Preliminary Inventory to the Sig Mickelson Papers 1950-1995

Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Phone: (650) 723-3563
Fax: (650) 725-3445
Email: archives@hoover.stanford.edu
© 1999
Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

Preliminary Inventory to the Sig Mickelson Papers 1950-1995

Hoover Institution Archives

Stanford University

Stanford, California

Contact Information

  • Hoover Institution Archives
  • Stanford University
  • Stanford, California 94305-6010
  • Phone: (650) 723-3563
  • Fax: (650) 725-3445
  • Email: archives@hoover.stanford.edu
© 1999 Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Summary

Title: Sig Mickelson papers
Date (inclusive): 1950-2000
Collection number: 82074
Creator: Mickelson, Sig
Collection Size: 33 manuscript boxes (13.8 linear feet)
Repository: Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Abstract: Minutes of meetings, reports, memoranda, financial records, speeches and writings, correspondence, notes, interviews, conference papers, press releases, printed matter, and phonotapes, relating to broadcasting activities of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and to financing of American presidential election campaigns and media coverage of presidential nominating conventions.
Language: English

Administrative Information

Access

Collection open for research.
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

Publication Rights

For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Sig Mickelson papers, [Box number], Hoover Institution Archives.

Access Points

Radio Free Europe.
Radio Liberty (Munich, Germany)
Radio broadcasting--Europe, Eastern.
Radio broadcasting--Soviet Union.
Europe, Eastern.
Soviet Union.
Russia (Federation)
Presidents--United States--Election.
Mass media--United States.
United States--Politics and government--1945-1989.
United States--Politics and government.
United States--Foreign relations.
Phonotapes.


Container List

Box: 1

Board of Directors (BOD) meeting minutes, 1977-1980

Box: 1

Relocation studies

Box: 2

BOD minutes, 1976-1977

Box: 2

Financial budgets

Box: 2

Mickelson speeches

Box: 3

BOD minutes, 1970s

Box: 3

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) fund

Box: 4

BOD minutes, 1970s

Box: 4

RL program schedule

Box: 5

BOD minutes, 1970s

Box: 5

Program review conference, 1976

Box: 6

Engineering/technical

Box: 6

Portugal, Rádio Retransmissão Sociedade Anónima de Radio-Retransmissão (RARET)

Box: 6

Markov murder

Box: 6

Bombing, 1981

Box: 6

Communist Intelligence Services

Box: 6

Radio Liberty (RL) program and budget, 1975

Box: 7

RL administration

Box: 7

General accounting Office (GAO) report, 1976

Box: 7

Mickelson speeches

Box: 7

Congressional hearings

Box: 7

Corporate documents for a merged RFE/RL, Inc.

Box: 7

Audience research reports

Box: 8

Trip Briefing Books, 1976

Box: 8

RL Audience Research reports

Box: 9

RL engineering

Box: 9

Spain

Box: 9

Olympics coverage study, 1976

Box: 9

RFE/RL and the Olympic Games.

Scope and Content Note

Includes documentation that describes RFE covering all Olympics in an organized form since Helsinki in 1952, except for Tokyo in 1964 on cost grounds. RL was less focused on Olympics, and only covered them since 1960
Box: 9

Labor relations in Munich, 1975

Box: 9

RL press releases, 1951-1953

Box: 10

RL study, "Fifty Years of the Soviet Political Emigration, 1917-1967," by Oliver J. Frederickson

Box: 10

Congressional briefings, 1976

Box: 10

GAO report, 1971

Box: 10

May 25, 1972

Box: 10

U.S. Government Monies Provided to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty by the Comptroller General of the United States. Includes information on weekly program mix and budget data

Box: 11

Budget review, 1976

Box: 11

Mickelson speeches

Box: 11

Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) meeting, 1976

Box: 11

RFE/RL Board, 12 April 1976.

Scope and Content Note

Confidential Memorandum to the Files [SM] "relationships between BIB staff and this management of RFE and RL have been something less than warm and friendly..."
Box: 11

Congressional hearings, 1977

Box: 12

Consolidation

Box: 12

Voice of America (VOA)

Box: 12

BBC

Box: 12

RL audience research

Box: 13

Pell amendment

Box: 13

Consolidation

Box: 13

GAO report, 1976

Box: 13

Relocation

Box: 13

RFE president reports, 1950-1952

Box: 13

Church committee, 1976

Box: 13

RFE and RL history notes

Box: 13

BIB-RFE/RL conflicts

Box: 13

CIA relationships

Box: 14

Budgets

Box: 14

Olympics

Box: 14

RFE Memos on technical facilities, 1950

Box: 14

Early history files for Mickelson book

Box: 14

Hearings

Box: 14

Wall Street Journal editorial on BIB and Radio's mess, 3 June 1980

Box: 14

Durkee, Hovey, Lester termination payments, 1976

Box: 14

BIB Board meeting notes, 1975

Box: 15

Miscellaneous subjects, late 1970s early 1980s

Box: 15

John Scott Reports. Includes a 5 June 1976 interview with Lang, a memo to Sig from John regarding April-May activities, and a draft speech

Box: 15

Poland, 1981

Box: 15

Early history

Box: 15

Reagan administration

Box: 16

Poland, 1981

Box: 16

Counterattacks

Box: 16

Labor Law

Box: 16

Audience research

Box: 17

Fund

Box: 17

Budgets

Box: 17

Miscellany

Box: 17

Briefing book, 1975

Box: 18

1975-1977

Box: 18

Congressional briefing books

Box: 18

Budgets

Box: 19

Budgets, 1975

Box: 19

Comptroller general study, 1981

Box: 19

Board, 1975

Box: 19

CRS study

Box: 19

Book chapter

Box: 20

BIB and trips, 1976

Box: 21

Embassy evaluations and state cables, 1976

Box: 21

Panel review of Polish broadcasts, Z. Brzezinski, William E. Griffith, Korbonski, Montias, Pipes, 13 April 1975

Box: 21

Draft chapter on news not in book

Box: 21

Budget

Box: 21

BIB

Box: 21

RFE/RL pictures

 

Sound recordings of people interviewed by Sig Mickelson

Scope and Content Note

A card file giving biographical information on each person connected in one way or the other with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty is duplicated for each interview listing below. Card files are available in box 22
Box 22

Abshire, David M., sound recording 1 May 1982

Scope and Content Note

Mickelson interviews Abshire concerning his activities with the federal government and foreign policy in the early 1970s. Topics of the conversation include, but are not limited to: Senator Clifford Case, Senator Fulbright, the State Department, Bill Rogers, the American Council, quasi-independent corporations within the government and congressional oversight, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, and the CIA's involvement with the radios. The sound quality indicates this interview took place over the telephone. Abshire was assistant secretary of state for congressional relations, 1971-72; chairman of the U.S. board of international broadcasting, 1974-77. Cassette 1. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003434
Box 22

Arkus, Al, sound recording 13 May 1981

Scope and Content Note

Arkus talks about his time at Radio Free Europe, concentrating on the production side of broadcasting. The conversation begin with how Arkus got his start at RFE. He moved over from Gotham recording, where he had been effectively producing for RFE while working as a technician for Gotham, because RFE people were from newspapers. He notes that he was involved in radio since high school. When describing the production of the broadcasts, he covers several topics. He describes the RFE offices and studios in New York City. He details how the production needs drove what facilities they used and how they used them; in the process, he describes his effort to get RFE to use cart tapes. The conversation touches on Arkus' direction of plays for radio and other programming meant to catch the ear of the listeners. Arkus details covering three large events: the Olympics; elections, including concurrently interacting with four different services; and a Papal visit to America and live broadcast to Poland. He describes the technical routing of signals. He also speaks about professionalism at RFE and the personal fulfillment he's achieved working at the radios. Arkus joined RFE as a studio recording, technician in 1950, and was production manager of the New York production center, 1975- . Cassette 2. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003435
Box 22

Baker, John, sound recording 6-11 May 1981

Scope and Content Note

Baker was a member of the European Bureau, D.O.S. assigned to RFE and RL liaison, 1971-1974. Cassette 46. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004648
Box 22

Barrett, Edward W., sound recording 11-12 October 1982 February 1983

Scope and Content Note

In a wide ranging conversation, Mickelson interviews Barrett about various topics concerning Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Among these are various people within the federal government, especially the executive branch, State Department, and Wisner; the independence of the radios from politicians; and Voice of America, the Crusade for Freedom, and other related organizations. The interview includes profanity. The sound quality indicates this interview took place over the telephone. Barrett was a member, Free Europe corporation, 1949; director, RFE/RL, 1975-82. Cassette 56 consists of a sound recording of Sig Mickelson summarizing interviews with Barrett and two others, February 1983. Cassette 3, 56. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003436 and 82074_a_0004741
Box 22

Bellus, Samuel, sound recording 24 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Mickelson interviews Bellus about his life and work with the Czech-Slovak service of Radio Free Europe. Recounting his biography, Bellus explains how he was a member of parliament who eventually escaped Czechoslovakia when the communists came to power. After escaping to the American embassy in Vienna, Austria, he became involved in Radio Free Europe. He does not go into depth about his escape because the people who helped him escape are still in Czechoslovakia. Instead of immediately going to Munich, he wished to go to America, learn about the country, and become a citizen before working in Germany. The conversation then turns to his work in the Czech-Slovak service. Bellus explains how he came to head the service, and talks about various aspects of his work, for example, the relationship between offices in New York, London, and Munich. Bellus was a defector from the CSSR, 1948; director, RFE Czecho-Slovak service, 1976- . Cassette 4. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003437
Box 22

Bena, Kamiel, sound recording June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Mickelson interviews Kamil Bena about the Czecho-Slovak service. The interview begins with Bena recounting how he got his start at RFE. He then talks about the Munich site before and after he joined. Speaking about the service generally, he describes his colleagues, comments on its method of operating as compared to the other services, and talks about the types of programming (music, news, etc.). The interview concludes with Bena reflecting on his dedication to RFE and the idealism within the building. Bena was senior editor, administrator, RFE Czecho-Slovak service, 1952- . Cassette 5. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003438
Box 22

Bernard, Noel, sound recording 25 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

In a fast paced interview, Mickelson interviews Bernard about several topics. Bernard discusses his background, including stints in Rome, at the BBC, and at RFE/RL; RFE listening posts; why he is not proud of some of his work at RFE in the 1950s; establishing credibility and what attracts the Romanian people; acquiring documents via a dissident and the reaction of the government; a staff member in Paris that was beaten up; and an earthquake in Bucharest. He spends some time discussing feedback RFE gets from those in Romania. He says most of the letters ask how one gets out of the country, followed by letters concerning the pop music they broadcast, explaining this is how they want to hook young listeners. He says they also get letters of denunciation. Cassette 5. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003438
Bernard talks about an earthquake and the following events; he also talks about a controversial event in 1979 related to churches and fascists. Following this, Bernard discusses Holtzman (sp?) and her actions. Bernard was director, RFE Romanian service to 1982. Cassette 6. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003546
Box 22

Bivar, Manuel, sound recording 30 May 1981

Scope and Content Note

Divar discusses broadcasting in Portugal, touching on various aspects. Much of the interview was recorded at a very low level on the original cassette; this portion is unintelligible due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. On the second side of the cassette, Mickelson repeats a story about the first transmission to Czechoslovakia. Bivar was chief engineer of RFP, 1950-51; liaison with Free Europe Inc., 1951- . Cassette 7. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003547
Box 22

Bobinsky, Bogdan, sound recording October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Bobinsky speaks about leaving the Ukraine before recalling various aspects about working at RFE/RL. He also discusses his family. Bobinsky was a Ukrainian technician in the Washington office, 1975- . Cassette 8. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003548
Box 22

Bodin, Thomas, sound recording 15 October 1981 25 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Bodin describes many aspects of the news divisions of the radios with a special emphasis on the early 1960s transition of RFE from a political organization with a military background to a journalism organization. The conversation begins with the scope of RFE/RL news division, especially as it relates to the international news organizations. He says that RFE broadcasts as local radio and focuses on local interest. Following, the men discuss the quality and professionalism of the news division. Bodin says non-journalists originally set up the radios to further a political agenda and thus were not professional news organizations. He credits increased travel between east and west by the 1960s in causing the radios to change their scope and organization. The conversation then turns to a lengthy discussion of the content of the news broadcasts. Following, they discuss the bureaus: the function, purpose, and number. Some time is spent on the relationship between the New York and Munich offices. Other topics discussed include: plagiarism in the New York office; production values of broadcasts; news services RFE subscribed to; Radio Liberty news operation before the merger (Bodin did not know much about it, but didn't like it); Russ Hill and other individual correspondents; and top news stories memos to the various language services. Bodin was successively a member of the news staff, RFE Munich, bureau chief in London, bureau chief in New York, and bureau chief in Washington, D.C. Cassette 9, 10. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003552 and 82074_a_0003553
Box 22

Braden, Thomas W., sound recording 5 May 1982

Scope and Content Note

The interview concerns the involvement of the CIA, Office of Policy Coordination, and Frank Wisner on the Radios. Braden was the director of Intelligence Operations Division of the CIA, 1951-54, with responsibility for RFE liaison. Cassette 11, 56. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003878 and 82074_a_0004741
Box 22

Brown, James F., sound recording 1-2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Brown describes RFE/RL following the Polish declaration of martial law in 1981, monitoring Warsaw television, what gets put into stories, how RFE/RL's hard news differed from its soft news and other features, and states RFE/RL never got trapped in stories. Brown was director of Radio Free Europe, 1977- . Other topics include: the biography of Brown; colleagues at the radios, especially Novak; reforms at the radios, especially the beginning of RFE/RL-created research; Jozef Swiatlo's defection and RFE interviews; flourishing of RFE; religious factors and generational differences at Radio Liberty; RFE as compared to the Voice of America and the BBC; and the involvement of the CIA. When asked, Brown believes the aim of the Radios is to make the public opinion of the countries informed and alert, with an emphasis on alertness. He says the key is to keep the view of Eastern Europeans that RFE is on their side. He calls 1957-62 the most important years of RFE. Cassette 12, 13. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003891 and 82074_a_0003892
Box 22

Bush, Keith, sound recording 23 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

This interview covers a wide range of topics. It begins with Bush's biography--his educational background and how he came to work at Radio Free Europe. It moves to changes he's seen in the organization over the years. He says the biggest is the emphasis on nationalities, with another noticeable change being the types of programming moving away from the timeless to the topical. The interview moves to the topic of RL employees' familiarity with the covered nations, which includes the scope of RL's programming--with an emphasis on health news. Mickelson concludes by inquiring about the non-Russian Soviet republics, where RL gets its researchers, and how Bush hopes to expand the research division. Bush was director of the research department of Radio Liberty. Cassette 14. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003893
Box 22

Campbell, Earnal, sound recording 17 June 1981 22 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns technical aspects of RFE/RL's broadcasts. Topics covered include: how Campbell joined RFE/RL, engineering consultants RFE/RL used, installations, studio layout and design, antennas, transmitting frequencies, jamming by the Soviet Union, transmitting angles and signal loss, monitoring, and personnel. The second interview concerns the 1981 bombing. Campbell was at home, about a half kilometer from the building, yet felt the blast. He further mentions that his building suffered a broken window. He goes through how he went to the RFE/RL building, got through security, and surveyed the damage. He explains how they kept broadcasts going, that the bombing did not fulfill its goal of knocking RFE/RL off the air. He says the Czech newsroom was the only production facility destroyed. Campbell was chief engineer, RFE/RL, 1975-82. Cassette 15, 16. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003897 and 82074_a_0003898
Box 22

Cline, Ray, sound recording 6 May 1982

Scope and Content Note

The interview concerns the involvement of the CIA, Office of Policy Coordination, and Frank Wisner on the Radios. Cline was a long-time CIA officer familiar with RFE and RL stories. Cassette 11. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003878
Box 22

Cook, Richard, sound recording 1 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Starting with the topic of Polish martial law, Cook explains the relationships between the various language services of RFE/RL. He is 'astounded' by the isolation between language services and argues there would be no interaction were it not for a common English-speaking management. Included in his remarks are how many services were reluctant to cover Polish news due to distance without his pressure and about Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and central Asia. Cook was director, nationalities staff, RL Munich. Cassette 17. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003899
Box 22

Cummings, Richard, sound recording 22 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns security measures before, during, and after the 1981 bombing. Cummings was director of security for RFE/RL, 1980- . Cassette 18. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004051
Box 22

De Brauw, Pieter J. W., sound recording 14-19 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 19. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0000202
Box 22

Dennis, George, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Dennis was the personal representative of the president of RLC in Spain, Cassette 20. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004060
Box 22

De Weydenthal, Jan, sound recording 18 December 1980

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 21. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004063
Box 22

Dunning, John, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns Senator Case's speech, employee morale, and the influence of politicians on the Radios. Dunning was director of operations and planning, Free Europe Inc., 1955-75. Cassette 11. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003878
Box 22

Eberl, Ingeborg, sound recording June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Eberl describes being in wing B of the RFE building during the bombing. Her memory is vivid, recalling many details about that night. The content of the interview gives the impression Mickelson conducted the interview at the RFE/RL site in Munich. Eberl was a telephone operator, RFE/RL Munich, injured in bombing. Cassette 5. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003438
Box 22

Edwards, James, sound recording 22 June 1981, 1 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns Edwards' actions during the very first days of martial law in Poland. This includes several parts about the qualifications for running stories. Edwards was director of the central news division of RFE/RL. Cassette 12, 18. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003891 and 82074_a_0004051
Box 22

Evdokimov, Evdokim, sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Evdokimov was a member, RFE Bulgarian service Munich; chairman, Munich unit of ANG. Cassette 22. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004074
Box 22

Fallis, Hugh, sound recording 15 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Fallis discusses the transmitters the radios use. The conversation also touches on jamming and transmission paths. Fallis was successively manager of the transmitter base at Radio Liberty Lampertheim, engineer at Radio Liberty in New York, engineer for RFE/RL Inc., L&L, and engineer for RFE/RL Inc. in Munich. Cassette 9, 10. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003552
Box 22

Federspiel, Per, sound recording 5 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Federspiel, a Danish lawyer, was a founding member [WEAC?] [Singe?], 1959; active in European and North Atlantic Internationa organizations. Cassette 23. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004077
Box 22

Fedoseyev, Victor, sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Fedoseyev (Feddseyev) was a member, Russian features staff, RL Munich, 1972- . Cassette 37. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004581
Box 22

Griffith, William E., sound recording 24 November 1981

Scope and Content Note

Griffith was policy adviser to the director of RFE Munich, 1952-59. Cassette 24. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004080
Box 22

Grover, Allen, sound recording August 1982

Scope and Content Note

Grover was director of American Committee for freedom of people of USSR and successor organizations, 1975-76; called first meeting of incorporators. Cassette 25. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004082
Box 22

Hart, Henry, sound recording 18 December 1980

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns the audience, its reactions to RFE/RL, the amount of the population that listens to RFE/RL, and how RFE/RL conducts audience research. Hart was director, Audience and OP research, RFE. Cassette 26. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004089
Box 22

Henze, Paul, recounted in a Sig Mickelson sound recording 11 November 1981

Scope and Content Note

This is a sound recording of Sig Mickelson recounting his interview with Henze. Due to the phone recorder malfunctioning and not recording, the actual interview of Henze was not recorded. Cassette 27. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004186
Box 22

Houston, Lawrence, sound recording 11-12 October 1982

Scope and Content Note

The sound quality indicates this interview took place over the telephone. Houston was co-author, National Security Act of 1947; counsel to the Central Intelligence Agency. Cassette 3. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003436
Box 22

Kingsley, Nathan, sound recording 15 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Kingsley discusses various aspects of RFE's programming. Kingsley was director of news, Munich, late 1960s; vice president of public affairs and corporate secretary for RFE/RL, Inc. in Washington, D.C., 1976-82. Cassette 9. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003552
Box 22

Kruzhin, Peter, sound recording 25 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Kruzhin speaks through an interpreter about Radio Liberty. Cassette 28. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004191
Box 22

Lang, Robert E., sound recording 31 May 1981

Scope and Content Note

Lang was the first director of Radio Free Europe, 1949-53. Cassette 29. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004195
Box 22

Lester, Jane, sound recording 5 May 1982

Scope and Content Note

This interview concerns a speech made by Senator Clifford Case in 1971 and legislation of that era. Lester was a Free Europe employee since 1957, assistant to presidents, 1967-82, assistant secretary of RFE/RL Inc. Cassette 11. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003878
Box 22

Lindsay, Franklin A., sound recording February 1983

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 56 consists of a sound recording of Sig Mickelson summarizing interviews with Franklin A. Lindsay and two others. Cassette 56. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004741
Box 22

Lodeesen, Jon, sound recording 22 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

The interview on Cassette 13 concerns Lodeesen's biography, CIA involvement, dealing with politicians in Washington, heading the Russian service, the three waves of Russian émigrés (post-revolution, WWII-era, and modern-day), administrators at RL, anti-Semitism, problems with a long-time employee, comparing the news broadcasts of then and now, and RL during the bombing. In the interview on Cassette 16, Lodeesen discusses the differences between the Radios and how Radio Liberty functions. Topics include the domination of RFE over RL, difficulty in obtaining information for the Asian services, the tone of the Russian service, and what the listeners find pleasing and offensive. Lodeesen was a program policy executive at RL Russian Service. Cassette 13, 16, 28. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003898 and 82074_a_0004051
Box 22

Lyon, Samuel, sound recording 18 December 1980

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 21. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004063
Box 22

Mahoney, William, sound recording 14-19 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 19. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0000202
Box 22

Marrero, Ernesto, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Marrero was a senior executive, Ministry of Communications of Spain; assigned as liaison to RLC, 1957- . Cassette 20. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004060
Box 22

Matusevitch, Vladimir, sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

The interview on cassette 13 focuses on the Matusevitch's life story. He recalls how he 'escaped' from the Soviet Union into Norway, was granted asylum in Denmark, and joined the radio, eventually moving to Munich from the Copenhagen office. On cassette 30 he discusses anti-Semitism in Russia and the Soviet Union, followed by several problems within the Russian service. Matusevitch, a defector from the USSR, was Radio Liberty correspondent in Copenhagen, managing editor of the Radio Liberty Russian Service, 1973-76, and senior commentator. Cassette 13, 30. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003892 and 82074_a_0004199
Box 22

Meyer, Cord, sound recording 13-14 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Meyer was the CIA executive in charge of oversight of Free Europe Inc. and RLC, 1954-71. Cassette 31. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004215
Box 22

Michalowski, Zy'gmunt, sound recording 18 December 1980

Scope and Content Note

The content of this interview is similar to that covered with Bellus and Szabados, but focuses on Poland instead of Czechoslovakia or Hungary. Among the topics covered are worker revolt over prices in Poland, process of confirming news validity, news sources, autonomy of services to add to stories from the central news room, and the influence RFE has in Poland. Michalowski was director, RFE Polish service, 1975-81. Cassette 4, 26. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003437 and 82074_a_0004089
Box 22

Mitchell, John, F. B., Jr., sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Mitchel drafted the articles of incorporation for American committee, 1951; served as general counsel. Cassette 25. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004082
Box 22

Monditsch-Dreving, Victoria (Vicky Semenova) , sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Speaking through a male interpreter, Monditsch-Drevine describes her work at Radio Liberation/Liberty. She was Russian service staff, Radio Liberty, 1952- . Cassette 32. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004325
Box 22

Netto, Horacio, sound recording 2 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Netto was chief engineer, Gloria base. He joined RFE in 1951. Cassette 33. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004338
Box 22

North, Paul, sound recording 2 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

North describes the work of the base in Portugal and how it worked with Munich and other offices. He was manager, RL base Playa de Pals, ??-1980, and manager, Portuguese operations of RFE/RL, 1980- . Cassette 33. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004338
Box 22

Nowak, Jan, sound recording 14 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

The interview is an in depth conversation about the actions of the Polish service, particularly in the 1950s. Topics covered include, but are not limited to: a third party broadcasting code messages; the importance of having good employees; the possibility of Polish liberation in the 1950s; controversial broadcasts by the Polish service and the service's criticism of Polish officials; the role of RFE as dialog with peoples over public policy; the rivalry between the Munich and New York offices; the impact of various, notable individuals on RFE; stages of RFE's history; unions; and jamming. Nowak was director of the Polish service, RFE Munich, 1951-75. Cassette 10. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003553
Box 22

Orshansky, Boris, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Orshansky speaks about several topics: life in Russia and experiences in the Russian army, defecting to the West through the Brandenburg Gate because of what he saw and wanting to escape the dictatorship, joining Radio Liberty, divisions and internal squabbling within Radio Liberty, religion, and an assassination attempt on his life. Orhansky was a Russian army officer to 1946; first employee of Radio Liberty Russia Service. Cassette 8. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003548
Box 22

Ovadia, Susan, sound recording 11 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Ovadia was news service correspondent in Paris. Cassette 34. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004340
Box 22

Perreira, Carmen Da Costa, sound recording 1-2 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Perreira was secretary to Raret, Lison, 1951; manager of the Lisbon office, 1975-1981. Comments on the interview are on cassette 39. Cassette 36, 39. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004570 and 82074_a_0004610
Box 22

Petrouskienne, Lydia, sound recording 11 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Petrouskienna was administrative manager, Paris office, RFE/RL. Cassette 34. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004340
Box 22

Petzall, Horst, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Petrall (Petzall) was [?]ew director, New York office of RFE to 1975. Cassette 38. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004595
Box 22

Pforzheimer, Walter, sound recording 7 August 1982

Scope and Content Note

Pforlheimer was legislative counsel for the CIA during the founding of Free Europe Inc. and American Committee for Liberation. Cassette 25. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004082
Box 22

Pinto Basto, Tomas, sound recording 1-2 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Pinto, a Portuguese industrialist, was long time chairman of RARET. Cassette 39. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004610
Box 22

Playa de Pals staff, sound recording 8 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Includes seven staff members: Martin Diumenge, manager, accounting staff; Fernando Friol, manager, administrative services; Alberto Gay, manager, personnel; Francisco Gullon, manager, transmitter department; Andres Llorente, manager, technical support; Rafael Moreno, chief engineer; and Antonio Reigosa, manager. Cassette 35. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004556
Box 22

Poole, A. Russell, sound recording 14-19 June 1981 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Poole was Director of Administration, RFE/RL Munich. Cassette 19, 37. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0000202 and 82074_a_0004581
Box 22

Rahr, Gleb, sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Rahr recounts his biography, family background, Russian immigrants, and his work at the NTS and Radio Liberty. Rahr was a producer of Russian historical programs at Radio Liberty Munich and a member of the NTS, 1975- . Cassette 30. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004199
Box 22

Ralis, Max, sound recording 10 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Ralis was organizer of RL audience research. Cassette 40. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004613
Box 22

Rates, Nestor, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Rates was a member of the Romanian service (RFE) staff, Washington. Cassette 41. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004626
Box 22

Redlich, Robert, sound recording 14-19 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Topics include: Redlich's biography, including how he joined Radio Liberty on April Fools Day 1957; his supervisors at RL; the RL administration; transmitting bases; RL's relationship with the press; restrictions on RL; differences between RFE and RL, including, but not limited to, American citizenry's awareness of RL and lack of labor union difficulties at RL as compared to RFE; attitude of RL broadcasts over time; Redlich's public speaking about RFE/RL; and RFE/RL's relationship with the German government. Cassette 15, 19. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0000202 and 82074_a_0003897
Box 22

Rehman, Karl, sound recording 1 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Rehman was a defector from CSSR in 1948, and was on the RFE and RFE/RL staff since 1957, primarily in policy positions, including policy executive, New York production center. Cassette 38, 42. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0004595 and 82074_a_0004627
Box 22

Ronalds, Francis F., Jr., sound recording October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Ronalds joined RL 1953, served successively as news director, correspondent, program director, vice president and executive director, Munich. Cassette 43. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004635
Box 22

Salkazanova, Fatima, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Cassette 34. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004340
Box 22

Sargeant, Howland H., sound recording 13 May 1981 30 September 1981 6-11 May 1981 12 October 1982

Scope and Content Note

Sargeant was president, American Committee for Liberation (RLC), 1954-1975. Cassette 44, 45, 46, 47. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0004641, 82074_a_0004643, 82074_a_0004648, and 82074_a_0004655
Box 22

Schulz, Waldemar, sound recording 23 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

In this monologue, Schulz describes how he came to work at RFE and the union. He explains why he joined both, his duties in the union, working conditions at RFE, and how the union advocated for needed insurance and higher pay. Schulz was the head of RFE unit of German Employees Union, member of Works Council. Cassette 14. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003893
Box 22

Sebesta, Ludovic, sound recording 30 September 1981

Scope and Content Note

Sebesta was an adm manager, RFE/RL Czechoslovak service; member, New York production staff; head, Czechoslovak service of RFE NY. The interview begins on cassette 48 and continues on cassette 42. Cassette 42, 48. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004627 and 82074_a_0004658
Box 22

Smith, C. Rodney, Major General, sound recording 13-14 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Smith was vice president of Free Europe, 1959-60, and director, Radio Free Europe, 1960-67. Cassette 31. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004215
Box 22

Sosin, Gene, sound recording 14 April 1981 30 September 1981 17 August 1982

Scope and Content Note

Sosin was a Radio Liberty staff member, 1961- ; Radio Liberty executive from American Committee for Liberation founding; senior member, American Committee for Liberation (RLC) staff from 1961; previously a member of the Institute for Study of USSR. The interview on cassette 49 concerns the beginning years of Radio Libertation/Liberty through the 1970s, and was recorded on 14 April 1981. Cassette 25, 48, 49. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0004082, 82074_a_0004658 and 82074_a_0004667
Box 22

Sultan, Garip, sound recording 25 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Sultan talks about his work. Aspects of the conversation focused on are issues relating to Muslims in the central Asia area, recruiting employees, and the other central Asian services of RFE/RL. The second side of the cassette is various recordings of classical/church music. Sultan is a staff member of the Tatar-Bashkir service. Cassette 6. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003546
Box 22

Szabados, Josef, sound recording 24 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Mickelson interviews Josef Szabados about his life and work with the Hungarian service of Radio Free Europe. On his biographical information, Szabados explains how he left Hungary in 1949 and started working at Radio Free Europe in an economic role. He talks a bit about the Free University. The conversation quickly turns to the Hungarian service. Szabados says he learned his broadcasting skills while working at RFE, having worked in the general organization before joining a specific language service. He talks about the challenges and successes of putting together an effective organization. He says the service modifies its material to appeal to the Hungarian listeners. He describes the quality control process at the service. Szabados left Hungary, 1956; director, RFE Hungarian service, 1974- . Cassette 4. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003437
Box 22

Taylor, David, sound recording 2 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Taylor was a member, Audience Research staff, RFE Munich; member, Works Council; executive of ANG unit. Cassette 22. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004074
Box 22

Thomas, H. Gregory, sound recording 12 May 1981 February 1983

Scope and Content Note

Thomas was charter director, Free Europe Inc. He negotiated the Portuguese lease and license. Cassette 56 consists of a sound recording of Sig Mickelson summarizing interviews with Thomas and two others, February 1983. Cassette 50, 56. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004682 and 82074_a_0004741
Box 22

Tuck, Robert, sound recording 26 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

Tuck was a long-time member of the RL program staff; member, executive director, nationalities, Russian service, NY office, etc. Cassette 51. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004689
Box 22

Tyszkiewicz, Jansound recording 1 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

Tyszkiewicz was a member, RFE Polish Service; producer of "The Bridge," 1981-82. Cassette 22. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004074
Box 22

Urban, George, sound recording 24 June 1981

Scope and Content Note

After recalling Urban's biography, this interview looks at how RFE's reaction to various forms of communism and various topics informs the impact it has. The Hungarian Revolution, Czech events, what the listener heard, ecology as a broadcast topic, and CIA involvement are among the topics covered. Urban was a member of RFE Program Service based in London. Cassette 14. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0003893
Box 22

Van Duyk, Morton, sound recording 16 October 1981

Scope and Content Note

Van Duyk was successively a member RFE news service Munich, correspondent in Brussels, and correspondent in Washington, DC. He describes the state of journalism at RFE, both when he began and during its growth into a professional news organization. He also comments on how the American press views RFE journalists. The second side of the tape contains a few CBS news broadcasts. Cassette 52. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004697
Box 22

Walter, Ralph, sound recording 25 June 1981 1 June 1982

Scope and Content Note

The interview on Cassette 17 concerns martial law in Poland and RFE/RL's reaction and coverage thereof, accusations about moving messages in code to organizations such as Solidarity, funding for RFE/RL (corporate funding, Fulbright, possible Western European contributions), why people work at RFE and RFE/RL, Hazelhoff (sp?) case, Powell amendment. On cassette 28, Walter discusses the independence of the radios from politicization and the staffing needs of Radio Liberty. The interview on cassette 53 concerns the change of RFE from an enthusiastic instrument for change into a professional news organization. Walter was a member of Free Europe staff from 1951; director of RFE, 1967-75; vice president of RFE/RL programs and policy, 1975-78; executive vice president, 1978-82. Cassette 17, 28, 53. Use copy reference numbers: 82074_a_0003899, 82074_a_0004191, and 82074_a_0004698
Box 22

Washburn, Abbott, sound recording undated

Scope and Content Note

Washburn was executive vice president of the Crusade for Freedom, 1950-1952, and charter member, BIB, 1974-1975. Cassette 54. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004725
Box 22

Yurasov, Rudolf, sound recording 13 May 1981

Scope and Content Note

Yurasov was a defector from the USSR, 1946, and a member of the American Committee for Liberation (RLC) staff, 1952- . Cassette 55. Use copy reference number: 82074_a_0004740
Box: 23-27

CBS News

Box: 23-27

Election coverage, 1960s

Box: 28

CBS News

Box: 28

RFE/RL: Mickelson's retirement as president

Box: 28

GAO study, 1981

Box: 28

Book project outline and interview notes for dictation

Box: 29

CBS

Box: 29

Ditchley Foundation Conference on Media and Politics, 1973

Box: 30

RFE/RL correspondence, 1975-1978

Box: 30

Mickelson book items

Box: 30

Speeches

Box: 30

Fiscal year budget, 1977

Box: 31

RFE/RL and BIB publications

Box: 31

Matusevich libel lawsuit

Box: 31

Mickelson memorial service

Box: 32

Détente through Soviet Eyes, John Scott, 1974

Box: 32

RL VP since 1973

Box: 32

10 years in Soviet Union, Time, and other publications

Box: 32

BIB Reports

Box: 32

RFE Audience Research Reports

Box: 33

RFE/RL Miscellany

Box: 33

Paul L. Heine

Box: 33

RFE Audience Research Reports

Box: 33

"War of the Black Heavens," Michael Nelson's draft manuscript