Introduction the American Council on Education Guide
Scope and Content Note
Other Finding Aid
Title: American Council on Education Records
Date (inclusive): 1918-2011
Collection Number: 91002
Hoover Institution Archives
Language of Material:
2482 manuscript boxes, 49 cubic foot boxes, 2 oversize boxes, 42 card file boxes, 6 phonorecords, 2 computer tapes, 2 motion
picture film reels
(1060.5 linear feet)
Minutes, reports, memoranda, correspondence, speeches, and printed matter, relating to higher education in the United States,
governmental educational policy, promotion of international education, and American assistance to foreign institutions of
higher learning, especially in Africa. Sound use copies of sound recordings available.
Hoover Institution Archives
American Council on Education.
Boxes 2453-2467 are closed until January 1, 2032. The remainder of the collection is open for research.
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to
copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives
at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see
or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.
For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives
[Identification of item], American Council on Education records, [Box no.], Hoover Institution Archives.
Materials were acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives in 1991 with subsequent increments
Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find
the collection in Stanford University's online catalog at
. Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the online catalog is larger than the number
of boxes listed in this finding aid.
Initial accession, boxes 1-782, was processed by American Council of Education staff before transfer to the archives in 1982.
Second accession, boxes 1-1480, was processed by the Hoover Institution Archives staff. A third accession, acquired in 2004,
was processed by the Hoover Institution Archives staff in 2009. Additional accessions were acquired and processed by the Hoover
Institution Archives staff in 2010 and 2012.
Introduction the American Council on Education Guide
During a blizzard in Chicago in January 1918, four educators representing professional associations deliberated on how to
best meet the wartime needs of American higher education. Before World War I was over, these four educators were joined by
others and the Emergency Council on Education was created. This fledgling organization, with an annual budget of two thousand
dollars, soon shed its wartime nature and changed its name to the American Council on Education. From 1918, ACE has steadily
increased in size and stature in American higher education.
How ACE became one of the pre-eminent institutions in higher education during its history is reflected in its archives. This
aggregate of the permanent, noncurrent records documents the various goals, programs and accomplishments of the council between
1918 and 1977. Just as the Council had dropped its transitory name in 1918, to one more appropriate for a permanent organization,
an archives of an organization does not include all the records created or received by it during its existence. Most records
of an organization are of a temporary nature and, once their current use is over, can be destroyed because the purpose for
their existence is satisfied. During the arrangement and description project just concluded, records of a non-current nature
were appraised as to their value and either blessed as archives or destroyed. Over half of the records accumulated by the
Council were either duplicates, publications, or simply not judged to be of permanent value.
This descriptive inventory of the ACE Archives provides the membership of the Council, the staff of the Council, and interested
researchers, a means to use the almost three hundred linear feet of permanent records constituting the archives. Because of
the Council's central role in directing American higher education over the last sixty years, a brief historical sketch of
significant events documented in the archives follows. This is by no means intensive or extensive and is meant only to highlight
some of the educational issues ACE and its members have faced in the twentieth century.
World War I not only thrust the United States into a leadership position in world affairs but also brought out the lack of
vocational education training and universal military training in the United States. These issues, as well as the exchange
of students between American and foreign educational institutions in Europe, occupied the Council. Because the institution
was the central coordinating organization of other educational associations and individual members, building a membership
and remaining financially sound were vital activities and occupied a great amount of energy of Donald J. Cowling and Samuel
P. Capen, the first two directors of the Council. As chief executives of the Council, these two individuals felt it their
responsibility for reporting to the membership proposed higher education legislation. Capen, as the second director, established
a quarterly publication, the Educational Record in 1920, in order to report to the Council membership pertinent issues and
activities. This publication has served a vital need in higher education, and for over fifty years has summarized the activities
of the committees and commissions of ACE. From its early history to the present, committees and commissions have been central
to the accomplishments of the Council. Because the commissions and committees created and maintained their records separate
from the records of the Office of the Director, they are retained in that manner in the ACE Archives. The records of commissions
and committees created during the tenure of Cowling were not broken in 1919 when Capen became director and can be located
in the office records of the latter.
The quantity of records created during the tenures of Cowling and Capen is quite small, however that is not unusual when considerations
are made for a Council staff of one or two employees. In addition, much of the correspondence of committee members would be
maintained among the papers of these university administrators and professors.
If Cowling and Capen were the copilots in getting the Council off the ground, the third director of the organization was responsible
for guiding it through its first decade of growth. Charles Riborg Mann directed the Council between 1922 and 1934. Man reflected
his times when he opposed federal funding for higher education. Just as strongly, he promoted the use of standardized testing
by use of a standardized psychological test. In 1927 this test was administered to 64,000 freshmen in 188 colleges and universities.
Over the next fifty years, the diagnostic value of this examination as an addition to secondary school grades became standard
in American education. During his tenure the council began publishing what today is the Handbook of American Colleges and
Universities. Not all efforts of the council ended in success. The chair of the committee on Federal Relations reported in
1925 that seven years of efforts to promote the creation of a Federal Department of Education was unsuccessful. The committee
reported "the termination of the 68th Congress and than God." In April 1929, President Herbert Hoover established the National
Advisory committee on Education and named Mann as chairman. Four other members of the Executive Committee of the council were
appointed to this presidential committee. Much of the committee's activities can be followed in the archives of the Council.
When Director Man resigned in 1934, the former U.S. Commissioner of Education, George F. Zook, was appointed executive. With
membership of the Council declining because of the depression, Zook and the Executive Committee reduced Council dues from
$100 to $50. Also the Constitution was amended to rename the chief executive the president rather than the director.
In 1936, the Council announced the formation of the American Youth Commission and elected former Secretary of War Newton D.
Baker as chairman. During most of the depression, about four out of ten unemployed workers were American youth. The records
of the Commission document noteworthy achievements of the commission in relating to the harsh realities faced by American
youth. Such Council publications as Growing Up in the Black Belt and Youth and the Future had a significant impact on how
Americans viewed their youth.
Anticipating wartime needs, the Council began publication of Higher Education and National Defense in 1940. Later, this publication
was renamed Higher Education and National Affairs and is prominent today in the literature of higher education. During World
War II the Council was frustrated because no overall higher education plan met the approval of the War Department. In various
ways the Council and its new Committee of Relationship of Higher Education to the Federal Government cooperated with government
agencies. The government request to conserve paper reduced the size of the Educational Record and the amount of records created
by the Council. Remembering that many colleges and universities granted blanket credit for military experience in World War
I, the council published 50,000 copies of a pamphlet, Sound Educational Credit for Military Experience. At the conclusion
of the war, the Council established the Veterans Testing Service, which was later renamed the General Educational Development
Testing Service. During its existence the Service tested almost three million adults.
In 1945 and 1946, Dr. Zook's efforts to promote international education and cultural exchange were successful as he and other
educators attended the San Francisco Conference. This influence can be seen in the Charter of the United Nations. Zook was
also named program chairman of the United States National Commission for UNESCO and continued to campaign for cultural exchange
programs. Also in 1946, Zook was named by President Truman as chairman of the President's Commission on Higher Education.
Various committees of the Council examined the need for higher education assistance to those returning from the armed services.
A special committee was established to study the problems of the more than 123,000 disabled American veterans enrolled on
college campuses. A special Council sampling survey of housing for veterans attending classes was performed.
Upon Zook's retirement in 1950, the American Council on Education moved to its new headquarters and received its new president,
Arthur S. Adams. Because of the Korean Conflict, the manpower question occupied the attention of the Council. A special conference
on the role of women in the mobilization of human resources was sponsored in New York City. The Executive Committee again
voiced objection to a proposed universal military training program then before Congress.
Major concerns of higher education during the McCarthy Era were the questions of academic freedom and national security. In
1953, the Educational Record published two articles describing infringements on academic freedom at Rutgers and Harvard. The
council held two special conferences on the questions of academic freedom and national security. A new Commission on the Education
of Women was launched by the Council in 1953.
As the Council staff increased in the 1950s, the need for a Council library became evident. In 1956 a small staff library
was opened with a contribution of $450.
Spurred by the Russian launching of Sputnik, the Council published A Proposed Program of Federal Action to Strengthen Higher
Education in the Service of the Nation. The Council stressed that the nation should improve and strengthen our educational
system rather than imitate the Russian model. The Council's Problems and Policies Committee followed by distributing 130,000
copies of its study, Public Understanding and Support of Higher Education. By the 1960s, the professional staff of the Council
had expanded and offered the membership more institutional research capability and expertise.
In 1961 the new president, Logan Wilson, made substantive changes in the organizational structure of the Council. Wilson'
goal was to have a small staff of professionals assigned to major areas of council interest. These council offices or divisions
were assisted by advisory committees or commissions representing the wide spectrum of Council membership. Within this organizational
framework a large number of leaders of American higher education were involved in Council activities. In addition, a publications
department and a department of research and analysis were established in the 1960s as service oriented components of the Council.
Although new divisions or operations were created and others expanded or reduced in size, the basic organizational structure
introduced by Wilson still stands. From the 1960s, the Council, and higher education in general, has paid greater attention
to the federal government's impact on higher education. Today, almost all operating units of the Council are aware of the
influence of government in the higher education enterprise.
Logan Wilson's talents stretched far beyond organizational management. He brought about creation of a Committee of Educational
Opportunity which addressed the need for greater opportunities for blacks in higher education. Wilson and other members of
the board also directed the Council to look at the urban scene in the 1960s. In that same area, ACE influenced the Higher
Education Act of 1965 by urging direct financial assistance for needy and able students. These came to be known as "opportunity
grants." In 1969 the ACE annual meeting theme, "The Campus and Racial Tension," was proposed by the staff director of the
Office of Research. During this period, the commission on Acadmic Affairs published ACE Special Reports relating to the needs
of black America.
Despite the ferment in the 1960s on American campuses, overseas assistance to newly established African educational institutions
was carried out through the Council's Africa Liaison Committee, established in 1959. Most of the committee's early efforts
were directed toward sub-Sahara Africa. In 1965 the committee was renamed the Overseas Liaison Committee and expanded its
activities into the Caribbean and Pacific Ocean areas. The activities and accomplishments in assisting educational institutions
in these areas are fully documented in the records of the committee.
After a decade of service as president of the Council, Logan Wilson was succeeded in 1972 by Roger W. Heyns. The new president
focused on federal legislation affecting higher education and in achieving a better representation of institutional interests
on the Board of the Council. Following intensive study, the Board was expanded to include six new members. Also, to cope with
the growing demands of relating higher education and the federal government, Stephen K. Bailey was appointed vice president
in charge of all Council activities in governmental relations. The Council interaction with government was evidenced by the
presentation of 27 oral or written statements to congressional committees or federal agencies during 1973. Thus, under the
leadership of Heyns and Bailey, ACE became more the leader and voice for higher education when new legislation was being considered.
The Council staff became more conversant with legislative staffs and provided expertise when needed. When Heyns resigned on
May 31, 1977, Bailey became acting president for three months until a successor, J. W. Peltason, assumed the chief executive's
It appears that by both the volume and complexity of Council records pertaining to governmental relations, the ACE has assumed
the vital role of articulating and promoting the interests of higher education in the legislative arena.
This historical sketch, although providing some idea of the documentation available in the archives, is no substitute for
a careful study of the descriptive guide of the ACE Archives, 1918-1977, provided in the rest of this document.
George C. Chalou, Archival Consultant, American Council on Education, 1982.
Scope and Content Note
The archives are arranged as they were created and maintained by the various parts of the Council. Because of such a small
staff during its early existence, only one central organizational file was created and maintained. This alphabetically arranged
file was under the direct control of the chief executive officer of the Council. Because the Council operated on a fiscal
year of July 1 to June 30, the files were cut off at that time period. In order to assist the researcher, subject folder titles
have been added and these are listed in the guide under the appropriate entry and box number. It was not until 1951 that the
Council adopted a calendar year basis for its filing system.
The records of the various presidents (with the exception of President Cowling) are divided into two series, general records
and records of ACE commissions and committees. In order to assist the user, descriptive paragraphs have been added where organizations
are concerned. Because much of the activities of the Council took place through commissions and committees, over half the
total volume of the archives is within this type of record.
The archives of the Council are almost all textual, but a small collection of photographs and some audiotapes are described
in a special section of the guide. No machine-readable archival documents for the pre-1978 period were located.
Certain types of records transcend the entire history of the Council and therefore they are not a part of any one president's
files and have been described at the beginning of this guide.
Longtime Council staff member Charles G. Dobbins, because of his constant use of ACE records, advocated the establishment
of an archives. It remained for President J. W. Peltason to encourage and support the creation of the ACE Archives. The appraisal,
arrangement, and description of these records was made possible by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and
the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. In addition, President Peltason and other council staff afforded us every assistance during
the project. The project staff also wish to recognize Dr. Herman Viola and Mr. E. Jeffrey Stann of the Smithsonian Institution,
Dr. Thomas M. Stauffer, Director, Division of External Relations, ACE, and Mr. Raymond M. Morrison for their valuable assistance
during this project. I especially wish to thank Ms. Judith A. Pfeiffer, Director, Higher Education Policy and Administration
Library and Information Service of ACE, who served as project director during the entire project. The success of this project
depended primarily on the skill and industry of Ms. Linda J. Ebben. The entire archives was arranged and descried by her during
the past fifteen months. Without Ms. Ebben the crates and boxes of records scattered in various buildings would not have been
transformed into the ACE Archives.
George C. Chalou, Archival Consultant, American Council on Education, 1982.
Cowling, Donald J. Papers at Archives, Carleton College, Northfield, MN; University of Minnesota Archives, 117 Pleasant Avenue
SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. See also Jarchow, Merrill E., Educator-Idealist-Humanitarian Donald J. Cowling (Northfield, MN:
Carleton College, 1974), for additional repositories containing Cowling materials.
Capen, Samuel P. Papers at University Archives, Room 420 Capen Hall, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
Mann, Charles Riborg. Papers in post-World War I records at the War Department General Staff, National Archives and Records
Service, Washington, DC 20408.
Zook, George F. Papers at Archival Service, Bierce Library, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325; United Nations Archives,
30-12 41st Avenue, Long Island City, New York, NY 11101. Mailing address: box 20, Grand Central Post Office, New York NY 11017.
Adams, Arthur S. Papers at Special Collections, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824. Wilson, Logan. Papers at University
of Texas Archives, Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
Heyns, Roger W.Papers at University Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720.
See also: Chancellor's Office.
Bailey, Stephen K. Papers at Syracuse University Archives, George Arents Research Library, E. S. Bird Library, Syracuse, NY
Other Finding Aid
Guide to the American Council on Education Archives, 1918-1977. Copyright 1982 by the American Council on Education, One Dupont
Circle,Washington, DC 20036. Project Director: Judith A. Pfeiffer, American Council on Education, Project Archivist: Linda
J. Ebben, Project Staff: Raymond M. Morrison, Archival Consultant: George C. Chalou.(Information in the guide is included
in this document.)
Subjects and Indexing Terms
Educational assistance, American--Africa.
Educational assistance, American.
United States--Foreign relations.
United States--Politics and government.
Universities and colleges--United States.