec. 11th for Marseilles. They will be in 40x8 cars on the train. No longer in envelope: photos, but he didn't say of what. 416. 12/8/45-France. As Battery commander, he's in charge of the "pistol box" which contains any foreign weapons the men have collected. He has around 140 foreign pistols in one large box that takes four men to carry. "This box must be in my room on the boat and travel with me as the government will not accept the responsibility for them. Then when we arrive in the States, I have to give them out to the men who turned them in." Different ships at the Port to return them home: Liberty ships which are just large enough to handle one Battalion of about 570 men, where as the Victory ships can accommodate about three Battalions. His separation center will be Camp McArthur in Los Angeles. Not numbered: Christmas card to Natalie. 417. 12/11/45-France. Camp Baltimore. Date delayed to the 13th to put coal stoves in all 40x8's and coaches. They are scheduled to ride in coaches, which sounds good, but they usually don't have any windows in them. They should arrive at the Port Staging area on the 15th and board the ship about the 17th. The ground is frozen in the Camp and there is a shortage of coal and wood for the fires. Not numbered: 12/12//45-France. No longer in envelope: some postcards showing the interiors of some of the houses in Germany. Not numbered: 12/17/45-Marseilles, France. Spent three days on the train, which was an old German 3rd class one and "all beat up." Should board the boat tomorrow morning at 11:00 am. The boat trip should take about 14 days, then 5 days by train and a few days for processing. He will be on a Liberty ship named "James Hoban."
Box 3, Folder 7

[Correspondence] 1946 January

Scope and Contents

Not numbered: 1/1/46 – Telegram from the James Hoban. Happy New Year. Will arrive in the States on Jan. 5. Not numbered: 1/5/45 – Arrived safely. He is at Camp Patrick Henry in Virginia.
Box 3, Folder 8

[Letters to Madam Wolf from Peggy] 1945

Scope and Contents

Two letters in French to Harry's wife. Includes three photographs of Peggy.


Box 8, envelope 1

Harry K. Wolff Jr. undated

Box 9

Anti-Aircraft Artillery Officer's Candidate School group photograph, Camp Bowie, NC 1943

Scope and Contents

Panomoramic photograph of the members of course no. 48, December 14, 1942-March 4, 1943, Camp Bowie, North Carolina. Signed on the back by the 48 of the men pictured, with names and addresses.
Box 8, envelope 2

France 1944 June 15, 25

Box 8, envelope 3

Nazi flag, Cherbourg 1944 June

Box 8, envelope 4-6

Laval, France 1944 August

Box 8, envelope 7

France 1944 September-October

Box 8, envelope 8-11

Soldiers, France, Germany 1944

Box 8, envelope 12

Transport plane circa 1944

Box 8, envelope 13

American soldiers circa 1944

Box 8, envelope 14

Army snapshots circa 1944

Box 8, envelope 15

Holzkirchen 1945 August-September

Box 8, envelope 16

Schleirsee, Bavaria 1945 August-September

Box 8, envelope 17

Meisbach 1945 August-September

Box 8, envelope 18

Hausham 1945 September

Box 8, envelope 19

Along the autobahn 1945 September

Box 8, envelope 20

War Crimes Court, Dachau 1945 September

Box 8, envelope 21

Germans circa 1945 September

Box 8, envelope 22-25

Munich 1945 September-October

Box 8, envelope 26

St. Genevieve, France 1944 December 8-9

Box 8, envelope 27

American soldiers, France 1945 January 30

Box 8, envelope 28

France 1945 February

Box 8, envelope 29-32

Thionville, France 1945 February

Box 8, envelope 33

Paris 1945 October

Box 8, envelope 34-36

Nuremberg, Soldiers Field 1945 October

Box 8, envelope 37-41

Dachau prisoners and camp 1945

Box 8, envelope 42

Soldiers, equipment, France 1945

Box 8, envelope 43

Hitler's Eagle's Nest 1945

Box 8, envelope 44-60

Dachau 1945

Box 8, envelope 61

Aboard Liberty Ship James Hobon 1945

Box 8, envelope 62-67

Soldiers, military camps, equipment, battlefields undated

Box 8, envelope 68

Unidentified undated

Box 8, envelope 69-72

Negatives 1944-1945



Box 4

Banners and flags

Scope and Contents

Nazi Banner (6'x3'5"); French flag (4'x3'); American flag and gold cord with tassel (5'x3'--48 stars with gold fringe).
Box 4


Scope and Contents

German Iron Cross; Swastika.
Box 4

Riding boots

Scope and Contents

Prisoner-made leather riding boots originally stuffed with October 22, 1945 edition of Stars and Stripes.
Box 4

First aid packet--U.S. Government Carlisle Model

Scope and Contents

Red tin with large metal key.
Box 4

Camouflage fabric

Box 5

SS fezzes

Scope and Contents

3; burgundy with skull and eagle (from Dachau).
Box 5

Winterschlact im Osten (Ostmedaille) 1941-1942

Scope and Contents

4 medals with ribbons, in original paper envelopes. Easter (Russian) front.
Box 5

Kriegs Berdienfifreuz 2. Klaffe mif Gchwerten 1939

Scope and Contents

7 medals with ribbons. War Merit Cross. In original paper envelopes.
Box 5

Kuban shield 1943

Scope and Contents

Lagunen/Krymaskaja. Cut from uniforms. 6 medals.
Box 5

Belt buckles and belt

Scope and Contents

Luftwaffe belt buckle showing a flying eagle carrying a swastika. Wehrmacht Heer EM/NCO's belt buckle with leather tab; 1940 B. Harmann Ludensheid stamp on leather tab; attached to a woven belt made from D-Day parachute material. Hitler Youth (HJ) cast alloy belt buckle; RMS M/44 stamp on underside.
Box 5

Armbands, patches and insignia

Scope and Contents

SS fabric patch insignia (black and white skull); Luftwaffe embroidered patch (gold on black fabric cut from uniform); Swastika armband; Reichsbahn armband; 2 NSDAP Nazi Party armbands; death's head/grinninng skull pennant; 5 embroidered Nazi eagles and swastikas and 5 cloth Third Reich inignias (cut from uniforms); 17 cloth Third Reich insignias with red dots, and a strip of red dots; two shoulder straps, one with pip.
Box 5


Scope and Contents

German Red Cross dagger/scabbard--DRK Hewer (marked 33, serrated edge and blunt tip). Luftwaffe dagger and scabbard (marked Robert Klass Solingen). German dress bayonet dagger (9.75" blade marked "Original Eickhorn Soligen").
Box 5

Luftwaffe bayonet knot (Faustreimen)

Box 5

German canteen

Box 5

Grenade and shrapnel fragments

Box 5

Dinner knives

Scope and Contents

1 marked Rostfrei Solingen; 2 marked National Plate England--Stainless--Hand Ground "Betty's Cafe"; 1 marked with Nazi symbol and "WH" 400--Soligen Rostfrei.
Box 5

2 Fragments from 50' swastika at Nuremberg

Scope and Contents

Destroyed by Harry's unit at request of General Patton. See Box 7 Folder 9 for newspaper clippings showing the swastika and the stadium.
Box 5

Shilling coin



Box 7, Folder 4

Guidebooks to Paris and northern France

Box 7, Folder 5


Scope and Contents

1944 Army Road Map of France; American Red Cross Map of Paris; Plan Chaix Paris Metro; March of the XX Corps from St. Jacque to Verdun, France, 600 miles in 30 days, One of the Fastest Sustained Marches in History; German map of Cherbourg; handdrawn map of Germany; handdrawn map of 120 AAA Gun Battalion.
Box 7, Folder 6

Nazi High Command photos

Related Materials

Possibly from a press kit.
Box 7, Folder 7

Nazi flag postcards

Scope and Contents

One for each military division.
Box 7, Folder 8

[Negative envelopes]

Scope and Contents

Original negative envelopes, some in German.
Box 7, Folder 9

[Newspaper clippings/photographs of Zeppelin Stadium]

Scope and Contents

Photographs of the swastika destroyed by Harry's unit. See Box 5 for fragments.
Box 7, Folder 10

[Newspaper clippings]

Box 7, Folder 12

[Printed ephemera]

Scope and Contents

Messerschmitt GMBH Blank Stationery (2 pieces); Buch Und Schwert Bookmark; Chateau Landon label; 2 BFW labels; Memorial bard for a German soldier; Christmas greetings from General Patton.
Box 7, Folder 13

[Programs and menus]

Scope and Contents

George Black and the Rising Generation, Strike a New Note, London; Inga Laxness, Camp Blandford, February 21, 1944; 120AAABN Presents Hi Buddy!, Somewhere in France; The Famous Music-Hall Show, Hotel Maximilian, Gmund/Tegernsee; The Magic Flute, Nurnberg Opera House; The Men of the 3103d Signal Service Battalion, You've Had It!; Folies Bergere; Casino de Paris; 120 AAA Presents Scrapbook Revue; Menu No. 3 (ration contents).
Box 7, Folder 15

Soldbuch Zugleith Personalausweis [Nazi Paybook]

Box 7, Folder 14

[Tickets, receipts, passes]

Scope and Contents

Tickets: Olympia Theatre, Paris; Folies Bergere; Casino de Paris. Passes: Dachau Concentration Camp visitors pass; Post Dachau Officer Club; War Crimes Court visitor pass; German and French passes (blank); receipt from Grand Marche, Metz.
Box 9


Scope and Contents

Copies of Stars and Stripes, many of which were sent to Harry's wife (envelopes included); special overseas editions for the Armed Forces of Time and Newsweek, both dated May 14, 1945; assorted clippings from French and German newspapers; 3 copies of S.H.A.E.F. [Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces] newspaper.


Box 7, Folder 3

[Military documents]

Scope and Contents

Paul Wolf German Passport with 3rd Reich Symbol; Indoctrination for Return to US memo; General Orders Number 53 Extract (commendation).
Box 10

[History of the 120 AAA Gun Battalion]

Scope and Contents

Photocopy of a binder documenting the origin, members, and history of the 120 AAA Gun Battalion's movements, written by Wolff, and referred to in letters dated May 2 and 20, 1945 (Box 2 Folder 7), and July 1 and 15, 1945 (Box 3 Folder 1). It includes demographic and other information (civilian backgrounds, religions, birthplaces, occupations, prior earnings, ages) for each officer and soldier in the battalion, as well as U.S. Army information and education materials for dicussion groups and re-orientation to civilian life. Originals of two of the documents can be found in Box 7 Folder 3.

Postcards and Souvenir Photographs

Box 8, envelope 73

Bad Wiessee circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 74

Der Berghof Oberfalsberg circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 75

Das Braune Haus circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 76

Cherbourg circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 77

Christmas/Winter circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 78

German military circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 79

Gera circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 80

Hitler circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 81

Laval circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 82

Munich circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 83

Reichsfuhrerschule Tolz circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 84

Verdun circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 87

Souvenir photographs--Germany circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 85

Winchester Cathedral circa 1945

Box 8, envelope 86

Souvenir photographs--military circa 1945

Box 7, Folder 11

[Postcard sets]

Scope and Contents

3 Verdun Postcard Books; 3 Sets of 20 Photographs of Paris; Postcard set from Cimetiere Americain de Romagne; Postcard set of Douaumont 19 Juin 1938 - Inauguration du Monument aux Combattants Israelites Morts pour la France 1914-1918.

Books and Publications

Box 6, Folder 1

Ausgabe Deutsch-Polnisch - Teil II and Teil III

Scope and Contents

2 copies of each.
Box 6, Folder 2

Bewahrung Fronterlebnisse hessischer und thüringischer Soldaten

Box 6, Folder 3

Bildsprecher Deutsch Für Soldaten - Grundausbildung and Sonderausbildung

Box 6, Folder 4

Dachau - A Typrewritten manuscript compiled by Dachau Prisoners and the U.S. Army

Box 6, Folder 5

Der Dienstunterricht in Der Luftwaffe

Box 6, Folder 6

Entente 1944 August, 1944 September

Scope and Contents

Nos. 31 and 32.
Box 6, Folder 8

Hitler in Polen

Box 6, Folder 9

Das Judentum - das wahre Gesicht der Sowjets

Box 6, Folder 10

Wofür kämpfen wir?

Box 6, Folder 11

Michelin Guide to Verdun [English]

Box 6, Folder 12

Michelin Guide to Verdun [French]

Box 7, Folder 1

Prag - Die Naturschönheiten Prags. Herausgegeben von der Hauptstadt Prag im Jahre 1940

Box 7, Folder 2

Review of Elvira Bauer's Picture Book for Big and Little [typed translation]

Box 6, Folder 7

Des Stürmers Kampf - Der Kampf geht weiter