1934 International Longshoremen's Association and General Strikes of San Francisco

Processed by Padma Rubiales.
The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California 94720-6000

1934 International Longshoremen's Association and General Strikes of San Francisco

Collection number: BANC PIC 1959.003--PIC

The Bancroft Library

University of California, Berkeley

Berkeley, California 1996
Finding aid and digital representations of archival materials funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
© 1996 The Regents of the University of California
    Processed and encoded by:
    California Heritage Digital Image Access Project staff in The Bancroft Library and The Library's Electronic Text Unit
    Digital images processed by:
    The Library Photographic Service
    Finding aid completed:
    February 1996
    Finding aid revised:
    April 2000

Collection Summary

Collection Title: 1934 International Longshoremen's Association and General Strikes of San Francisco
Date (inclusive):
Collection Number: BANC PIC 1959.003--PIC
Collector: San Francisco Call Bulletin (Firm)
Extent: 544 film negatives, 247 4x5 inch black and white copy photographs, and 297 8x10 inch black and white copy photographs. 247 digital objects
Repository: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
Berkeley, California 94720-6000
Languages Represented: English

Information for Researchers


Collection is open for use.

Publication Rights

Copyright has not been assigned to The Bancroft Library. All requests for permission to publish photographs must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Pictorial Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Bancroft Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.
Copyright restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], 1934 International Longshoremen's Association and General Strikes of San Francisco, BANC PIC 1959.003--PIC, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Digital Representations Available

Digital representations of selected original pictorial materials are available in the list of materials below. Digital image files were prepared from selected Library originals by the Library Photographic Service. Library originals were copied onto 35mm color transparency film; the film was scanned and transferred to Kodak Photo CD (by Custom Process); and the Photo CD files were color-corrected and saved in JFIF (JPEG) format for use as viewing files.

Administrative Information

Acquisition Information

Originally received with the San Francisco News-Call Bulletin newspaper photograph archive (BANC PIC 1959.010)

Historical Background

The General Strike of San Francisco occurred July 16-19, 1934 as an outgrowth of the International Longshoremen's Association strike. The ILA strike for control of hiring halls and better pay and hours had closed most Pacific ports except Los Angeles. The attempt of San Francisco employers to open local docks led to a battle between strikers and police on "Bloody Thursday" (July 5), which left two dead and many injured. Harry Bridges, head of the city's division of the ILA, got the general support of other unions, although electricity and food remained available. The four-day strike ended with agreement on arbitration in which the ILA got most of the demands it had made on behalf of longshoremen.
Hart, James D. A Companion to California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. p. 155.

Chronology Of Events in the Strike Of 1934

March 7 Strike vote taken by Pacific Coast District, International Longshoremen's Association
March 26 President's Fact Finding commission appointed
April 3 Proposals offered by Waterfront Employers' Union accepted by Pacific Coast District Council, International Longshoremen's Association
May 9 Beginning of strike
May 28 Agreement negotiated between representatives of Waterfront Employers' Union and International Longshoremen's Association
June 7 San Francisco Local International Brotherhood of Teamsters refused to handle freight loaded by strikebreakers
June 16 Agreement negotiated between representatives of Waterfront Employers' Union and International Longshoremen's Association
June 26 National Longshoremen's Board appointed
July 3 Industrial Association of San Francisco starts movement of freight from waterfront
July 5 Two strikers killed, National Guard ordered to San Francisco waterfront
July 11 San Francisco Local, International Brotherhood of Teamsters calls strike
July 16 General strike begins
July 19 General strike ends
July 21 Teamsters return to work
July 31 Longshore strike ends
Eliel, Paul. The Waterfront and General Strikes, San Francisco, 1934; a Brief History. San Francisco: Hooper Printing Co., 1934. p. 245.

Scope and Content

This collection consists of 544 modern prints made from original negatives held by The Bancroft Library. The negatives are part of the photograph archive of the San Francisco News-Call Bulletin newspaper photograph archive (BANC PIC 1959.010) and were taken by staff photographers of the newspaper. For many years, this collection consisted of only the first 247 items listed in this finding aid. In 1998, an additional 297 original negatives were discovered in the files of the San Francisco News-Call Bulletin newspaper photograph archive and were printed and added as items 248-544.
The initial 247 prints are grouped under the following topics: Produce Market, Food Convoy; Food Lines, Food Raids; Longshoremen and Pickets; Embarcadero Scenes; Police Scenes, Arrests; Funerals; Miscellaneous; and Portraits, Court Room Scenes. The additions have been arranged under: Longshoremen Loading and Unloading Ships; Goods (Rationing and Deliveries); Police Rounding Up Longshoremen Pickets; Vandalism; Police Confrontations; Sidewalk Memorial; Longshoremen in Court; Protests and Pickets; Miscellaneous Police Scenes; National Guard; Memorial Ceremonies and Funerals; Raids and Arrests of Communists; Street & Public Scenes (during transit strike and return to sevice?); News Photographers Posing. Most of the photographs lack exact dates, but all date from the period up to and including the General Strike, including scenes of "Bloody Thursday." A number of the photographs are of central figures associated with the strikes, including Harry Bridges, Edward Joseph Hanna, Thomas G. Plant, and Angelo Joseph Rossi.

Note on Arrangement of Additions

Negatives now numbered 248-544 were originally grouped into four batches.
  • Batch 1: Cops [police], Riots (95 negs)
  • Batch 2: Communists, Reporters, Street Cars, Funeral (22 negs)
  • Batch 3: Communists (40 negs)
  • Batch 3a: Reporters, Funeral (11 negs)
  • Batch 4: Army (National Guard) (124 negs)
Each batch was found housed in a small photographic dry plate box with a brief annotation (as transcribed above) on the exterior, or wrapped with a craft paper strip with an annotation. No other identification was present with negatives. Batches contained film negatives that seemed to be in no particular order, and related images were found in different batches. Therefore they were re-ordered roughly around the chronological history of the strike into groups, as well as could be determined by library staff, and the current arrangement is approximate and identification is tentative. The original batch numbers are written on the top edge of the back of the photographic prints ("Batch 1", for example) so that, if errors in arrangement were made, researchers can tell which images were originally stored in proximity to each other and thereby make more informed identifications of subject.

Container List


Produce Market, Food Convoy, No. 1-25


1 Produce market, food overturned. July 12, 1934. Ruth Brenner, Jacqueline Gordon (l. to. r.)


2 Produce trucks and police


3 Produce trucks guarded by police


4 Produce market and police


5 Produce Market


6 Produce Market -- Police guards


7 Produce Market - Police guards 7-12-1934


Produce Market


11 Produce Market - food handlers


12 Produce - potatoes on trucks


13 Produce market


14 Produce Market


15 Produce transported by private car


16 Dairy goods (eggs) delivery


Produce Market


20 Food convoy


21 Food conveyed by police


22 Produce market and police


23 Food covoy


24 Produce dumped in street


25 Meat truck capsized, 7-13-1934, driver and police


Food Lines, Food Raids, No. 26-36


26 Food raids, 7-13-1934


27 Strikers - food line


28 Monte Di Bene, butcher (strike food) 7-19-1934


29 Jean Ach, Mary Miller (strike food) 7-19-1934


30 Grocery store check out counter


31 Grocery store - check out counter


32 Grocery store shopper


33 Grocery store 7-13-1934


34 Man with grocery bags in crowd


35 Longshoremen eating in dining hall


36 [Longshoremen in line at dining hall]


Longshoremen and Pickets, No. 37-53


37 Longshoremen waiting strike deadline 5-8-1934




42 Pickets - Embarcadero




46 Picket parade, Embarcadero, Friday May 10, 1934 [being led by Harry Bridges]


47 Picket parade [5-10-1934?]


48 Mass Meeting


50 Picket [?]


51 Picket boat [?]


52 Picket boats [?]


53 Picket boats [?]


Embarcadero Scenes, No. 54-68


54 Embarcadero


55 San Francisco Embarcadero


56 Embarcadero


57 S. S. Manukai, loading


S. S. Manukai


62 Ship's steward handling passenger luggage


63 Workers leave Pier 46, 5-9-1934


64 Embarcadero


65 Ships at Piers - others waiting to be docked


66 Ship's crew docking passenger liner


67 [untitled]


68 Embarcadero, 6-21-1934


Police Scenes, Arrests, No. 69-102




78 Police escorting strikers


79 Police and tear gas guns


80 San Francisco Police


81 Police herding strikers


82 Police driving strikers along railroad tracks - Embarcadero


83 Police surround strikers - Embarcadero


84 Police and strikers


85 Police driving strikers along railroad tracks


86 Mounted police herding strikers


87 San Francisco Police and Army officer


88 Mounted Police


89 Police firing at crowd, Portrero Hill [?]


90 Mounted police, Portrero district [?]


91 Edw. Hodges (wounded abdomen and hand) 7-5-1934


92 Police driving pickets along Embarcadero


San Francisco Police


95 Auto overturned


96 Embarcadero - trucks and police escort


97 Military - machine guns - police


98 Embarcadero - crowds and police line


99 Strikers surging Market Street


100 Confrontation between strikers and police


101 Strikers column escorted by police


102 Police and strikers


Warehouse District No. 103-107


Warehouse District, No. 103-107


107 Warehouse District - truck driver


Hospital Scenes, No. 108-111


Hospital scene


Funerals, No. 112-118


112 Funeral of slain men


113 Funeral


Funeral of slain men


118 Funeral - graveside


Miscellaneous, No. 119-153


119 [untitled]


120 [untitled]


121 Longshoremen burning company union books after winning short strike against Matson, September 1933 [Same event pictured in :122. Identification supplied by researcher.]


122 Longshoremen burning pink books (or blue books?) after winning short strike against Matson, September 1933.

Additional Note

[Note: Source of initial identification unknown. A researcher has suggested that the books would have been the blue dues books issued by the company-dominated union, contrasted with the red dues books of the previous longshore union, the Riggers' and Stevedores' Union.]

123 [untitled]


124 [untitled]


125 [untitled]


126 [untitled]


127 Civic Center [?] - crowds


128 Rincon Hill, 7-3-1934


129 Crowds - mostly female


130 [untitled]


131 [untitled]


132 Crowd at P. G. and E.


133 [untitled]


134 [untitled]


135 11 Mission Street


136 10 The Embarcadero


137 Third Street near Minna


138 Strikers surround produce trucks, Third Street near Minna


139 Mission Street near 14th


140 Howard Street and 2nd


141 148 Steuart Street near Mission


142 Market Street and The Embarcadero


143 "Strike Called Off" - newspaper vendor and crowd at Emporium


144 San Francisco - Market Street 1934


145 San Francisco - Market Street - 1934


146 [untitled]


147 Line up of autos at gas station


148 Waterfront Strike, San Francisco Press photographers


149 Waterfront Strike, San Francisco, 1934 Press photographers


150 Railroad yards deserted


Locomotive - State Belt Line


153 [untitled]


Portraits, courtroom scenes, No. 154-247


154 [untitled]


155 [untitled]


156 Group in court lobby


157 [untitled]


158 [untitled]


159 [untitled]


160 [untitled]


161 [untitled]


162 [untitled]


163 [untitled]


164 [untitled]


165 [untitled]


166 [untitled]


167 [untitled]


168 [untitled]


169 [untitled]


170 Lobby of court


171 Lobby Federal Court


172 [untitled]


173 [untitled]


Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi


177 Entering Court


Thomas G. Plant


Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi


182 [Harry Bridges]


183 [Harry Bridges]


Thomas G. Plant


Harry Bridges and Thomas G. Plant


Archbishop Edward J. Hanna


191 Archbishop Edward J. Hanna and Thomas G. Plant


192 Mrs. Alta Weinstock, and Archbishop Edward J. Hanna


193 McGrady and Archbishop Edward J. Hanna


194 Archbishop Edward J. Hanna, et al.


195 Archbishop Edward J. Hanna


196 Andrew Furseth


197 Andrew Furseth, et al.


198 Edward F. Grady, Dean H. Grady, and J. L. Leonard


199 J. L. Leonard, and Edward F. Grady


200 Thomas G. Plant


201 Teamster Officials, 7-9-1934. John Stewart, Michael Casey, John McLaughlin, Joe Dwing


Harry Bridges


205 Thomas G. Plant, and Archbishop Edward J. Hanna


206 Thomas G. Plant


207 Joseph P. Ryan, and Andrew Furseth, 6-29-1934


208 [left] E. B. O'Grady, and [right] Harry Bridges, 7-9-1934


209 [untitled]


210 Harry Bridges and reporters, 7-12-1934


211 Harry Bridges


212 Thomas G. Plant


213 [Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi ?]


Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi


216 Signers and Guarantors of June 16th agreement. Seated [1] Ryan [2] Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi [3] Thomas G. Plant


217 Signers of June 16th agreement. Seated: [1] Ryan ? [2] Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi, [3] Thomas G. Plant


218 Mayor Angelo Joseph Rossi, Thomas G. Plant, and Ryan


219 Cushing, Reverend Hanff, and McGrady. Presidents ILA Strike Board


220 [untitled]


221 [untitled]


222 [untitled]


223 [untitled]


224 [untitled]


225 [untitled]


226 [untitled]


227 [untitled]


228 [untitled]


229 [untitled]


230 [untitled]


231 [untitled]


232 [untitled]


233 [untitled]


234 [untitled]


235 [untitled]


236 [untitled]


237 [untitled]


238 [untitled]


239 [untitled]


240 [untitled]


241 [untitled]


242 [untitled]


243 [untitled]


244 [untitled]


245 [untitled]


246 [untitled]


247 [untitled]

List of Additions


General views, No. 248-249


248 [Cityscape of waterfront with ships held up by the strike. Similar to photograph 65.]


249 [Abandoned railroad yards. Similar to photograph 150.]


Loading and unloading cargo, No. 250-254


250-254 [Longshoremen loading/unloading ships. Similar to photographs 58-61.]


Goods: rationing and deliveries, No. 255-259


255 [Gasoline rationing.]


256-258 [Shipments still moving, some with police escorts.]


259 [Freight train under steam along waterfront.]


Police rounding up longshoremen pickets, No. 260-287


260 [Crowd of men (longshoremen?) along side of street, possibly coming out of meeting? (Context unknown.)]


261 [Police herding strikers across railroad tracks. Similar to photograph 82.]


262-287 [Police herding strikers down Embarcadero. 277 includes an apparent National Guard member and may be from a subsequent day. 273 is similar to photograph 78.]


Vandalism, No. 288-292


288-289 [Meat dumped in street.]


290 [A large amount of flour spilled off a truck. Similar to photograph 24.]


291 ["SCAB" written on railroad boxcars.]


292 [Damaged truck..]


Police Confrontations, No. 293-308


293-303 [Police/striker confrontation and violence.]


304-307 [Riots at Rincon Hill.]


307 [Bystander Edward Hodges hit in hand and abdomen. Similar to photograph 91.]


308 [Man being treated for injuries in a hospital. Similar to photograph 110.]


Sidewalk memorial, No. 309-315


309-315 [Sidewalk memorial in chalk for two people killed in confrontation.]


Longshoremen in Court, No. 316-321


316-321 [Hearings or booking procedures for the arrested longshoremen, with Harry Bridges.]


Protests and Pickets, No. 322-326


322-326 [Longshoremen protests and pickets.]


Miscellaneous police scenes, No. 327-358


327-358 [Miscellaneous views of police activity surrounding Embarcadero district.]


National Guard, No. 359-488


359-361 [Police Chief Quinn talking with Captain of the National Guard sent in. Similar to photograph 87.]


364-444 [National Guard arriving and setting up camp in the Embarcadero.]


445-454 [Miscellaneous views of troops and officers in discussion.]


455-488 [Miscellaneous views of troops standing guard in Embarcadero.]


Memorial ceremonies and funerals, No. 489-495


489-490 [Victim's brother standing besides casket at memorial ceremony.]


491 [Funeral with partially constructed Golden Gate Bridge in background.]


492-493 [Mourners.]


494 [Lowering of a casket by officers. Similar to photograph 118.]


495 [Military honor guard.]


General Strike, No. 496


496 [Women in the cleaning and dying industry participating in the General Strike.] [Other images may relate to General Strike but were not clearly identifiable as such.]


Communists, No. 497-520


497-503 [Destruction and vandalism of communist headquarters around San Francisco.]


504-517 [Police round up of suspected communists.]


518-520 [Trials or hearings of suspected communists.]


Scenes of city: transit strike effects, No. 521-539


521-527 [Downtown streets and Market Street with crowds of business people on foot.]


528 [Woman measuring level in automobile gas tank. (Context unknown.)]


529-532 [Travellers with baggage, perhaps near the train station or Ferry Building.]


533-539 [Streetcars running again.]


Photographers, No. 540-544


540-544 [Newspaper photographers clowning around and posing with cameras, helmets, and gas masks.]