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Hall Family Papers and Sugar Plantation Records
MSS 0220  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Digital Content
  • Scope and Content of Collection
  • Historical Background
  • Publication Rights
  • Preferred Citation
  • Acquisition Information
  • Restrictions

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Hall Family Papers and Sugar Plantation Records
    Identifier/Call Number: MSS 0220
    Contributing Institution: Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego
    9500 Gilman Drive
    La Jolla, California, 92093-0175
    Languages: English
    Physical Description: 4.6 Linear feet (3 archive boxes, 163 oversize folders, and 4 rolls of microfilm)
    Date (inclusive): 1709 - 1892
    Abstract: Family papers and sugar plantation records (1709-1835) of the Hall family of England and Jamaica, including William Hall (b.1696), Thomas Hall (1725-1772), Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall (b.1748?), and Thomas Kirkpatrick Hall (b.1776). The Hall family owned and operated the sugar plantations of Irwin Estate, Tryall Estate, Johnshall Estate, Hallhead Estate, and Kirkpatrick Hall Estate. They also owned Worcester, Williamsfield, Stapleton Pen, and Kirkpatrick Pen. The family papers contain correspondence between family members, wills, certificates of military commission and genealogical memoranda. The collection contains numerous documents related to the administration of Jamaican Governor Charles Knowles (1752-1756) and the formation of the "Association" by leading planters and colonists. The accession processed in 1995 documents activities of Thomas K. Hall and Lorenzo Hall. Included are letters dating from 1819 to 1822 which offer considerable insight into the trade of paintings between Italy and England during the period, the cost of the commissions and methods of transport from Leghorn to England. Also included are letters dating from 1825 to 1842 written by Lorenzo Hall, a diplomat, to his uncle, Thomas K. Hall, from various European cities and countries. A microfilm (4 reels) of the entire collection was prepared in July 1999.
    Creator: Barnett, Irwin
    Creator: Hall family

    Digital Content

    This collection has been digitized and can be viewed through links in the Hall Family Papers finding aid on the UC San Diego Library Special Collections & Archives website.

    Scope and Content of Collection

    Accession Processed in 1992
    The Hall Family Papers and Sugar Plantation Records contain the family papers and business records of five generations (1710-1830) of the Hall family members who owned sugar plantations on the island of Jamaica for over a century. The collection provides an abundance of primary source material on eighteenth and early nineteenth century Jamaican plantation economy and culture. The materials are particularly rich in data documenting characteristics of slave populations on Irwin, Tryall and Kirkpatrick Hall estates. The documents are organized into five series: 1) CORRESPONDENCE, 2) PLANTATION AND ESTATE DOCUMENTS, 3) LEGAL DOCUMENTS, 4) FAMILY DOCUMENTS, and 5) POLITICAL AND PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.
    The CORRESPONDENCE series contains letters from family members, business associates and others. Important family members include Jane Hall, Henry Hall, Thomas Hall (b.1660?), Thomas Hall (b.1694), William Hall (b.1696), Thomas Hall (b.1725), Mary Hall (later Mary Barclay), and Mary Hall (wife of Thomas Hall (b.1725), and William Hall (b.1749). Attorneys for the Hall Family included James Kerr, Cunningham and Cleland, and William Brown, while John Scott, George Ricketts, and George Stowe were employed as overseers. Minor correspondents include Thomas Hall (son of Henry Hall), John Krauss, David Dehany, and Jane Barnett. Mrs. Barnett's letter to Thomas Hall provides a particularly interesting account of her husband's death at sea during a storm and her efforts to control his estate. The materials are organized in chronological order with undated letters at the end of the series. Significant groups of letters include:
    Thomas Hall (b.1694) to William Hall (b.1696), 1721-1722: 7 letters, 10 pages. Thomas Hall had recently left Jamaica and wrote from England to his brother, William, who operated a sugar plantation in Jamaica. Thomas, who had recently suffered a crippling disability, appealed for funds citing the circumstances of poor relatives and his own needs. He married in 1721, had a daughter, Patience, in 1722 and lived in the Soho district of London.
    William Hall (b.1696) to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1747-1751: 28 letters, 63 pages [includes 2 undated letters]. William Hall wrote from the Luana Estate and Spanish Town in Jamaica to his son, Thomas, who managed estates in St. James parish, Jamaica. William alternated his residence between Luana and Spanish Town, the island's political center and seat of the Assembly of which he was a member. William's letters deal with business affairs, the direction of sugar plantations and coordination of shipments of plantation products-- sugar, rum, molasses, and mahogany lumber to England, the effect of rainy weather on the sugar harvest, news of small pox epidemics, the treatment and discipline of Negro slaves, local and international news, and family news. During this period William's financial affairs were increasingly in disarray and he became preoccupied with payment of debts and accounts. His health was sometimes poor due to age and gout.
    William wrote about conditions in Jamaica prior to the appointment of Admiral Charles Knowles as Governor (1752-1756) of the island. Several letters mention the subject of slavery including the discipline of runaway slaves (1747, May 1), disobedience and refusal to work (1747, November 18), and the acquisition of new slaves (1748, April 12 and 1748, July 3). International events and their impact on Jamaica and the sugar economy are also discussed-- the implications of the peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle between Great Britain, France, and Holland (1748, June 30) and the activities of the English fleet in the Caribbean (1747, November 18 and 1748, June 3). Jamaican politics are mentioned in several letters-- a scheme to redraw county divisions and elect county courts (1750, November 22), Halls plans to send a list of bills before the Assembly (1751, October 12) and news of assembly and committee activities (1751, November 19).
    Mary Barclay to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1758-1760: 10 letters, 20 pages [includes 2 letters undated and written before her marriage to Barclay]. William Hall had died and his wife, Mary, had married Mr. Barclay. Thomas Hall moved to London and had given over management of his plantations to attorney Samuel Cleland. Mary wrote from Jamaica requesting news of the family, especially her grandchildren, and provided news of friends and the situation in Jamaica. She commented upon the treatment of slaves on Hall's plantations (1759, August 23), cautioned him not to turn his copartner, Mr. Rusea, into an attorney by giving him too much power (1759, September 21) and gave an account of a slave rebellion and its leader "Simon" (1760, August 31) [see also George Ricketts to Thomas Hall, 1760, August 30].
    Stephen Fuller to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1761-1763: 9 letters, 21 pages. Hall had left his wife and children in London and had returned to Jamaica to personally manage his estates in response to declining productivity. Stephen Fuller, his agent in London, wrote regarding international politics, the price of sugars and the health and well being of Hall's family. He warned of the threat of Spanish marauders in the Caribbean (1761, January 2), requested that Hall recommend a correspondent from the island of
    Martinico (1762, March 31) and conveyed news of the death of Mary Hall, his wife (1763, March 24).
    Mary Hall to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1761: 6 letters, 12 pages [includes 2 undated letters]. Thomas Hall (b.1725) had left for Jamaica and his wife, Mary, wrote immediately upon his departure. In letters of a personal nature, she pleaded with him to abandon his plans and return to his family. She argued that increased profits did not justify leaving at a time when family members were sick.
    Thomas Hall (b.1725) to Mary Hall, 1762-1763: 4 letters, 9 pages. Thomas Hall wrote to his wife, Mary, from Jamaica with news of the plantation, friends, and island affairs. He began by describing his passage from Madeira to Jamaica (1762, January 26) and then described the disorder and confusion on his estates (1762, February 20). Hall conveyed his concern over Jamaica's exposure to plunder and pillage at the hands of the Spanish (1762, February 20).
    Thomas Hall (b.1725) to Charles Moore, 1767: 1 letter, 2 pages. Hall, returned to London, wrote to Charles Moore, a tutor who had been overseeing the education of his sons at home.
    Charles Moore to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1767-1768: 6 letters, 11 pages. Moore wrote offering to tutor Hall's sons at Eton, but pointed out that there is little he could accomplish without their "prudence and their own application" (1767, December 30). He reported on their progress and schedules at Eton and praised Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall for his application and promise. Finally, Moore made an unsuccessful bid for the hand of Hall's daughter in marriage (1768, May 8).
    John Scott to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1767-1769: 7 letters, 14 pages. John Scott was the overseer on Hall's Tryall estate in St. James parish, Jamaica. He requested that Hall visit the plantation and asked that supplies be landed at Dunshole rather than Montego Bay, complaining that materials went to Irwin estate first and he often failed to receive all that was due (1767, April 27). Scott made recommendations on the production of rum and related news of the estate, including the natural increase of the "Negroe" slaves (1767, July 12). Scott planned to move to Philadelphia (1769, May 10), but had to delay his departure until the next spring (1768, May 18). In the same letter he suggested that the child of a white father and slave mother might be spared a life of bondage. Finally, Scott wrote from Philadelphia where he was having trouble selling his bonds because of the export ban on American manufactures to England (1769, September 25).
    James Kerr to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1769-1772: 3 letters, 9 pages. Kerr wrote as a manager of Thomas Hall's Jamaican estates regarding matters of provisions, the purchase of new slaves, weather, and crops.
    William Hall (b.1749) to Thomas Hall (b.1725), 1769-1771: 5 letters, 14 pages. William Hall wrote from Jamaica to his father in London in an effort to convince him that his days of frivolity at Eton were over. He was eager to gain his father's favor and dreamt of taking over management of his father's estates (1771, February 1). William discussed his plans to build a house on a small tract of land bordering Worchester and Williamsfield (1771, March 28), his intention to purchase "Negroe" slaves and begin a substantial estate (1771, July 24).
    William Brown to Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall (b.1748?), 1775-1779: 5 letters, 26 pages. Thomas Hall has died (1772) and left his estates to his oldest son, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall, who lived in London and managed his sugar plantations through an attorney in Jamaica, William Brown. Brown's letters reflect a high degree of involvement in sugar planning and processing in a climate of intensified production of high quality sugars. Brown discussed the completion of a new mill at Kirkpatrick Hall estate (possibly the aggregate of the Worchester and Williamsfield holdings), the schedule of planting, the need produce higher quality sugars by shifting labor from extensive planting to "cleaning" the crop already there, and the need to hire "Negroes" skilled in the trades, sawyers and carpenters, to build up the estate (1775, June 1). Hugh had changed merchant bankers from Stephen Fuller to Messiers. Sercold & Jackson.
    Robert Kenyon to Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall, 1776: 2 letters, 6 pages. Robert Kenyon, Hugh's brother-in-law, inquired about future disposition of one of Hugh's horses (1776, 24 April). Both men lived in England. In the second letter Kenyon expressed a desire to visit and see the children.
    Cunningham and Cleland to John Kennion, 1784-1785: 3 letters, 12 pages. The company of Cunningham and Cleland, attorneys in Jamaica, reported to John Kennion, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall's agent in London, regarding the state of Hall's plantations. They described the financial accounts, provided news of crops and the ships that will carry sugar, and shipped turtles and limes. Also they mentioned the review of an overseer, especially his conduct toward the slaves (1784, 12 February). Finally, they related news that William, Hugh's brother in Jamaica, had made a negotiation of his debts quite unfavorable to Hugh (1785, April 20).
    George Lawrence to Thomas Hall (b.1758), 1810: 2 letters, 5 pages. George Lawrence, son of Thomas Hall's sister Mary, wrote Thomas in London with news of Williamsfield and the condition of the crops (1810, 16 May). Lawrence had travelled to Jamaica to resolve estate accounts.
    The PLANTATION AND ESTATE DOCUMENTS series contains records related to the management of the sugar plantations of Irwin, Tryall, Kirkpatrick Hall, Johnshall, Worcester, Williamsfield and Hallhead estates and Stapleton Pen. The materials are arranged by individual estate. Bound items which provide data on several plantations are grouped in a separate subseries.
    Significant among the documents are lists of slaves on individual plantations which were complied by attorneys for absentee owners, usually at the end of the year. Although the categories of data which were recorded vary across time, most record name, occupation, and condition. Many trace age and country of origin, while one list accounts for the yearly allowance of cloth for each slave (1793: An Account Book). The increase and decrease of slaves was also often recorded, including birth and death dates; name of mother and child; name of deceased; and cause of death. Doctor's bills and accompanying receipts for payment located in the Hallhead subseries provide additional information on the general health and condition of slaves.
    Extant slave lists for Hallhead estate appear for the years 1792, 1810, and 1818-1820. Lists for Irwin, Tryall, and Kirkpatrick Hall estates and Stapleton Pen appear for the years 1782, 1819, 1821-1822, 1824, 1827-1828, and 1830.
    Several documents provide information on cane-fields under cultivation for the estate of Hallhead. Data on cultivation occurs in the 1793 account book, the 1811 "list," and the 1820 "list." Often included with lists of slaves were livestock accounts which reported the increase and decrease of stock.
    The materials in the "Account ledgers" subseries as well as individual accounts located within the Irwin, Johnshall, and Tryall estate subseries provide a wealth of data on the operation of Thomas Hall's (b.1725) sugar plantations between 1756 and 1766. Generally, the ledgers balance accounts with individuals who managed Hall's plantations while he lived in London. Hall settled accounts with Joseph Manesly, Dehany and Bowen, John Rusea, Benjamin Heath, James Irving, Samuel Cleland, and John Scott. Of particular interest are the accounts for Johnshall estate which document cash paid out for goods and services.
    The LEGAL DOCUMENTS series is organized in three subseries: bonds, cases with legal opinions, and miscellaneous documents. The "bonds" subseries contains three documents which secure financial agreements between individuals. In the earliest bond, dated 1720, William Hall (b.1696) and an associate, James Campbel, borrowed four thousand pounds from his father and mother, Thomas (b.1660?) and Patience Hall. The copy of the bond between Thomas Hall (b.1725) and his father-in-law, David Dehany, sets forth the conditions by which Hall will use land bequeathed to his wife's children. Finally, the copy of the bond between Thomas Hall and Murdock MacLeod and George Lesslie relates to the rental of Kirkpatrick Pen, including Negroes and stock, in the parish of Westmoreland.
    The "cases with legal opinions" subseries relates to family wills [see FAMILY DOCUMENTS - Wills] and the inheritance of property by Thomas Hall (b.1725) and his heirs. Typically, a copy of the will or argument was submitted to an attorney, who then penned his opinion on the copy. In 1747, William Hall sought to clarify the title to 120 acres of land in the parish of St. Elizabeth that his mother, Patience, bequeathed to her grandson, Thomas. William's request for opinions corresponds to the marriage of Thomas Hall to Mary Dehany. Other important cases include the inheritance of Hugh Kirkpatrick's estate by his daughter, Mary Hall [wife of William Hall] (1752, June 15), the inheritance of the estate of George Goodin by the children of Mary Dehany (1763, November 28) and a dispute over land bequeathed by Mary Hall to her grandson, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall ([after 1772]).
    The "miscellaneous legal documents" subseries contains a letter of attorney from Thomas Hall to Samuel Cleland to grant land for life on Hall's property north of Montego Bay, St. James parish (1757, May 9). Also included is a document related to the sale of land at Toxteth Park near Liverpool, England for which John Kennion, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall's agent in London, paid the taxes in 1785 (1783, February 24 and 1785). Of particular interest is the epitome or summary of the settlement made on the marriage of Thomas Newman and Eliza Anne Hall, Thomas Hall's (b.1758?) daughter (1817, December 27). The six page document reflects a complexity of conditions and stipulations for marriage among the wealthy.
    The FAMILY DOCUMENTS series is arranged in four subseries- genealogical documents, military commissions, miscellaneous documents, and wills [see LEGAL DOCUMENTS - Cases with legal opinions]. The materials relate to individual family members and are organized in chronological order.
    The "genealogical documents" provide birth and death dates for members of the Hall family, including Thomas Hall's (b.1660?) children (ca. 1719 and n.d.), William Hall's (b.1696) family (ca. 1726), Hugh Kirkpatrick's family (1746, May 28), Thomas Hall's (b.1725) children (1769, May 27), and Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall's children (1797, June 7). Also included in the subseries are drafts of kinship charts probably created by Irwin Barnett.
    The "military commissions" are elegant certificates complete with wax stamp and signed by the governor. They certify the appointment of Hugh Kirkpatrick to the rank of captain of a company and later captain of a troop of cavalry. Thomas Hall (b.1725) rose in rank from a lieutenant to a lieutenant colonel of the cavalry. Both men served in the parish of St. James.
    The "miscellaneous documents" subseries contains a marvelous bill for the funeral of Thomas Hall (b.1725) which includes such items as "six men in deep mourning to bear in the said coffin," "30 men with branches to light the funeral" and "beer for the men as usual." The remainder of the subseries is composed of miscellaneous expenses incurred by Thomas Kirkpatrick Hall as sheriff of Staffordshire, England, between 1817 and 1820.
    The "wills" subseries [see LEGAL DOCUMENTS - Cases with legal opinions] contains documents related to Patience Hall; James Barclay, William Hall's widow, Mary's, second husband; Frances Esdaile, Thomas Hall's (b.1758) wife's sister; and Robert Kenyon, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall's wife's brother.
    The POLITICAL AND PUBLIC DOCUMENTS series are arranged in three subseries: political documents related to the controversies surrounding the administration of Governor Charles Knowles, 1752-1756, miscellaneous political documents and public documents related to Jamaica. Within each subseries documents are arranged chronologically.
    The Knowles materials provide documentation on the attempted removal of the capitol of Jamaica from Spanish Town to Kingston and the formation of the "Association" by a group of influential planters including William Dawkins, Rose Fuller, Richard Beckford, Edward Clarke, Thomas Fearon, senior, John Palmer, Hampson Nedham, Edward Manning, Henry Archbould, Philip Pinnock, and Charles Price. Included is a letterpress broadside reproducing Governor Knowles speech dissolving the Assembly on November 8, 1754 together with the declaration of the "Association." In The Association Develop'd, a printed tract, the anonymous author, Jamaicanius, disputes the declaration of the associates. A detailed enumeration of the complaints against Knowles can be found in the "Grievances" document. A copy of the report of July 3, 1755 signed by Lord Halifax, J. Grenville and T. Pelham to the Privy Council recommends against the removal of the capitol.
    The "miscellaneous political documents" subseries contains two items. The first is a copy of a petition by Negro slaves who request their freedom and was witnessed by Charles Price. The second is an apparent political poem.
    The "public documents related to Jamaica" subseries contains two items which describe St. James parish-- a list of voters in the election of 1745 and a list of inhabitants taken in 1752. The list of inhabitants records the number of men, women, children, and servants in individual households. Also included is a unique printed broadside which lists vessels lost or damaged in the hurricane of September 11, 1751. Finally, the "Account of Negroes and Cattle" provides data on the size of the slave population for each parish for the years 1734, 1740 and 1745.
    Accession Processed in 1995
    The accession processed in 1995 contains a small selection of letters and miscellaneous documents written by English diplomat Lorenzo Hall between 1825 and 1842 to his uncle Thomas Kirkpatrick Hall and other family members, letters sent to Thomas K. Hall by various representatives and agents in Italy between 1819 and 1822 concerning Mr. Hall's commissions of paintings and several trade cards. The materials, dating from 1772 to 1892, are arranged in two series: 1) CORRESPONDENCE and 2) MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS.
    The first series, CORRESPONDENCE, is arranged chronologically. The first group of letters contains 9 holograph letters (including shipping, banking, and commercial records) sent to Thomas K. Hall of Staffordshire, England between 1819 and 1822 (see Box 3 Folder 41). The letters are from various agents and representatives situated in Italy who were associated with Mr. Hall's commissions of original paintings and copies of Old Master Paintings, in Rome (primarily) and elsewhere by the following artists: Luigi Duranti (1791-1857), a Roman painter (SEE LETTER DATED MARCH 25, 1819), Gaspare Gabrielli (ca. 1790-1833), an Italian painter, (SEE LETTER DATED AUGUST 28, 1819), Peter Herzog (1794-1864), a Swiss painter (SEE LETTER DATED JANUARY 26, 1822), Giovanni Marchi, a Veronese painter (SEE LETTER DATED AUGUST 28, 1819), and Guiseppi Pisani (1757-1839), an Italian sculptor (SEE LETTER DATED APRIL 3, 1819). The correspondence offers insight into the trade in paintings between Italy and Britain during the period, as well as specific, detailed citation of the creation of certain copies of important Old Master paintings by leading Italian artists of the 19th century, the cost of these commissions with detailed explanations of payment, and the methods of transport from Leghorn to England. The second group from Lorenzo Hall contains letters written by English diplomat Lorenzo Hall to his uncle Thomas K. Hall. Lorenzo Hall's letters, dated between 1825-1842, are from numerous European cities and countries and contain extensive and detailed accounts of the places and peoples from his posts and travels.
    The second series, MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS, contains eight 19th century 'trade cards', including one from a salesman of American locomotives in England and one card announcing a meeting for "Women and the Vote" from London dated March 21, 1889. This series also contains fragments of letters dated 1772-1810, including one unsigned diary summary dated 1799-1804 and a receipt for the medical treatment of slaves on the Hallhead estate dated 1809.
    A microfilm (4 reels) of the entire collection was prepared in July 1999.

    Historical Background

    The Hall family engaged in sugar production on the island of Jamaica for over a century and participated in the rise of Jamaican planter society during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The early generations of Halls directly supervised their plantations, while the later descendants lived in England as absentee landlords, leaving the management of their estates to attorneys and overseers.
    Thomas Hall (b.1660?) immigrated to Jamaica from Worcester, England, and his name first appears in the collection on a letter from his brother, Henry, addressed to him at Port Royal in 1711. In 1720, Thomas and his wife Patience financed the plantation activities of their son, William (b.1696), a planter from the parish of Westmoreland, and his associate, James Campbel, with a loan of four thousand pounds. In 1721, William's brother, Thomas (b.1694), who was afflicted with a disabling disease, left Jamaica for curative powers of the spas of Bath, England. It is in a letter from Thomas (b.1694) to William (b.1696), dated July 24, 1721, that the first mention of sugar is made. Thomas writes, "I find shugars to be a better comodity then I expected, but money and credit as scarse here as in our Island, and nothing to had without yr. penny, therefore hope/earnestly beg/ y'll shipp me somemore shugars by yr. first safe hand, pray let them be Either fine or course, provided they be dry..."
    In 1723, William Hall married Mary Kirkpatrick, daughter of Hugh Kirkpatrick from the parish of St. James, Jamaica, and two years later, Thomas Hall (b.1725) was born. At the age of eighteen, Thomas was attending to the affairs of his family's sugar plantation in St. James parish, while his father conducted business and engaged in politics in the island's capitol, St. Jago de la Vega or Spanish Town.
    By 1741, Thomas Hall (b.1660?) had died and Patience Hall, during a severe illness, made her last will and testament, leaving the bulk of her estate to her grandson, Thomas Hall. In 1746, William Hall and David Dehany arranged Thomas' marriage to Mary Dehany and the two were united in 1747.
    Against a backdrop of conflict among England, France and Spain that was often played out in the West Indies, William and Thomas Hall produced sugars, molasses, and rum for export to England; bought "Negroe" slaves to labor in their cane-fields; and imported the necessities they couldn't produce- foodstuffs from the North American colonies and manufactures from England. In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought a period of security to the region, but created confusion among planters who were unsure of future prices or what commodities would be in demand.
    During this period of peace, which lasted until the beginning of the Seven Years War in 1756, William Hall experienced increasing financial distress, which he attributed to his difficulty in collecting his debts. By 1758 William Hall had died and his widow, Mary, had married Col. James Barclay.
    Thomas Hall witnessed the administration of Governor Charles Knowles (1752-1756) and the dispute over moving the capitol of Jamaica from Spanish Town (St. Jago de la Vega) to Kingston. Powerful planters and residents of the western parishes opposed the efforts of Kingston merchants allied with Knowles to relocate government offices, the Assembly, and the island's archives to the port of Kingston. The merchants also sought to remove the militia and its artillery to Kingston, a move which would have left Spanish Town defenseless in time of war.
    After Knowles dissolved the Assembly on November 8, 1754, in part, for authorizing expensive capital improvements to Spanish Town's infrastructure, influential planters, including Charles Price, Rose Fuller, and Edward Manning, responded by forming an "Association" for "carrying on good Government, and the welfare of this Island." Although Knowles managed to move the colony's archives, which served as the repository for land and property records, his influence at the King's court was less than the power of the petitions of his opponents and his actions were finally disallowed.
    In 1756, in anticipation of the lieutenant governor's call for a new Assembly, Charles Price and others who represented the "country interest," secretly petitioned Thomas Hall to declare his candidacy as a representative from St. James.
    By 1758, Thomas Hall had moved to London with his family and left Samuel Cleland, his attorney, in charge of his sugar estates, Tryall, Irwin, and Johnshall. Hall entered into a copartnership with John Rusea, who managed the overseers on the Johnshall and Irwin Estates. James Hindlater oversaw the operation of Tryall estate.
    In late 1761, Thomas Hall returned to Jamaica to find his estates in great disorder and confusion, largely because of the severity of John Rusea. During his stay in Jamaica, his wife, Mary, died. Hall arranged his affairs and returned to London by September of 1764. By November 1772, Thomas Hall had died. Thomas Hall's second son, William, emigrated to Jamaica shortly before his father's death to pursue a career as a planter.
    The bulk of Thomas Hall's estate went to his oldest son, Hugh Kirkpatrick Hall (b.1748?). Hugh managed his estates from England through Cunningham and Cleland, attorneys in Jamaica, and John Kennion, his agent in London. In 1782, in addition to the Irwin and Tryall estates in St. James parish, H.K. Hall owned the Kirkpatrick Hall estate, located in the parish of Westmoreland. In 1793, records show an additional sugar plantation called Hallhead estate in the parish of St. Thomas in the East.
    In 1790, Mrs. Alice Kennion took over management of her late husband's business affairs and by 1807 was managing Hallhead estate. In 1811 Hallhead estate was owned by Mrs. Alice Kennion and Thomas Gordon and in the possession of John Stewart and Charles Harris. In 1821 Hallhead is the property of John Hall, son of H.K. Hall's brother Thomas Hall (b.1758?), and Thomas Gordon.
    The estates of Irwin, Tryall, and Kirkpatrick Hall and the pen at Stapleton were inherited by Thomas Kirkpatrick Hall, son of H.K. Hall and Mary Kenyon. Pens were "seasoning" facilities where new slaves and livestock were adapted to forced labor conditions. T.K. Hall, an absentee owner, lived in England and served as sheriff of Staffordshire, England, between 1817 and 1820.
    Slavery was finally abolished in Jamaica by decree on August 1st 1834. This Emancipation Act created an interim period of "apprenticeship" in which slaves were required to work for their masters for four years before they were free.
    Information in the preceding historical note was drawn from sources in the Barnett/Hall Collection.

    Publication Rights

    Publication rights are held by the creator of the collection.

    Preferred Citation

    Hall Family Papers and Sugar Plantation Records, MSS 0220. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.

    Acquisition Information

    Not Available


    Researchers must use the microfilm of the collection located in Box Four.

    Subjects and Indexing Terms

    Brown, William -- Correspondence
    Cunningham and Cleland (Jamaica). -- Correspondence
    Hall family -- Archives
    Hall, Hugh Kirkpatrick, b. 1748?
    Hall, Lorenzo -- Correspondence
    Hall, Mary S. -- Correspondence
    Hall, Thomas Kirkpatrick, b. 1776
    Hall, Thomas, b. 1694
    Hall, Thomas, b. 1694 -- Correspondence
    Hall, Thomas, b. 1725
    Hall, Thomas, b. 1725 -- Correspondence
    Hall, William, b. 1696
    Hall, William, b. 1696 -- Correspondence
    Hall, William, b. 1749
    Hall, William, b. 1749 -- Correspondence
    Lawrence, George -- Correspondence
    Jamaica -- Politics and government
    Plantation owners -- Jamaica
    Plantation workers -- Jamaica
    Slaveholders -- Jamaica
    Slavery -- Jamaica -- History
    Slaves -- Jamaica -- Statistics
    Sugar growing -- Jamaica
    Sugar trade -- Jamaica
    Sugar workers -- Jamaica