Guide to the Herman Axelbank Motion Picture Film Collection1896-1977

Prepared by Carol A. Leadenham
Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Phone: (650) 723-3563
Fax: (650) 725-3445
Email: archives@hoover.stanford.edu
© 1999
Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

Guide to the Herman Axelbank Motion Picture Film Collection, 1896-1977

Hoover Institution Archives

Stanford University

Stanford, California

Contact Information

  • Hoover Institution Archives
  • Stanford University
  • Stanford, California 94305-6010
  • Phone: (650) 723-3563
  • Fax: (650) 725-3445
  • Email: archives@hoover.stanford.edu
Prepared by:
Carol A. Leadenham
Date Completed:
1983
© 1999 Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Summary

Title: Herman Axelbank motion picture film collection,
Date (inclusive): 1896-1977
Collection Number: 79073
Creator: Axelbank, Herman, 1900-1979
Collection Size: 271 motion picture film reels, 1 oversize box. (27 linear feet)
Repository: Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Abstract: Depicts major events in the twentieth-century Russian history, including the Russian Revolution and World Wars I and II, the tsarist family and court, communist political and military leaders, and scenes of economic, social, and cultural activities in the Soviet Union.
Language: English.

Administrative Information

Access

Closed in part. Reels 1-30, 32-36, 40-42, 47, 62, 90, 93, 97, 99, and 118-123 are open for research. All others are eligible to be opened after copies are made.
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

Publication Rights

For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

Preferred Citation

[Footage identification], Herman Axelbank motion picture film collection, [Reel number], Hoover Institution Archives.

Acknowledgments

The Hoover Institution acquired the Herman Axelbank motion picture film collection in 1979 from the family of the late Herman Axelbank. Shortly thereafter, Mr. Alexander Kulakoff, who is a general partner of the Harrington-Kulakoff Development Company, Palo Alto, California, donated funds to describe, index, and produce preservation and use copies of the first 28 reels of the collection. Without his financial assistance, the Herman Axelbank collection could not now be made available for research by the scholarly community. I am pleased to acknowledge his generous support and interest.


Milorad M. Drachkovitch

Director of Archives and Senior Fellow

January 1983

Access Points

World War, 1914-1918.
World War, 1914-1918--Pictorial works.
World War, 1914-1918--Russia.
World War, 1939-1945.
World War, 1939-1945--Pictorial works.
World War, 1939-1945--Soviet Union.
Russia.
Soviet Union.
Soviet Union--History--Pictorial works.
Soviet Union--History--Revolution, 1917-1921--Pictorial works.
Soviet Union--Pictorial works.
Moving-pictures.
Video tapes.

Background

Herman Axelbank (1900-1979) devoted his energies for over fifty years to compiling a motion picture film chronicle of the last years of Imperial Russia, the Russian revolutions, and the new government which emerged from the upheaval. He was born in the village of Novo-Konstantinov, in the Russian Empire, on May 30, 1900; his family moved to New York in 1909. Fascinated with film-making from childhood, Axelbank got a job, in 1916, as an office boy for Samuel Goldfish (later Goldwyn) at Goldwyn Pictures on Forty-second Street. The news of the February Revolution in Russia captured the young Axelbank's imagination. "Wish I could take moving pictures over there; we don't have any of our own [American Revolution] in 1775," he remembered remarking to a co-worker.
At about that time Axelbank met a cameraman whose assignments took him to Eastern Europe. Axelbank commissioned him to film Lenin and Trotsky, pawning his possessions and borrowing from friends in order to pay the cameraman's advance. In 1922 the cameraman returned with film of such events as the Kronstadt Mutiny of March 1921 and the Trial of the Socialist Revolutionaries of 1922. With such a beginning, Axelbank's film archive was already noteworthy; in the 1920's the Pathe, International, and Fox news services, and even the Soviet government, purchased film from him.
Axelbank soon acquired film taken on the German, Austrian, and Turkish fronts during World War I, film of the Tsar and his family, and of scenes from pre-revolutionary Russia, including provincial towns as well as Moscow and St. Petersburg. In most instances the names of the cameramen and other circumstances surrounding the filming have not been preserved. Surviving bills of sale from the 1920's show that Jawitz Pictures Corporation sold Axelbank film footage of the Provisional Government (cameramen: Darovsky, Himmel, Rizhok, Borisof, Slonim, and Dzhakel), Petrograd and Moscow during the Russian Revolution (cameraman: Thompson), and the Lenin funeral; Noxall Film Company sold him footage on Tsarist Russia, Denikin, and Kolchak (cameramen: Risemann, Kubelik, and Hoffman); and Robitschek, Ehrlich and Company sold him footage of the city of Moscow. Other records were destroyed in a 1959 fire at the facility where Axelbank stored his flammable nitrate film. Many other acquisitions of the 1930's through the 1950's were accomplished by means of verbal agreements.
In 1918 Axelbank attended a lecture by John Reed and later did some filming for the Friends of Soviet Russia, but he never became deeply involved in politics. His primary interest remained his historical film project.
In 1921 Axelbank assisted the Friends of Soviet Russia in making the film "Russia Through the Shadows," which was shown to raise funds for Soviet famine relief. In 1922 he made the three-reel documentary "With the Movie Camera Through the Bolshevik Revolution" using the footage he had already collected. Meanwhile, he continued collecting more film from cameramen and emigres, sometimes making trips to Europe and concluding the deals at some risk to himself. In 1924 he made "The Truth About Russia." He regarded these feature films as the means to raise money for his collecting efforts and as the groundwork for his film "Tsar to Lenin."
In December 1928 Axelbank contacted Max Eastman, who had published "Lenin's Testament" in the West, and asked for his assistance in the editing and narration of "Tsar to Lenin." The project took about one year. (One of the narrators whose voice appears in the early reels of the Herman Axelbank Film Collection is Eastman.) During this period Eastman went to Prinkipo Island to film Trotsky and his family in exile there. "Tsar to Lenin" premiered at the Filmarte Theater in New York on March 6, 1937. Its presentation of the role of Trotsky and the Old Bolsheviks in the Revolution aroused the ire of American Communists loyal to Stalin's line. They picketed the theaters in which the film was shown.
Through the years Axelbank attributed events such as his being followed, thefts of film, and the 1959 fire in the facility where his film was stored to continuing Soviet displeasure with his film collecting efforts. Ironically, in the 1960's and early 1970's representatives of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Marxism-Leninism showed interest in buying the early reels of Axelbank's film collection. In all probability they were interested in filling in gaps in their own film records of Trotsky and other revolutionaries whom Stalin had eliminated from the Soviet film archives as well as from life.

Scope of the Collection

The Herman Axelbank Film Collection consists of 266 reels containing over 250,000 feet of film, primarily newsreel and documentary footage. The editing of the film and its chronological arrangement are the work of Axelbank. As attested by the desire of the Soviet representatives to purchase the first forty-four reels of the collection, the footage on these reels, taken during the period from about 1901 to 1937, is extremely rare; some portions are unique. Included are the Tsar, his family, and associates in moments of relaxation as well as at official ceremonies; the Russian revolutions of 1917; the Civil War, with especially good coverage of Siberia and the Far East; and revolutionary and governmental leaders of the Tsarist, Provisional Government, and Soviet periods. There is also extensive coverage of World War II. Ceremonial events, such as May Day and October Revolution anniversaries and funerals of prominent figures, including Tolstoy and Lenin, are well represented. Coverage extends into the 1970's. Some Soviet feature films, such as "Kombrig Ivanov," made in 1923, are also included. According to Dr. Raymond Fielding, a leading film expert, the Axelbank Collection is "undoubtedly the largest and most valuable film collection devoted to the subject of revolutionary and pre-revolutionary Russia in the Western hemisphere, and probably in the Western world."

How to Use the Guide

The original film held by the Hoover Institution Archives is on 35 mm positive stock; Axelbank had the earlier reels converted from nitrate to acetate-base (safety) stock.
To facilitate description of the contents of the film, each reel is divided into segments, and the segments into feet.
The type of film is described according to the following alphabetic code.
  1. Actuality: incorporating two classes of "real life" film
    1. "Live" film of an event either totally unplanned or at least planned primarily for purposes other than film-making
    2. Factual material - demonstrations of equipment, interviews, speeches, comment - specially filmed for inclusion in instructional films, news reports, etc.
  2. Dramatisation: film retaining an essentially documentary approach to its subject without meeting either of the "Actuality" definitions
  3. Fiction
  4. Illustrative material: maps, graphs, diagrams, reproductions of photographs and illustrations from books
(Adapted from Imperial War Museum. Department of Information Retrieval. Film Cataloguing Handbook, by Roger B. N. Smither with David J. Penn. London, 1976)
The film is black and white unless the word "color" appears at the bottom of the segment description in the Guide.

Container List

Reel 1

Segment 1 5th century-1868 Summary of Russian history (0-150)

Beginning of segment:

0 (1/006)

Scope and Content Note

Riurik; Sineus; Truvor; Peter the Great; Catherine the Great; Marx, Karl
D. Text in English interspersed with maps, reproductions of portraits, and illustrations from books
Sound: 148-150
English
Reel 1

Segment2 1869-ca. 1914 Lenin's life from 1869-early 1890's--views of Simbirsk; interior of Ul'ianov house; Ul'ianov family photo including Lenin as a boy; Volga River; Schl[UNK]usselburg Prison; document relating to Alexander Ul'ianov's execution; photo of Lenin; Kazan; University of Kazan; photo of Lenin; Kazan Prison; Lenin's prison cell; photo of Lenin; Lenin's prison dossier; photo of Lenin (150-339) views of pre-revolutionary peasant life--peasant thatched roof wood houses; peasant plowing; peasants threshing; peasant families in boat on river; boatmen; workers in small factory (339-373)

Note

01:10:09

Beginning of segment:

150 (1/087)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Ul'ianova, Mariia Il'inichna; Ul'ianov family
Plowing; Peasantry; Boatmen; Threshing; Shlissel'burgskaia tiur'ma Ul'yanovsk; Kazan; Volga River
A. Film of Simbirsk; Ul'ianov house (restored as a museum); Kazan; Volga River; peasants. D. Photos of people and documents; illustrations from books
Sound: 150-163
English
Reel 2

Segment 1 early 1890's-1904 Photos of St. Petersburg--buildings, monuments, factory districts; Lenin at 23; house where Lenin carried on revolutionary activities; illus. of Lenin and other revolutionaries; pages from Lenin's works; photo of Lenin and other members of Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, including Martov (on Lenin's left) and Krzhizhanovskii (on his right) (photo taken February 1897); prison watchtower with guard, prison cell; illus. of Lenin in cell writing; demonstration of invisible ink; cell; photo of Lenin (0-90) film of Siberian area where Lenin was exiled; village of Shushinskaia (place of Lenin's 1897 exile); interior of hut (90-120) illus. of Lenin writing; pages from his works; map (120-130) scenes from cities of St. Petersburg (suburb), Pskov, Nizhni Novgorod, Riga, St. Petersburg (130-144) typescript of one of Lenin's works; photo of Lenin; pages of Iskra; illus. of clandestine printing; map; clandestine printing press; pages; illus. of Lenin speaking to 2d Congress of Russian Social Democratic Workers Party; photo of Stalin; photo of Stalin, Lenin, Kalinin; snowy scenes from villages of Kurena and Katurm, Stalin's Siberian exile sites (144-246)

Note

01:10:15:05-01:17:07:11

Beginning of segment:

0 (1/184)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Stalin, Iosif; Martov, IUlii Osipovich; Krzhizhanovskii, Gleb Maksimilianovich
Soiuz bor'by za osvobozhdenie rabochego klassa
Leningrad; Shushinskaia; Siberia; Kurena; Katurm; Riga; Pskov; Gor'kii (R.S.F.S.R)
A. Cities and villages. D. Photos of people and documents, illus. from books, maps
Sound: 228-233 (Russian); 234-246 (English)
Reel 2

Segment 2 1904 Priest blessing troops; military parade; spectators throwing flowers; soldiers boarding trains, battle scenes; wagons carrying wounded; naval bombardment; moving troop train; wounded being unloaded from train (246-298)

Note

01:17:07:12
01:18:34:

Beginning of segment:

246 (1/272)

Scope and Content Note

Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905; Wounded in battle; Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian
A; B. Battle scenes
Sound: 246-290
English
Reel 2

Segment 3 1905 Bloody Sunday--soldiers and demonstrators clash; Winter Palace Square; bridge; reproduction of a painting of massacred civilians (298-318) prisoners walking in chains (318-323) burial of Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich, who had been assassinated by SR terrorist (323-340) workers leaving a factory; crowds of workers; orators (340-348) Scenes from the Sergei Eisenstein film Battleship Potemkin (1925): Potemkin mutiny (348-356) crowds of people running down long flights of stairs, being fired upon by soldiers (356-367)

Note

01:18:35:10
01:20:30:00

Beginning of segment:

298 (1/289)

Scope and Content Note

Sergei Aleksandrovich, Grand Duke
Funeral service--Sergei Aleksandrovich, Grand Duke; Revolution of 1905; Prisoners
Leningrad
A. Burial of Grand Duke. B. 1905 Revolution scenes
Sound: 300-312, 319-322
English
Reel 3

Segment 1 1905-1906 Cavalry breaks up advancing crowd; rebels battle tsar's forces at the barricades; sequence ends with a proclamation of the tsar with a bloody hand superimposed (0-56) illus. from book of Lenin addressing an illegal meeting in St. Petersburg in 1906 (56-78) film of prison and prison yard; prisoners in cells, walking in chains (78-92) illus. from book of Lenin fleeing into exile across ice of Gulf of Finland (92-100)

Beginning of segment:

0 (1/313)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich
Prisoners; Prisoners, Political; Revolution of 1905
Leningrad
A. Prison scenes. B. 1905 Revolution scenes. D. Illus. from books
Reel 3

Segment 2 1907, 1908 Outdoor Te Deum for Imperial Guards regiment; Grand Duke Cyril present

Date: (1907)
(100-190) Tsar playing tennis
Date: (1908)
(190-196)

Note

01:26:07

Beginning of segment:

100 (1/343)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Kirill Vladimirovich, Grand Duke; Romanov,
House of--Recreation
Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian; Tennis
A
Reel 3

Segment 3 1908 (Tsar) Paris and Lenin's Paris home; workers' suburbs (197-235) drawing of Lenin at the time, reprod. of book illus.; photo of Lenin; Lenin's party school at Longjumeau, suburb of Paris (235-240) Tsar and his honor guard (240-243)

Note

01:26:08:19
01:27:26

Beginning of segment:

196 (1/371)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Nicholas II, Emperor
Rossiiskaia sotsial-demokraticheskaia rabochaia partiia
France; Paris; Longjumeau, France
A; D. Illus. from books
Reel 3

Segment 4 1909 Tolstoi sitting, writing in notebook (243-254) view of Yasnaya Polyana--estate buildings, gates, countryside (254-278) Tolstoi's family (278-289) Tolstoi walking with his wife (289-299) Tolstoi walking (299-306) Tolstoi sawing wood (306-314) Tolstoi walking with dog (314-317) surrounding countryside, birch trees, countryside (317-362)

Note

01:27:28
01:30:46

Beginning of segment:

243 (1/384)

Scope and Content Note

Tolstoi, Lev Nikolaevich; Tolstaia, Sofiia Andreevna (Bers);
Tolstoi family
Yasnaya Polyana
A
Reel 4

Segment 1 1909-1910 Countryside surrounding Yasnaya Polyana; Tolstoi and peasants (0-19) Tolstoi riding horseback (19-42) trip to Moscow by train,

Date: September 1909;
departure from station with wife; arrival in Moscow; departure; crowd at train station (42-123) stationmaster's house at Astapovo where Tolstoi died; Tolstoi on deathbed (123-139) Tolstoi's funeral procession including Yasnaya Polyana peasants with banner; grave (140-191)

Note

01:30:57

Beginning of segment:

0 (1/419)

Scope and Content Note

Tolstoi, Lev Nikolaevich; Tolstaia, Sofiia Andreevna (Bers)
Funeral service--Tolstoi, Lev Nikolaevich
Yasnaya Polyana; Astapovo; Moscow
A
Reel 4

Segment 2 1911 (Romanovs) Tsarist emblems, double-headed eagle; Fortress of Peter and Paul; lifeguards regiment marching; procession of priests; Shrine of the Iberian Virgin, woman kneeling; street scene (191-216) peasant women shoveling, dumping buckets of grain into cart; peasants threshing; thatched roofed huts (repeat of film on reel 1, segment 2); migrating peasants at train station; barge haulers; dockworkers loading grain; miners (217-285) political prisoners, Peter-Paul Fortress; prisoners in railroad cars on way to exile in Siberia (286-339) Tsar and family; Tsarevich and cousin; Tsarevich on pony (340-365)

Beginning of segment:

191 (1/468)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia
Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich Peasantry; Prisoners, Political; Workers; Chasovnia Iverskoi ikony Bozhiei Materi
Leningrad; Moscow
A; B. Barge haulers sequence?
Sound: 191-344
English; Russian with English voiceover translation
Reel 5

Segment 1 1907-1913 Ural'sk (fishing village) (0-18) Kursk--fire drill by Kursk fire company; street scenes (18-75) Moscow--Kremlin; Shrine of the Iberian Virgin; Red Square, 1911; Bolshoi Theater; Kremlin; bird market; samovar market (76-205) St. Petersburg--Nevskii Prospekt (206-230) Moscow--Ivan Bell Tower (231-235) Tsar's hunting lodge; hunting dogs (236-250) a northern outpost--windmill (250-255)

Beginning of segment:

0 (1/511)

Scope and Content Note

Romanov, House of--Recreation
Chasovnia Iverskoi ikony Bozhiei Materi; Fire departments; Markets; Fishing villages; Hunting lodges; Hunting dogs; Windmills Ural'sk; Kursk; Moscow; Leningrad
A
Sound: 236-250
English
Reel 5

Segment 2 1907-1913 St. Petersburg--procession with Tsar on horseback and Empress in carriage (255-276) Kremlin--Tsar and family, Grand Duke Michael and his wife at a religious ceremony (276-300) Tsar and family leaving another religious ceremony (Tsarevich has swollen cheek) (300-306) Moscow--section titled: Narodnaia gulian'ia na Devich'em pole (people strolling in Devichoe field, a park) (306-318) building a log house (318-333) Tuapse on the Black Sea--outdoor cafe (333-345) Matsesta Valley (345-354) Lake Baikal--film shot from moving train on Trans-Siberian Railroad (354-362)

Beginning of segment:

255 (1/569)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mikhail Aleksandrovich, Grand Duke; Natal'ia, Grand Duchess
Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian; Log houses; Cafes; Carpenters; Processions--Tsarist period
Leningrad; Moscow; Tuapse; Matsesta Valley; Black Sea Region;
Baikal Lake Region
A
Reel 6

Segment 1 1911 (Tsar); c.a. 1911 (Reval) Tsar on horseback leading carriage with Empress and Tsarevich; Tsar and Empress on foot among dignitaries (0-7) Title: Reval (Estland)--view from moving train, outskirts of city, wooden buildings (8-23)

Beginning of segment:

0 (2/006)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich Tallinn
A
Sound: 0-7
English
Reel 6

Segment 2 c.a. 1911 Title: Straight Through Russia--begins at train station; film shot from moving train; snowy countryside; villages along the tracks (23-138) Moscow--film shot from top of Church of the Redeemer; Kremlin; Moskva River; distillery across the river (138-197) Karelian fishing village--villagers folding the nets; sorting fish; village women self-consciously smiling at camera (197-237) Saratov--street scenes; church with scaffolding; horse-drawn carts; people in overcoats (237-284)

Note

07:43:16

Beginning of segment:

23 (2/020)

Scope and Content Note

Villages; Fishing villages
Moscow; Karelia; Saratov
A
Reel 6

Segment 3 c.a. 1911-1912 Tsar and Empress walking outdoors among dignitaries, priests; Tsarevich being carried by cossack officer (284-294) Russian gymnasts at 1912 Olympics at Stockholm, Sweden; gymnast on bar; group floor exercises (294-318) Prague scenes; illus. from book of Lenin in Prague; title pages of his What Is To Be Done, One Step Forward, Two Steps Back; mastheads of Pravda showing its frequent title changes (318-386) Tsar outside with camera, taking pictures of his daughters and courtiers; Tsar watching daughters and courtiers play a game--two courtiers and one girl run until one of the courtiers catches the girl; the three then come back and another group of three starts running (386-410)

Note

07:43:18

Beginning of segment:

284 (2/146)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Romanov, House of--Recreation
Gymnasts; Olympic Games, Stockholm, 1912; Rossiiskaia sotsial-demokraticheskaia rabochaia partiia Czechoslavakia; Prague; Sweden; Stockholm A; D. Illus. from book; reprod. of title pages
Sound: 294-318
Music
Reel 7

Segment 1 1912-1914 Tsar, daughters, courtiers at picnic; playing game in which they are throwing dozens of balls a little larger than softballs at each other (0-65) clowning for camera--courtier dives fully dressed into lake; another paddles out in kayak and purposely capsizes it (65-112) courtiers swimming in the nude (112-158) Tsarevich and courtiers with pony (158-202) playing shuffleboard on the royal yacht (202-261) Tsar's daughters and courtiers rollerskating on the yacht (261-302) scenes of Moscow; scenes of provincial Russia (302-316) estate of the governor of the Kaluga District; governor and wife; peasant district heads (316-351)

Date: 1913
--St. Petersburg scenes; Tsar's daughters dancing with naval officers aboard a battleship (351-371) Tsar reviewing troops on a railroad platform (373-379)

Note

02:11:02

Beginning of segment:

0 (2/198)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Romanov, House of--Recreation
Dancing; Swimmers; Roller-skating; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Peasantry Leningrad; Kaluga
A
Sound: 302-371
English
Reel 8

Segment 1 1913 Big Bertha; Krupp Works at Essen; new German destroyer launched at Kiel (0-28)

Note

TAPE 2 has frame line problem USE TAPE # 7
07:04:25:17
07:05:37:21

Beginning of segment:

0 (27/132)

Scope and Content Note

Krupp'sche Gussstahlfabrik, Essen; Ships--Germany--Launching Germany; Essen, Germany; Kiel, Germany
A
Sound: 0-28
English
Reel 8

Segment 2 1913 Russian regiment on parade in honor of 300th anniversary of Romanov dynasty (28-37) anniversary celebration at Kremlin; crowds; priests (37-55) Duma in session; illus. of Grigorii Petrovskii, one of the Bolshevik deputies, being ejected from Duma (55-65) groups of Duma deputies, Senators; two men coming out of a door together; Rodzianko, Chairman of the Duma; Purishkevich; Miliukov; group of Duma members (55-89) soldiers on parade at Kremlin; Tsar, on horseback, salutes; priests lead royal procession; Tsar; Empress nods to crowd; Tsarevich; Grand Duchesses; crown jewels; Moscow garrison on parade in Red Square in honor of 300th anniversary of Romanov dynasty; Tsar and Tsarevich followed by Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich; Tsar and family; Tsar, Empress in receiving line; Empress gives gifts to guardsmen (89-173)

Note

07:05:33:
07:09:18:26

Beginning of segment:

28 (27/144)

Scope and Content Note

Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich; Purishkevich, Vladimir Mitrofanovich; Nicholas II, Emperor; Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Nikolai Nikolaevich, Grand Duke; Romanov, House of--Anniversaries
Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Processions--Tsarist period;
Duma
Leningrad; Moscow
A
Sound: 28-37; 50-89
English
Reel 8

Segment 3 1913 Kaiser Wilhelm II visits Krupp Works at Essen; Kaiser reviews hussar regiment; Kaiser at maneuvers on Tempelhof Grounds, Berlin; German soldiers drilling; pontoon bridge exercises; Kaiser and business leaders; Kaiser foxhunting; Kaiser and King Ludwig of Bavaria (173-246)

Note

07:09:18

Beginning of segment:

173 (27/201)

Scope and Content Note

Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Ludwig III, King of Bavaria Krupp'sche Gusstahlfabrik, Essen; Military maneuvers--Germany; Military ceremonies--Germany
Germany; Essen, Germany; Berlin
A
Sound: 221-246
English
Reel 8

Segment 4 1913-1914 Tsar, Empress, daughters, Tsarevich (carried) visit Sevastopol naval base (246-251) Tsar, daughters, Tsarevich return from motorboat trip; Tsar and daughters enter carriage (252-277) map of Russia in 1913; Tsar, Empress, and children participating in ceremony during celebration of 300th anniversary of Romanov dynasty (278-295) French soldiers digging trenches; rifle drill (295-298) Kaiser at parade in Berlin (298-309) Emperor Franz Joseph inspecting troops (299-313) ceremony with Nicholas II kissing Imperial Guards; daughters in the background (313-318) Tsar and his family visit the King and Queen of Romania,

Date: June 1914;
receiving line; Tsarevich (walking); Tsar and King on horseback (318-372)

Note

07:14:53

Beginning of segment:

246 (27/228)

Scope and Content Note

Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria; Carol I, King of Romania; Elizabeth, Queen Consort of Carol I, King of Romania; Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich; Romanov, House of--Anniversaries
Visits of state; Military maneuvers--France; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Military ceremonies--Germany; Military ceremonies--Austria
Sevastopol; Germany; Berlin; Romania; France; Austria A; D. Map
Reel 9

Segment 1 1914 State visit of Poincaire,

Date: July 1914;
Poincaire met by ships from Baltic Fleet; Tsar on his yacht escorts Poincaire to St. Petersburg; military parade in Poincaire's honor; cavalry; Empress and entourage (0-50) after assassination of Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo, assassin, Princip, captured; Kaiser with Hindenburg; Hindenburg and Ludendorff; German attack (50-91) Kaiser and General Staff (91-97) Tsar confers with ministers (97-102) St. Petersburg on the day war declared; patriotic demonstrations; Winter Palace Square; Tsar and Empress on balcony of Winter Palace; columns of soldiers on parade; off to war (102-130) Russian artillery; German-Russian trench battles (130-190) crowd scenes; common people; lines of men waiting to be inducted; tearful farewells; wounded; corpses; fleeing civilians; battle scenes (190-227)

Note

2 30 +

Beginning of segment:

0 (2/432)

Scope and Content Note

Poincaire, Raymond, Pres. France; Princip, Gavrilo; Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Hindenburg, Paul von; Ludendorff, Erich
Visits of state; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Wounded in battle; World War, 1914-1918--Patrotic response to; Soldiers' bodies, Disposition of; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front
Leningrad; Sarajevo; Yugoslavia
A; B. Battle scenes; capture of Princip?
Sound: 0-19; 51-91 (79-82 refers to Civil War); 103-112; 191-227
English
Reel 9

Segment 2 1914 Photo of Lenin; reproduction of title page of Imperialism, Highest Stage of Capitalism; Albert Thomas, French Socialist Minister of Munitions (227-257) Russian cavalry (257-263) artillery (263-268) Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich (269-274) Russian field telephone (274-277) Russian cannon firing (277-289) infantry charge (289-302) Russian dead; cudgel allegedly used to finish off Russian wounded by Germans (film shot by Ivan Dored, combat cameraman with Russian army); wounded at tent hospital (302-311) infantry attack through forest; Russian cannon (311-323) cavalry enters Austrian town; Austrian prisoners eating (323-332) cossack cavalry enters town of Pochæv; monastery at Pochæv; while Germans there they removed monks' skeletons from tombs; Russian soldiers shown putting skeletons back (332-367)

Beginning of segment:

227 (2/489)

Scope and Content Note

Thomas, Albert; Dored, Ivan; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Nikolai Nikolaevich, Grand Duke
Monasteries; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Galician front; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front; Wounded in battle; Prisoners of war--Austria; Pochævskaia Uspenskaia lavra; World War, 1914-1918--Atrocities; Telephone, Field; World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, hospitals, etc.; World War, 1914-1918--Prisons and prisoners Pochæv
A; B. Battle scenes
Sound: 227-257; 289-302
English
Reel 10

Segment 1 1914-1915 Grave of Austrian officer, prisoner of war who died of his wounds (no. 362 on grave marker) (0-1) Metropolitan arrives to reconsecrate Pochæv Monastery; greets Russian soldiers; general decorates Russian soldiers; Metropolitan departs (1-30) Russian officer at Division Headquarters; general reviews Russian division on Galician Front; Imperial Russian battle flag; infantry; cavalry (30-62) priests bless troops before battle; Iliodor the "mad monk" blessing troops (62-124) Russian supply trucks, armored trucks; trench warfare in the snow (124-228) Austrian prisoners of war marching; prisoners being disarmed (228-268) graves (268-274) Petrograd; women in munitions plants (274-291) Russian soldiers marching to front (291-294) Armenian conscripts drilling before going to the front (294-299)

Beginning of segment:

0(2/524)

Scope and Content Note

Trufanov, Sergei Mikhailovich
Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian; Pochævskaia Uspenskaia lavra; Monasteries; Soldiers' bodies, Disposition of; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Galician front; Munition workers; Prisoners of war--Austria; World War, 1914-1918-Prisons and prisoners; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Women workers Pochæv; Leningrad
A
Sound: 1-32; 41-62; 125-189; 275-299 (refers to 1917 and Civil War)
English
Reel 10

Segment 2 1915 Tsar at front with Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich; Tsar at front reviewing troops (299-334)

Note

2:51:20

Beginning of segment:

299 (2/590)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Nikolai Nikolaevich, Grand Duke
World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period
A
Sound: 309-313
English
Reel 10

Segment 3 1916 Baku oil fields (334-344) mine sweeper of Black Sea Fleet laying siege to Trebizond; Russian ship shelling causeway bridge to cut communications between Turkish Army and Trebizond (344-369)

Beginning of segment:

334 (2/598)

Scope and Content Note

World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Turkish front; World War, 1914-1918--Naval operations
Trebizond, Turkey; Turkey; Baku; Black Sea Region
A
Reel 11

Segment 1 1916 Capture of Trebizond,

Date: April 17, 1916
--Russian reinforcements land on coast (0-31) Turks surrender (31-48) view of Trebizond port, city, bay (48-80) Turkish shells; heavy garrison guns captured by Russians (80-100) delegation of Trebizond residents, carrying white flag, headed by U.S. Consul, Keyser, marching to meet Russian commander; Trebizond residents meet Russians at U.S. Consulate with bread, salt, flowers (100-119) Russian cavalry patrol destroys Turkish communications (119-135)

Beginning of segment:

0 (3/006)

Scope and Content Note

Keyser, U.S. Consul in Trebizond
World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Turkish front
Trebizond, Turkey; Turkey
A
Reel 11

Segment 2 1916 Russian Air Force on Turkish Front--Voisin fighter plane, pusher-type, propeller in rear; pilot suits up, gets into plane for bombing raid over Turkish lines (135-168) on the way to Erzerum (Erzerum captured Feb. 16, 1916)--infantry patrol crossing plank bridge over stream (168-185) cavalry patrol; cavalry patrol crossing stream (185-188) fighter plane in the air; on the ground; pilot examines stack of bombs he will drop by hand from open cockpit; shells exploding in the distance; puffs of smoke (188-227) Russian landing parties in boats next to Black Sea Fleet ships; wounded being loaded on battleship to be taken to Sevastopol; unloading horses from transport ship; landing parties in boats next to ships; ruins on the road to Erzerum (227-250)

Beginning of segment:

135 (3/079)

Scope and Content Note

World War, 1914-1918--Aerial operations; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Turkish front; Wounded in battle; Horses, Transport of; World War, 1914-1918--Naval operations; World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, hospitals, etc.
Erzerum, Turkey; Turkey
A
Sound: 185 (refers to Civil War)
English
Reel 11

Segment 3 1916 Russian Air Force Lieutenant Mertesalov takes plane up for bombing raid; over Turkish lines; forced down by enemy fire, Mertesalov makes emergency landing in a cornfield; Mertesalov back on the ground, with pipe, plane, and ground crew (250-307) staff headquarters in a Turkish villa; General Wrangel (307-311) Russians advancing in the mountains through a narrow pass; infantry; cavalry; artillery on carts pulled by horses (311-339)

Beginning of segment:

250 (3/132)

Scope and Content Note

Mertesalov, Lieutentant, Imperial Russian Air Force; Vrangel', Petr Nikolaevich, Baron
World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Turkish front; World War, 1914-1918--Aerial operations
Turkey
A
Reel 12

Segment 1 1916 Advance post on mountain; Russian trenches; soldier pours himself a cup of tea; soldiers digging trenches; Turkish officers; Russian guns firing (0-82) field hospital; wounded on stretchers; nurse in tent innoculates soldiers (82-109) cavalry patrol mining bridge; mountain battery shelling Turkish lines; shells exploding (109-159) cossack cavalry charge (159-181) view from trench during battle (181-183)

Beginning of segment:

0 (3/171)

Scope and Content Note

Wounded in battle; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Turkish front; World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, Hospitals, etc.; Soldiers Turkey
A
Sound: 160-166 (Refers to Civil War)
English
Reel 12

Segment 2 May 21, 1916 Exchange of Russian and German wounded prisoners; Red Cross representative; shell shocked German; group shot of wounded Russian and German prisoners (on crutches, amputees); young Russian soldiers around a table drinking (183-278)

Beginning of segment:

183 (3/239)

Scope and Content Note

Soldiers; Wounded in battle; World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, hospitals, etc.; World War, 1914-1918--Prisons and prisoners; Prisoners of war--Germany; Prisoners of war--Finland--Tornio Tornio, Finland; Finland
A
Reel 12

Segment 3 1916 Tsar at the front; group shot surrounded by generals and high ranking officers; Tsar at Red Cross hospital (278-291) war relief bazaar in Petrograd; Tsar on white horse; Empress, Anastasiia, Ol'ga, Tat'iana in bazaar booth; Tsar, on foot, appears to be trying to keep automobile between himself and the camera (291-338) Russian Army retreats; equipment and cavalry cross river; corpses (338-353) Tsar and Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich at the front; Tsar arrives in Mogilev, accompanied by Chief of Staff IAnushkevich and the Grand Duke; General Alekseev delivers a report (353-376)

Beginning of segment:

278 (3/271)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Nikolai Nikolaevich, Grand Duke; IAnushkevich, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Alekseev, Mikhail Vasil'evich
Wounded in battle; World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, hospitals, etc.; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front; Bazaars, Charitable; World War, 1914-1918--Charities Leningrad; Mogilev
A
Sound: 353-376
English
Reel 13

Segment 1 1916 (railroad ceremony, June, 1916) General Brusilov, sitting at a table, smiling and talking (0-8) Tsar's emissary, General IAnushkevich, attends ceremonies at the opening of a railroad built by Russian engineers between Julfa an the Persian border and Tabriz (project was begun in 1907); Persian Crown Prince Mohammed Hassan Mirza cuts ribbon; Russian and Persian dignitaries get into cars; train surrounded by crowds of people; cavalry honor guards line tracks; dignitaries review Persian troops; dignitaries pose for camera; ribbon cutting; Russian dignitary makes speech; Crown Prince, IAnushkevich, and others watch Persian cavalry jumping exhibition; soldiers in calisthenics demonstration; acrobats; trick riding exhibition (8-332) French reception of Russian brigade as it disembarks from ship in France (332-353)

Note

3:27:20

Beginning of segment:

0 (3/305)

Scope and Content Note

IAnushkevich, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Mohammed Hassan Mirza, Crown Prince of Persia; Brusilov, Aleksei Alekseevich
Railroads--Iran; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--France Iran; Tabriz, Iran; Julfa, Iran; France
A
Captions in English
Reel 14

Segment 1 late autumn-winter 1916 Priests bless troops; Tsar and Tsarevich review troops (0-106) Tsar, Empress, and daughters at same military review; soundtrack says this is the last moving picture film taken of the imperial family (106-118) Russian soldiers, eating, during a snowstorm (118-138)

Beginning of segment:

0 (3/408)

Scope and Content Note

Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front; Soldiers
A
Sound: 107-118
English
Reel 14

Segment 2 Dec. 1916-March 1917 (N.S.) Lieutenant Colonel Gruzinov, Commander of the Troops of the Moscow Military District, reviews troops on Red Square (138-157) poorer residents of Petrograd; women and children; market with almost nothing available for sale (157-167) photos of Rasputin; poster of Rasputin; photo of IUsupov (167-199) wounded being unloaded, carried on stretchers to hospital; wounded lying outside full hospitals; soldiers' corpses lying in snowy field; soldiers' corpses being dumped from cart onto field (199-228) street scene near Alexander III statue in Petrograd (228-237) view of Putilov Factory; factory whistle; leaflets being handed out; workers leaving Putilov Factory; strike at Putilov Factory; strike leaders addressing crowd of workers (237-254) street demonstrations in Petrograd, including one on Znamenskaia Square (254-293) garrison troops, called out to surpress demonstrations, go over to the revolution-Keksholm Regiment, Pavlovskii Regiment (293-356) soldiers marching; in cars; with armored car; Tauride Palace, exterior; interior; Duma in session; exterior; crowds with banners (356-371)

Note

03:55
03:40

Beginning of segment:

138 (3/444)

Scope and Content Note

Gruzinov, Lieutenant Colonel, Commander of the Troops of the Moscow Military District; Rasputin, Grigorii Efimovich; IUsupov, Feliks Feliksovich, kniaz'
World War, 1914-1918--Wounded, hospitals, etc.; Wounded in battle; Military ceremonies--Tsarist period; Demonstrations--February Revolution; Pavlovskii Regiment; Keksholm Regiment; Strikes; Soldiers' bodies, Disposition of; Soldiers, Revolutionary; February Revolution (March 1917 N.S.); Putilov Factory; Duma Moscow; Leningrad
A; B. Putilov Factory scenes. D. Photos of Rasputin, Iusupov
Sound: 138-371 (with gaps)
English
Reel 15

Segment 1 March 1917 Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; crowds in front of Tauride Palace; Volynskii and Keksholm Regiments march to Duma to pledge loyalty to new government (0-31) Rodzianko; Provisional Government leader addresses crowd from steps of Tauride Palace; revolutionary soldiers in trucks; soldiers drinking tea in Tauride Palace (31-64) destruction of Schlüsselburg Prison, civil records and deeds, tsarist emblems; gutted buildings on Znamenskaia Square (64-117) troops of the Moscow Military District (on horseback); crowds; police agents apprehended; soldiers with sacks of grain; peoples's militia; captured gendarmes in prison; crowds; demonstrations in Moscow; soldiers cheering; poster with "war to victory" slogan; demonstration in Moscow; Gruzinov and others of Moscow Military District; demonstrations; banners; crippled war veterans; demonstrations in Moscow; Petrograd--crowds, red flag; sacked police station (117-324)

Note

04:00
04:09

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/011)

Scope and Content Note

Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Gruzinov, Lieutenant Colonel, Commander of the Troops of the Moscow Military District
Duma; Provisional Government; Police; Demonstrations--February Revolution; Soldiers, Revolutionary; Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; February Revolution (March 1917 N.S.); Volynskii Regiment; Keksholm Regiment; Militia; Okhrana Leningrad; Moscow
A
Sound: 0-324 (with gaps)
English
Reel 16

Segment 1 March 1917 Prisoners being released; filing out of prison door; official reads a proclamation to them; they line up with a banner facing camera for a group picture; official delivers speech to them; they toss him in the air (0-50) crowds, smiling, waving (aware of camera) on Nevskii Prospekt (50-71) Purishkevich giving a speech to crowd in front of Tauride Palace (71-91) Kerensky in civilian clothes coming out a door (91-98) political prisoner released after 25 years in solitary confinment (98-101) revolutionary soldiers parading in the streets of Petrograd (101-131) Sir Alfred Knox, British military attache (131-159) militia on guard in Petrograd (159-161) Guchkov (161-163)

Note

04:09:10

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/167)

Scope and Content Note

Knox, Alfred William Fortescu, Sir; Purishkevich, Vladimir Mitrofanovich; Kerenskii, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Guchkov, Aleksandr Ivanovich
Military attaches, British; Prisoners, Political; Soldiers, Revolutionary; Militia; February Revolution (March 1917 N.S.); Prisoners
Leningrad
A
Sound: 101-131
English
Reel 16

Segment 2 April 1917 Funeral of the martyrs of the February Revolution on Mars Field, Petrograd; crowds (over a million people attended); armored vehicles; people carrying the coffins; procession; banners (including banner of the Russian League of Working Women); bands (163-361)

Note

04: 18

Beginning of segment:

163 (4/229)

Scope and Content Note

Funeral service--Martyrs of February Revolution
Leningrad
A
Sound: 340-361
English
Reel 17

Segment 1 April 1917 Funeral of the martyrs of the February Revolution (cont.)--funeral procession; banners; cannon salute; coffins in open grave; paper tag on each giving name of martyr (0-26) Duma, Provisional Government, and Petrograd Soviet figures--Guchkov; Rodzianko; widows of martyrs; Petrograd Garrison troops; Shul'gin; Guchkov; Vera Zasulich; Vera Figner; Gruzenberg, attorney, on Figner's right; Burtsev; Rodzianko; Guchkov; Miliukov; Steklov; Skobelev; Tsereteli; workers' militia; military band; crowds (26-127)

Note

04:19

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/296)

Scope and Content Note

Figner, Vera Nikolaevna; Shul'gin, Vasilii Vital'evich; Guchkov, Aleksandr Ivanovich; Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Zasulich, Vera Ivanovna; Burtsev, Vladimir L'vovich; Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Steklov, IUrii Mikhailovich; Skobelev, Matvei Ivanovich; Tsereteli, Iraklii Georgievich; Gruzenberg, Oskar Osipovich
Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; Provisional Government; Funeral service--Martyrs of February Revolution; Duma
Leningrad
A
Sound: 0-26; 57-127
English
Reel 17

Segment 2 April 1917 Duma leaders, in a group, including Miliukov, Konovalov (behind Miliukov), Shul'gin, Rodzianko; Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, including Chkheidze, Skobelev; Provisional Government members Prince L'vov, Prime Minister; Miliukov, Foreign Minister; Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, shown singly--Chkheidze, Chairman; Tsereteli; Avksent'ev; Kamenev; Shreider, first elected mayor of Petrograd; group shot of the Executive Committee; group of Duma leaders including Miliukov, Guchkov, Rodzianko (center); Guchkov removes hat (127-183)

Beginning of segment:

127 (4/335)

Scope and Content Note

Guchkov, Aleksandr Ivanovich; Konovalov, Aleksandr Ivanovich; Shul'gin, Vasilii Vital'evich; Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Chkheidze, Nikolai Semenovich; Skobelev, Matvei Ivanovich; L'vov, Georgii Evgen'evich, kniaz'; Tsereteli, Iraklii Georgievich; Avksent'ev, Nikolai Dmitrievich; Kamenev, Lev Borisovich; Shreider, Grigorii Il'ich; Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich Provisional Government; Duma; Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies
Leningrad
A
Sound: 127-183
English
Reel 17

Segment 3 April 1917 Photo of Lenin walking down a street with a group of associates (during his return to Russia); David R. Francis, American Ambassador; Francis Riggs, American military attache, with Norman Armour, First Secretary of the American Embassy; Chkheidze; Skobelev greets a member of the Petrograd Soviet (?); illus. from a book of Lenin on arrival in Petrograd,

Date: April 16, 1917;
Ksheshinskaia Palace, Bolshevik headquarters; illus. from a book of Lenin speaking from balcony of Ksheshinskaia Palace; illus. from book of Lenin addressing Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet; front page of Lenin's April Theses (183-234)

Beginning of segment:

183 (4/352)

Scope and Content Note

Armour, Norman; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Francis, David Rowland; Chkheidze, Nikolai Semenovich; Riggs, Francis; Skobelev, Matvei Ivanovich
Military attaches, American; Diplomats, American
Leningrad
A; D. Illus. from books
Sound: 183-202
English
Reel 17

Segment 4 April 1917 Peter and Paul Fortress Commander; street scene, Petrograd,

Date: April 1917
--streetcars, cars, horse-drawn vehicles (234-249) Peter Kropotkin and his wife (249-255) Provisional Government session (255-273) two Provisional Government(?) figures; Avksent'ev and others arriving in a car; Ekaterina Breshko-Breshkovskaia (273-289) soldiers dancing (289-308)

Note

04:26:

Beginning of segment:

234 (4/366)

Scope and Content Note

Breshko-Breshkovskaia, Ekaterina Konstantinovna (Verigo); Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kniaz'; Kropotkina, Sofiia Grigor'evna (Anan'eva); Avksent'ev, Nikolai Dmitrievich Soldiers; Provisional Government
Leningrad
A
Sound: 249-255; 268-290 (with gaps)
English
Reel 17

Segment 5 May 1, 1917 May Day celebration,

Date: 1917
--parades; Skobelev is cheered and thrown in the air; Winter Palace Square; Kamenev addressing the crowd; Molotov (lower left); illus. from book of Lenin speaking from a truck; parades, banners (308-389)

Beginning of segment:

308 (4/387)

Scope and Content Note

Skobelev, Matvei Ivanovich; Kamenev, Lev Borisovich; Molotov, Viacheslav Mikhailovich
May Day (Labor holiday), 1917; Processions--Provisional Government period
Leningrad
A
Sound: 308-389 (with gaps)
English
Reel 18

Segment 1 May 1917 May Day,

Date: 1917
--parades, banners in Petrograd; May Day parade at Kronstadt; Dybenko, leader of Kronstadt sailors (0-69) General Radko Dimitriev, Bulgarian in Russian service, reviews troops of the Provisional Government (69-116) Florence Harper, correspondent for Leslie's Weekly, getting into a carriage in Petrograd; Emmeline Pankhurst reading and discussing a newspaper article with a companion at a cafe table in Petrograd (116-147)

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/411)

Scope and Content Note

Dybenko, Pavel Efimovich; Dimitriev, Radko; Harper, Florence MacLeod; Pankhurst, Emmeline (Goulden) May Day (Labor holiday), 1917; Military ceremonies--Provisional Government period
Leningrad; Kronstadt
A
Sound: 0-69
English
Reel 18

Segment 2 May-June 1917 Shreider and other Provisional Government leaders; Shreider at an election rally during his campaign for mayor of Petrograd (147-169) government leaders, army veterans, conservative group, priests in conservative faction; Miliukov (169-181) Trotsky speaking from the steps of a train,

Date: May 17
(181-195) Kerensky (195-207) Plekhanov arriving, speaking from platform (207-243) Kornilov; parade of officer cadets; cossacks (243-270) Kerensky on balcony; arriving at a meeting with a bouquet (270-281) National Socialist group (identified as such by text frame) (281-290) U.S. Senator Elihu Root (290-308) Kronstadt Central Executive Committee,
Date: June 1917
(308-324) Albert Thomas, French Socialist minister, in Petrograd; Henderson, British socialist, in Petrograd; Tereshchenko, Minister of Foreign Affairs (324-346) Bolshevik demonstration--Kollontai speaks; Kronstadt sailor speaks; leaflets distributed (346-368)

Note

04:40:33

Beginning of segment:

147 (4/449)

Scope and Content Note

Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Shreider, Grigorii Il'ich; Kornilov, Lavr Georgievich; Trotskii, Lev; Thomas, Albert; Tereshchenko, Mikhail Ivanovich; Kollontai, Aleksandra Mikhailovna; Kerenskii, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Plekhanov, Georgii Valentinovich; Root, Elihu; Henderson, Arthur
Rossiiskaia sotsial-demokraticheskaia rabochaia partiia; Elections; Mayors; Provisional Government
Leningrad; Kronstadt
A
Sound: 181-207; 243-281; 324-346
English
Reel 19

Segment 1 June-July 1917 Poster for Liberty Loan; patriotic demonstration (0-13) Kerensky at the front, tossed in the air by soldiers (13-18) Women's Battalion marching, drilling, rifle practice; group picture; British officer, Florence Harper and Emmeline Pankhurst; Pankhurst greets Bochkareva, Commander of Women's Battalion; Bochkareva and Pankhurst review Woman's Battalion (18-46) Elections to City Duma--crowds; leaflets being dropped from cars; truck with a "Peace, Land, Bread" banner; orator; crowds; leaflets (46-65) Women's Battalion in Moscow--induction ceremony on Red Square; oath of loyalty (65-75) pro-Kerensky demonstration, parade; banner: "Forward with our Leader Kerensky" (75-80) opening of First All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd,

Date: June 16
--crowds; delegates arriving in car (80-106) infantry attacking (106-116)

Note

04:40:41
04:43

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/504)

Scope and Content Note

Harper, Florence MacLeod; Pankhurst, Emmeline (Goulden); Bochkareva, Mariia L.; Kerenskii, Aleksandr Fedorovich Demonstrations--Provisional Government period; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Galician front; World War, 1914-1918--Patriotic response to; Women's Battalion; Military ceremonies--Provisional Government period; Duma, City (Petrograd); Elections; Vserossiiskii sezd sovetov, lst, Leningrad, June-July 1917; Processions--Provisional Government period
Leningrad; Moscow
A
Sound: 0-18; 46-81; 106-116
English
Reel 19

Segment 2 July 1917 July Days--demonstrations; banners,

Date: July 1, 1917
(116-148) Vynnychenko, Ukrainian separatist leader (148-152) soldiers' demonstration (soundtrack says Bolshevik sympathizers attack officers whose banners have imperialist slogans; Axelbank's description says rightists attack Bolshevik banner carriers) (152-165) pro-government demonstration by troops of the Petrograd garrison (165-202) crowd in front of Novoe vremia newspaper office (202-208) Kronstadt sailors on truck with Bolshevik slogans; crowds; demonstrations; marching (208-229) soldiers firing on demonstrators (229-240) photo of Lenin at grave of fallen communists, with Angelica Balabanoff, Felix Kuhn (later Polish delegate to the Comintern), Christian Rakovsky, and others (240-246) Ksheshinskaia Palace--interior in ruins following raid by cossacks and garrison troops (246-257)

Note

04:47:84

Beginning of segment:

116 (4/531)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Balabanoff, Angelica; Kuhn, Felix; Rakovskii, Khristian Georgievich; Vynnychenko, Volodymyr Kyrylovych
Rossiiskaia sotsial-demokraticheskaia rabochaia partiia; Demonstrations--Provisional Government period
Leningrad
A; B. 229-240(?)
Sound: 116-139; 152-165; 229-240
English
Reel 19

Segment 3 August 1917 Area near Sestroretsk where Lenin was in hiding following July Days; Lenin's false passport; photo of Lenin as Ivanov in Finland (257-278) Petrograd--anti-Bolshevik orators, cossack officer addressing the crowd (278-300) men leaving through factory gates; crowds in front of a store, mostly women (300-313) soldier smoking; soldiers with leaflets; wounded soldiers getting off trains; soldiers boarding trains; soldiers with leaflets; workers stoking a fire; orator in a factory (313-333) orator in the countryside speaking to peasants; soldier speaking (333-345) Kornilov and cavalry (345-349) Boris Savinkov (349-354) opera house in Moscow where State Conference was held,

Date: August 25
(354-358) pro-Bolshevik demonstration, Red Square,
Date: August 1917
(358-369)

Note

04:50:

Beginning of segment:

257 (4/563)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Savinkov, Boris Viktorovich; Kornilov, Lavr Georgievich
Moscow State Conference, August 1917; Demonstrations--Provisional Government period; Soldiers, Revolutionary; Rossiiskaia [UNK] rabochaia partiia
Leningrad; Moscow; Sestroretsk; Finland
A; B. orator in factory?
Sound: 295-300; 328-369
English
Reel 20

Segment 1 August 1917 Moscow State Conference--crowds outside opera house; delegates arrive at opera house; Kerensky arrives; Kornilov arrives; David Francis, American Ambassador; French, British and other Allied diplomats; Buchanan, British Ambassador, and his daughter arrive in cab; Miliukov, Guchkov, Tereshchenko, Shul'gin; Rodzianko, Karaulov, Kaledin (0-52)

Beginning of segment:

0 (4/588)

Scope and Content Note

Buchanan, Meriel; Buchanan, George William, Sir; Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Guchkov, Aleksandr Ivanovich; Tereshchenko, Mikhail Ivanovich; Shul'gin, Vasilii Vital'evich; Karaulov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich; Kaledin, Aleksei Maksimovich; Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Francis, David Rowland
Moscow State Conference, August 1917
Moscow
A
Sound: 0-9; 16-37; 50-52
English
Reel 20

Segment 2 September 1917 German attack on Riga--soldiers; views of the city; Germans shelling the city; Germans ride into Riga (52-68) Kornilov's march on Petrograd--tanks; armored cars; armed citizens; armored cars; street scenes in Petrograd; crowds in front of Ksheshinskaia Palace; Sverdlov entering Palace; crowds; orators (68-126)

Note

04:52
04:54:34

Beginning of segment:

52 (4/600)

Scope and Content Note

Sverdlov, IAkov Mikhailovich; Kornilov, Lavr Georgievich World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--German front
Riga; Leningrad
A
Sound: 52-80; 90-121
English
Reel 20

Segment 3 September-November 1917 Posters being put up for elections to the Constituent Assembly (126-143) Bolshevik orator (143-145) rifles being distributed (145-148) Trotsky speaking (148-151) house in Petrograd where Lenin hid (151-156) armed workers; garrison troops who came over to the Bolsheviks with armored cars (156-170) soldiers leaving the front on foot, in trains (170-179) crowds on the street in front of a bank (179-189) Winter Palace Square--soldiers; civilians; log barricades erected by junkers (caption text) (189-239)

Note

04:54:35

Beginning of segment:

126 (4/615)

Scope and Content Note

Trotskii, Lev
Soldiers, Revolutionary; Elections; Constituent Assembly;
Political posters
Leningrad
A
Sound: 156-179
English
Reel 20

Segment 4 November 6, 7, 1917 October Revolution--soldiers armed with rifles; cannons (239-249) Kerensky (said to be last film of Kerensky prior to his flight) (249-253) Smolny Institute, fortified, guarded; armored car inscribed "Lieutenant Schmidt" (253-268) Kronstadt sailor guarding a door; armed sailors; Battleship Aurora; armed workers; sailors; Smolny; armed workers marching; storming of the Winter Palace (268-350) Winter Palace as it looked the day following the Bolshevik seizure of power (350-359)

Note

04:57
05:01:03

Beginning of segment:

239 (4/638)

Scope and Content Note

Kerenskii, Aleksandr Fedorovich
October Revolution (November 1917 N.S.)
Leningrad
A; B. 268-350
Sound: 239-268; 275-350
English
Reel 21

Segment 1 November 1917 October Revolution (cont.)--photograph of Red Guards on trucks; RSFSR on red flag over Winter Palace (0-9) Post and Telegraph Building; Ministry of Interior Building; Justice Ministry Building; Telegraph Exchange; destroyed officers' club (9-29) Morse code transmitter (29-32) soldiers at the front fraternizing (32-55) Nikolai Krylenko; Dybenko, leader of Kronstadt sailors (55-59) Lenin at Petrograd Soviet,

Date: November 7, 1917;
page from Lenin's first manifesto (59-75) red flag over Smolny; Lenin's desk, room, chair at Smolny; pages from documents; newspaper pages showing Lenin's decrees (75-101)

Note

05:03:04:14

Beginning of segment:

0 (5/016)

Scope and Content Note

Krylenko, Nikolai Vasil'evich; Dybenko, Pavel Efimovich; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich
October Revolution (November 1917 N.S.); Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
Leningrad
A; B. 59-75
Sound: 0-9; 29-59
English
Reel 21

Segment 2 November 1917 October Revolution in Moscow--government forces with cannon from arsenal of Kremlin used to fight off Bolshevik insurgents; cannon firing from Kremlin; Kremlin following capture by Red Guards (101-120) peasant man, woman, horse plowing (120-123) Mikhail Kalinin, President of RSFSR, receiving written petitions from ordinary citizens (123-133)

Note

05:05:55:
05:06:48:

Beginning of segment:

101 (5/070)

Scope and Content Note

Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich
October Revolution (November 1917 N.S.); Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
Moscow
A
Sound: 110-113; 120-133
English
Reel 21

Segment 3 Dec. 1917-March 1918 Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference--Kamenev, Ioffe, Karakhan, Radek, Bitsenko arriving on train; Radek; Bitsenko and Karakhan; Ukrainian delegation; Piatakov; Russian delegation on the way to conference hall; German delegation; photo of the two delegations facing each other across the conference table (133-175) Trotsky arrives at Brest-Litovsk (175-186)

Note

05:06:48

Beginning of segment:

133 (5/086)

Scope and Content Note

Ioffe, Adol'f Abramovich; Kamenev, Lev Borisovich; Radek, Karl; Bitsenko, Anastasiia Alekseevna; Piatakov, Georgii Leonidovich; Trotskii, Lev; Karakhan, Lev Mikhailovich
Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, 1917-1918
Brest-Litovsk
A
Sound: 133-150; 175-186
English
Reel 21

Segment 4 March 1918 Anti-war demonstrations in Germany; corpses of demonstrators (186-199) Hindenburg and Ludenforff (199-204) German offensive into Ukraine following Brest-Litovsk--German soldiers attacking; cavalry; infantry; shells exploding; soldiers on a boat; Lufendorff talking; Russian POWs; captured war materiel; bridges destroyed by the Bolsheviks; Germans pushing supply wagons in the mud; German soldiers in the snow; on parade in a village; soldiers eating; Germans marching into Kiev (204-293)

Note

05:11:15

Beginning of segment:

186 (5/111)

Scope and Content Note

Ludendorff, Erich; Hindenburg, Paul von, Pres. Germany
Demonstrations--Germany; World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--Ukraine
Kiev; Ukraine; Germany
A
Sound: 186-293
English
Reel 21

Segment 5 1918 Chaikovskii, SR, leader of anti-Bolshevik government at Archangel; British ships supplying Chaikovskii; Chaikovskii and David R. Francis, American Ambassador; American barracks and soldiers; soldiers erecting a building; American supply sleds; Americans and residents of Archangel bartering using sign language; outpost in the Far North--residents; American flag over Red Cross building; Russian children; American soldiers (293-376)

Note

05:11:16:01
05:13:33:07

Beginning of segment:

293 (5/156)

Scope and Content Note

Chaikovskii, Nikolai Vasil'evich; Francis, David Rowland Severnaia oblast'; Civil War, 1918-1921--American intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--British intervention; Soldiers, American;
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Northwestern front
Archangel
A
Sound: 294-306
English
Reel 22

Segment 1 1918 Bolshevik prisoners captured by British and Americans--shown in a group; sawing wood; their barracks; prisoners working around barracks (0-38) Japanese battleship Hizzon (which had been a Russian battleship before it was captured by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War) in Vladivostok Harbor; officers of the Hizzon; soldiers in winter clothes and fur hoods marching (38-60) President Wilson (60-64) American officers getting out of car, posing for camera (64-77) railroad yard, train arriving; officers examining the contents of a boxcar (77-87) Allied forces marching in a snowy city square (87-92) U.S. battleship South Dakota in Vladivostok Harbor (92-105) soldiers of the various interventionist powers coming down a flight of stairs; posing in a group for the camera (105-129) ships in the harbor; flags; British marines disembarking; forming ranks; marching on dock; marching down a street; British marine guarding British consulate (129-172)

Note

05:13:41:12

Beginning of segment:

0 (5/191)

Scope and Content Note

Wilson, Woodrow, Pres. U.S.
Civil War, 1918-1921--American intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--British intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Northwestern front; Prisoners of war; Civil
War, 1918-1921--Prisons and prisoners; Severnaia oblast'; Civil
War, 1918-1921--Allied intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--Japanese intervention; South Dakota (Battleship); Hizzon (Battleship); Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Far East
Archangel; Vladivostok
A
Sound: 38-43; 105-129
English
Reel 22

Segment 2 1918 Headquarters of the Czech Legion--American officer, White officers, officers of various interventionist powers salute, go inside, come back outside, form into a group facing the camera (172-215) Czech Legion military and civic headquarters--leader (in sheepskin hat) greets civilian and military figures (215-259) man and woman (aware of camera) walk up to store window, strike up conversation in front of store window (Omsk?), then walk away together (woman identified by one historian as Kolchak's mistress) (259-294) Chinese soldiers at Khabarcvsk--first aid tent; camels; fording a river (294-307) Chekists with confiscated grain; ships at a dock; Chekists in cars in front of a house (caption: a house search) (307-345)

Note

05:18:35
5:21:28

Beginning of segment:

172 (5/254)

Scope and Content Note

Civil War, 1918-1921--Allied intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--American intervention; Czech Legion; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberia; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Far East; Civil War, 1918-1921--Chinese intervention; Cheka
Omsk; Khabarovsk; Siberia
A
Reel 23

Segment 1 1918 Funeral of assassinated Chekist (0-12) firewood being stacked outside to be used to heat government offices (12-21) May Day, 1918, Petrograd; huge canvas revolutionary-theme posters in Winter Palace Square (21-36) May Day parade in Petrograd (36-49) Lenin in Moscow; Krupskaia and Lenin's sister Mariia in car with Lenin (49-60)

Note

05:23:29
5:23:30

Beginning of segment:

0 (5/312)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Ul'ianova, Mariia Il'inichna; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna
Cheka; Funeral Service--Cheka agent; May Day (Labor holiday), 1918; Political posters
Leningrad; Moscow
A
Reel 23

Segment 2 Summer 1918 May Day(?) parade (60-71) mounted officer reviewing troops; Denikin (71-78) Trotsky speaks to soldiers (78-85) former tsarist officers now in Red Army--Vatsetsis, first commander-in-chief; Brusilov; Trotsky with Kamenev, tsarist general who became commander-in-chief after Vatsetis; Kamenev; Voroshilov, Kamenev, Borodin(?) (85-94) Red Army officers leave Trotsky's headquarters in the Kremlin (94-98) Volodarsky, Commissar of Press and Propoganda, who was assassinated by an SR

Date: June 21, 1918
(98-101) views of Kremlin (101-110) 1916 film of tsar and his family (same as reel 14, segment 1); photo of house where they were executed; photo of death chamber; (?)Axelbank says the group photo is of the Tsar's slayers, but the soundtrack says that some of them were arrested, some executed (110-121) Lenin and Krupskaia leaving after Lenin had given a speech to a workers' union audience (121-122) Uritsky's funeral--Zinoviev present; Dzerzhinsky (122-137) Civil War; Kazan campaign--group of soldiers with rifles and flag pose for camera; Trotsky arrives at the Kazan Front by train; Trotsky stands next to a soldier who is looking for documents in his own pockets; Trotsky reviews troops after Kazan taken (137-159)

Note

05:25.10:15
05.27.55

Beginning of segment:

60 (5/330)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna; Uritskii, Moisei Solomonovich; Kamenev, Sergei Sergeevich; Denikin, Anton Ivanovich; Gol'dshtein, Moisei Markovich; Trotskii, Lev; Voroshilov, Kliment Efrimovich; Brusilov, Aleksei
Alekseevich; Vacietis, Jukums; Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Dzerzhinskii, Feliks Edmundovich; Borodin, General; Nicholas II, Emperor; Alexandra, Empress Consort of Nicholas II, Emperor; Ol'ga
Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Tat'iana Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Mariia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Anastasiia Nikolaevna, Grand Duchess; Aleksei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich
May Day (Labor holiday), 1918; Military ceremonies--Soviet period; Funeral service--Uritskii, Moisei Solomonovich; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Kazan
Kazan; Moscow; Sverdlovsk
A
Sound: 78-94; 101-159
English
Reel 23

Segment 3 Oct.-Nov. 1918, 1919 Lenin standing by a car, walking, talking with Bonch-Bruevich in Kremlin (159-264) illus. of Lenin from book (264-267) Lenin speaking at unveiling of statue of Marx and Engels in Moscow,

Date: Nov. 7, 1918
(266-289) Lenin and Sverdlov inspecting Red Air Force,
Date: 1919
(film of airplanes, photo of Lenin) (289-297)

Note

05:27:55
5:30:50

Beginning of segment:

159 (5/359)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Bonch-Bruevich, Vladimir Dmitrievich; Sverdlov, IAkov Mikhailovich
October Revolution (November 1917 N.S.)--Anniversary, 1918; Air Force, Soviet
Moscow
A
Sound: 215-223; 264-266; 289-297
English
Reel 23

Segment 4 1918 Prominent Bolsheviks, in a group, including Bukharin, Krylenko, Sokol'nikov, Piatakov; leading Bolsheviks shown individually--Kamenev; Sosnovskii; Rakovskii; unidentified figures; Red Army officer; unidentified persons; Lunacharskii; two persons seated, civilian reading document to person in military uniform; Rumiantsev; unidentified; Krasin (last person shown) (297-358)

Note

05:31:47
05:33:28

Beginning of segment:

297 (5/398)

Scope and Content Note

Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich; Krylenko, Nikolai Vasil'evich; Sokol'nikov, Grigorii IAkovlevich; Kamenev, Lev Borisovich; Sosnovskii, Lev Semenovich; Rakovskii, Khristian Georgievich; Lunacharskii, Anatolii Vasil'evich; Rumiantsev, Petr Petrovich; Krasin, Leonid Borisovich; Piatakov, Georgii Leonidovich
Rossiiskaia sotsial-demokraticheskaia rabochaia partiia
A
Sound: 297-314
English
Reel 24

Segment 1 1919 Comnunist uprising in Germany--crowds in the streets; military figures; Karl Liebknecht; military figures; corpse of Liebknecht (0-34) scenes from Proskurov in the Ukraine--corpses of victims of Petliura's forces; people mourning victims (34-55)

Note

05:33:38
05:35:10

Beginning of segment:

0 (5/416)

Scope and Content Note

Liebknecht, Karl Paul August Friedrich; Petliura, Symon Vasyl'ovych
German Revolution, 1918; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Ukraine; Jews in the Ukraine--Persecution
Germany; Ukraine; Proskurov
A
Sound: 0-34
English
Reel 24

Segment 2 March 2,10, 1919 Photo of Lenin; First Congress of the Comintern, Kremlin--Lenin flanked by Eberlein, German delegate (left); Platten (right); Klinger, Eberlein, Lenin, Platten (55-73) Andreichin, Bulgarian delegate (73-76) delegates (76-81) Lenin speaks at funeral of Mark Elizarov, first People's Commissar of Railways, husband of Lenin's sister Anna; funeral procession; Lenin, his grief visible, in crowd (81-131)

Note

05:35:10
05:37:17:17

Beginning of segment:

55 (5/431)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Eberlein, Hugo; Platten, Fritz; Andreichin, Georgi Iliev; Geyer, Curt; Elizarov, Mark Timofeevich
Communist International. 1st Congress, Moscow, 1919; Funeral
service--Elizarov, Mark Timofeevich
Moscow
A
Reel 24

Segment 3 1919 German soldiers in the Baltic Region--mounted column travelling on a snowy road (131-133) Zinov'ev gives speech standing on a truck (133-136) funeral of Sverdlov,

Date: March 18, 1919
--funeral procession; Zinov'ev speaks; Lenin speaks; Lenin in crowd of mourners (136-198) scenes of Hungarian Communist uprising--soldiers; Bela Kun (198-220)

Note

05:37:17
05:39:47

Beginning of segment:

131 (5/450)

Scope and Content Note

Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Sverdlov, IAkov Mikhailovich; Kun, Bela
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Northwestern front; Funeral service--Sverdlov, IAkov Mikhailovich; Hungarian Revolution, 1918-1919
Hungary
A
Sound: When Lenin is speaking at Sverlov's funeral, soundtrack is describing a speech he would have given in 1917.
English
Reel 24

Segment 4 May 1, 1919 Red Square--Lenin giving a speech; review of troops; parade (220-251) Lenin in car, during visit to Rublevskoi Water Power Station outside Moscow (251-257) Makhno(?) (257) officers in car (258-262) Vladivostok Harbor--on American Battleship South Dakota, William Sidney Graves, Commander of the American Expeditionary Force, receives Czech War Cross from General Cecek, Czech Legion Commander; Dr. Girsa, Czech diplomatic representative in Siberia, also present (262-278) Lenin and Krupskaia leaving a session of the First Congress on Extracurricular Education; Lenin stops to talk (278-303) Miliukov and Kerensky, in Paris seeking French assistance against the Bolsheviks; Clemenceau (303-319) Admiral Kolchak inspects a wood-burning gunboat on the Irtish River; reviews troops, including cossacks (319-352)

Note

05:39:48:03
05:43:32:09

Beginning of segment:

220 (5/473)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Makhno, Nestor Ivanovich; Graves, William Sidney; Cecek, General; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna; Girsa, Dr.; Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasil'evich; Kerenskii, Aleksandr
Fedorovich; Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich; Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin
May Day (Labor holiday), 1919; Civil War, 1918-1921--American intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Far East; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberia; Czech Legion; South Dakota (Battleship)
Vladivostok; Moscow; Paris; Omsk; France; Siberia
A
Sound: 272-278; 303-352
English
Reel 25

Segment 1 1919 Kolchak accepting bread, salt, and live geese from local leaders; priest leading procession of residents of Omsk to church to pray for Kolchak's victory (0-22) Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemeneau, Wilson; diplomats at Peace Conference leaving and entering sessions; Lloyd George, Briand and others (22-43) train passing by a town in flames; sunflowers; field with haystacks burning (43-53)

Beginning of segment:

0

Scope and Content Note

Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasil'evich; Wilson, Woodrow, Pres. U.S.; Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele; Briand, Aristide; Lloyd George, David, Lloyd George, 1st Earl; Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberia; Orthodox Eastern Church, Russian; Paris. Peace Conference, 1919; Civil War, 1918-1921
Omsk; France; Siberia
A
Sound: 0-31
English
Reel 25

Segment 2 1919 Vladivostok, celebration of 75th anniversary of YMCA--a gymnasium with flags of the various interventionist forces decorating the walls; Vladivostok children practice American-style physical training, military-style marching and drills; group of children with American woman; Red Cross representatives; girls practicing drills; children and American woman; gymnastics; games; dancing on stage; seesaws; dancing; drilling; Czech gymnasts; American soldiers boxing; Japanese combat in ring with wooden weapons (53-217) Kolchak's gunboat at Tobolsk; Kolchak with his troops at Tobolsk (217-233)

Beginning of segment:

53

Scope and Content Note

Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasil'evich
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberai; Civil War, 1918-1921--American intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--Japanese intervention; Civil War, 1918-1921--Allied intervention; Gymnasts; Czech Legion; Young Men's Christian Associations; Red Cross
Vladivostok; Tobolsk; Siberia
A
Sound: 217-233
English
Reel 25

Segment 3 May 25, 1919 Lenin, with Red Army commanders, reviews new contingent of Red Army recruits on completion of their training; Lenin, in a group, enters Red Square; Lenin, Krupskaia, Mariia Ul'ianova, Szamuely (Hungarian Communist leader); Red Army recruits; Lenin talks to recruits; Lenins reviews troops, Budenny on his left; Lenin, on truck, shakes hands with man in crowd (233-312)

Note

05:50:16

Beginning of segment:

233 (5/561)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Szamuely, Tibor; Budennyi, Semen Mikhailovich; Ul'ianova, Mariia Il'inichna; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna
Military ceremonies--Soviet period
Moscow
A
Reel 25

Segment 4 1919 German officers in the Baltic Region (312-314) White soldiers execute Bolshevik POWs--prisoners lie on the ground while their shoes are removed; three at a time stand with backs to an open grave; one prisoner continues to smile up to the time of his execution; firing squad executes them; they fall into grave (314-373)

Note

05:52:27

Beginning of segment:

312 (5/578)

Scope and Content Note

Civil War, 1918-1921--German intervention; Executions and executioners; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Northwestern front; Prisoners of war; Civil War, 1918-1921--Prisons and prisoners
Baltic Region
A
Sound: 314-373
English
Reel 26

Segment 1 1919 Map showing Civil War situation (0-12) queue of women with tea pots and sacks in Moscow (12-20) Trotsky with soldiers (20-26) Red Army soldiers between Kazan and the Urals; firing field artillery; picture of Marx above a tent entrance; Red Army soldier with bandage around his head playing a board game with another soldier; battlefield scenes; funeral procession in Yaroslavl' for Bolshevik soldiers killed by Whites (26-59) Zinov'ev and Pozern leave for the front (59-79) Lenin on balcony addressing troops leaving for the Denikin Front (79-111) cavalry; troops riding on top of a train (111-118) Red Army in combat on the Denikin Front; Budenny's cavalry; sunflowers; field with haystacks on fire (same sequence as on reel 25, segment 1) (118-136) ruins of a Siberian village following a punitive raid by Kolchak's troops; American officer with Czechoslovak and other Allied military figures inspecting corpses of victims (136-146)

Note

05:59:
06:03:56

Beginning of segment:

0 (6/009)

Scope and Content Note

Trotskii, Lev; Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Pozern, Boris Pavlovich
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberia; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Urals; Soldiers; Funeral service--Red Army soldiers; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Southern front; Military ceremonies--Soviet period
Moscow; Yaroslavl'; Siberia
A; B. Battlefield scenes. D. Map
Sound: 0-59; 129-134; 136-146
English
Reel 26

Segment 2 1919 Defense-of Petrograd from IUdenich--Trotsky exhorts; civilians with rifles march by; military equipment in the streets; soldiers at train station; sentry checks documents of the occupants of a car marked with a red cross; charge of Kronstadt sailors; Kronstadt sailors eating soup in courtyard of Gachina Palace (146-182) photo of Lenin and Trotsky reviewing troops on Red Square,

Date: Nov. 7
(182-194) Lenin in a crowd during military review (194-209) Trotsky and Pozern (209-218) Trotsky and Lenin reviewing troops; Lenin in crowd; soldiers on parade (194-263) infantry charge; exploding shells; cavalry charge (263-271) parade in celebration of Kolchak's defeat; school children marching; poster: Down with intervention (271-291) artillery captured from Whites displayed on Red Square (291-294)

Note

06:03:56
06:08:07

Beginning of segment:

146 (6/086)

Scope and Content Note

Trotskii, Lev; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Pozern, Boris Pavlovich
Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Northwestern front; Kronstadt sailors; October Revolution (November 1917 N.S.)--Anniversary, 1919; Military ceremonies--Soviet period; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Siberia; Processions--Soviet period
Leningrad; Gachina; Moscow
A; B. Battlefield scenes
Sound: 146-156; 164-173; 176-183; 271-294
English
Reel 26

Segment 3 1920 Lenin in his Kremlin office, Feb. 20 (294-325) Trotsky addresses 9th Party Congress,

Date: April 17
(325-333) Kalinin (333-340) Trotsky followed by Muralov and delegates to 2d Congress of the Comintern, marching,
Date: May 1;
Trotsky salutes (340-346) Trotsky presents banners to most heroic regiments of Red Army (346-351) military parade (351-354) Lenin at cornerstone laying of monument to Karl Marx,
Date: May 1
(354-406)

Note

06:08:07
06:11

Beginning of segment:

294 (6/152)

Scope and Content Note

Trotskii, Lev; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich; Muralov, Aleksandr Ivanovich
Communist International. 2d Congress, Moscow and Leningrad, 1920; May Day (Labor holiday), 1920; Military ceremonies--Soviet period; Kommunisticheskaia partiia Sovetskogo Soiuza. 9. sezd, Moscow, 1920; Cornerstones, Laying of
Moscow
A
Sound: 294-325; 333-340; 347-351
English
Reel 27

Segment 1 1920 Lenin speaking at another cornerstone laying,

Date: May 1;
behind him, banner with inscription: Today we are laying the cornerstone of a monument to emancipated labor (0-10) demobilized Red Army soldiers digging with shovels, plowing (10-23) Krupskaia addressing Red Army encampment (23-28) Krupskaia on boat with binoculars (28-33) checkpoint at the Finnish border (33-49) photo of Lenin speaking from platform, Moscow,
Date: May 5;
Trotsky standing at right of platform (49-55) Trotsky arriving in Kiev,
Date: June 20
(55-65)

Note

06:11:22

Beginning of segment:

0 (6/199)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna; Trotskii, Lev
May Day (Labor holiday), 1920; Civil War, 1918-1921; Cornerstones, Laying of
Moscow; Kiev
A
Sound: 10-23
English
Reel 27

Segment 2 July 19, 1920 Second Congress of the Comintern (met July 19 in Petrograd, July 23-August 7 in Moscow)--parades; foreign delegates greeted on arrival in Petrograd; delegates taken to Uritsky Palace (formerly Tauride Palace) where first sessions are held (65-117) Zinov'ev, President of the Comintern, enters the Palace; Zorin and Zinov'ev talk on the platform; Zinov'ev delivers the opening address; speeches by Kalinin; Levi (delegate from Germany); Balabanoff, Secretary of the Comintern; Rosmer (France); Serrati (Italy); Marchlewski (Poland); Gruber (Austria); Radek; Lenin, Radek, Balabanoff on platform; Lenin speaks; delegates applaud, rise to their feet (117-200)

Note

06:16:59

Beginning of segment:

65 (6/223)

Scope and Content Note

Rosmer, Alfred; Steinhardt, Karl; Radek, Karl; Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Levi, Paul; Serrati, Giacinto Menotti; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Zorin, S. S.; Marchlewski, Julian; Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich; Balabanoff, Angelica
Communist International. 2d Congress, Moscow and Leningrad, 1920; Processions--Soviet period
Leningrad
A
Reel 27

Segment 3 July 19, 1920 Second Congress of the Comintern (cont.)--outside the palace, workers of Petrograd present Comintern delegates with seven banners (200-218) delegates, including Bukharin, Zinov'ev, Radek, John Reed, Louise Bryant, leaving hall after first session (218-227) parade, delegates participating (227-243) ceremony in honor of martyrs of the Revolution on Mars Field--John Reed at head of procession, then on left; wreath placed on grave of martyrs; Zinov'ev in the crowd, Reed on left; Lenin in the crowd, Zorin on left (243-283) Petrograd garrison parades in honor of delegates (283-301) mass meeting on Uritsky Square (Winter Palace Square); Balabanoff, Serrati, Zinov'ev on speakers' stand; Bombacci of Italy speaking (301-363)

Note

06:17:00
06:21:33

Beginning of segment:

200 (6/269)

Scope and Content Note

Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich; Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Radek, Karl; Reed, John; Bryant, Louise; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Zorin, S. S.; Balabanoff, Angelica; Serrati, Giancinto Menotti; Bombacci, Nicola Communist International. 2d Congress, Moscow and Leningrad, 1920; Military ceremonies--Soviet period; Memorial service--Martyrs of February Revolution
Leningrad
A
Sound: 243-253
English
Reel 28

Segment 1 July 19-Aug. 7, 1920 Second Congress of the Comintern (cont.)--crowds on Uritsky Square; Lenin addresses the crowd; Zinov'ev; Serrati; Balabanoff; Zinov'ev addresses the crowd; crowd begins to disperse (0-42) ships on the Neva River decorated in honor of the Comintern Congress; tableaux presented on the steps of former stock exchange building: Communism vs. capitalism; fireworks in honor of the Congress (42-52) Moscow; Kremlin; delegates during session of Congress; Lenin on platform, next to Serrati; Lenin addresses delegates (52-76) Lenin and Krupskaia leaving the hall (76-84)

Note

06:21:34:

Beginning of segment:

0 (6/322)

Scope and Content Note

Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Serrati, Giacinto Menotti; Balabanoff, Angelica; Zinov'ev, Grigorii; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna Communist International. 2d Congress, Moscow and Leningrad, 1920 Leningrad; Moscow
A; D. Map
Reel 28

Segment 2 1920 American miners leaving by ship for Russia; boys wrestle on deck; women sew banner (84-122) Kuznetsk Basin, mining and metallurgical region--Bill Haywood, American IWW leader who jumped bail and fled to Russia, stands amidst miners (Haywood is the other American besides John Reed buried at the Kremlin wall) (122-166) Haywood seated at a desk in Moscow (166-174) Turkestan woman delegate, speaking on Red Square, thanks Soviet leaders for granting independence and self-determination to Turkestan (174-177) Agit-prop train (propaganda murals on sides) (177-180) Lenin at window of his Kremlin apartment; Lenin, holding cat, with Krupskaia (180-215) photo of Lenin in his Kremlin office (215-221) Trotsky in his Kremlin office (221-223)

Note

06:23:57
06:27:50

Beginning of segment:

84 (6/347)

Scope and Content Note

Haywood, William Dudley; Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich; Trotskii, Lev; Krupskaia, Nadezhda Konstantinovna
Immigrants, American, to the Soviet Union; Miners, American; Industrial Workers of the World; Agit-prop trains; Minorities; Coal-miners
United States; Kuznetsk Basin; Turkestan
A
Sound: 222-223
English
Reel 28

Segment 3 1920, 1921 Ludwig Martens, Soviet Ambassador to the United States (who was recalled when the U.S. declined to recognize the Soviet government) being seen off at NY pier by American Communists (film shot by Herman Axelbank) (223-233) Rykov delivers eulogy at John Reed's grave at the Kremlin Wall; the grave with headstone (233-244) drawing of Wrangel; Red infantry, cavalry attacks; map of Soviet Republic after White armies driven out (244-266) Frunze reviews troops (266-269) Voroshilov and Budenny on horseback with troops at victory celebration (269-273) victory parade at Odessa (273-278) victory parade of Red Army at Astrakhan (278-281) victory parade at Kiev (281-285) scenes of destroyed town, vehicles (285-297) Daghestan-funeral of nationalists (opposers of Daghestan's incorporation into the Soviet Union) (297-317) Stalin and Ordzhenikidze (317-325) Zinov'ev addresses outdoor meeting in Kronstadt (325-351)

Beginning of segment:

223 (6/387)

Scope and Content Note

Martens, Ludwig Christian Alexander Karl; Rykov, Aleksei Ivanovich; Reed, John; Vrangel', Petr Nikolaevich; Budennyi, Semen Mikhailovich; Stalin Iosif; Frunze, Mikhail Vasil'evich; Voroshilov, Kliment Efremovich; Ordzhenikidze, Grigorii Konstantinovich; Axelbank, Herman
Funeral service--Reed, John; Military ceremonies--Soviet period; Civil War, 1918-1921--Campaigns--Southern front; Civil War, 1918-1921; Processions--Soviet period; Funeral service--Daghestan nationalists; Foreign relations--United States; Communists--United States
New York; United States; Moscow; Crimea; Odessa; Astrakhan; Kiev; Daghestan; Kronstadt
A; D. Map
Sound: 262-266; 297-325
English
videotape 7

Reel # 8 (See Reel 8 description above)

 

Reel #40

Physical Description: 7:15:16:29-07:25:44
 

1923 Religion lampooned

 

British political figure lampooned.

 

"Tomorrow Germany!" on white banner of truck.

 

Floats, revolutionary slogans.

 

November 7, 1923,Moscow celebration -- Sklianskii, secretary to Trotsky (murdered by the OGPU in the U.S.), Kamenev, Kalinin, on rostrum -- Red Garrison parades -- Frunze, General Yegorov, General Kamenev, General Muralov, Kamenev. Trotsky in Moscow.

 

1924 January 21, 1924,Lenin dies at Gorki -- Lenin's funeral (unmarred by later "Stalinized" censored versions that de-deleted all his victims) -- January 23,coffin borne to railroad station at Gorki, for trip to Moscow -- Rykov, Bukharin, and Molotov carrying Lenin's casket to railroad station -- Lashevitz, Unschlicht, Ordjonikidze -- coffin placed in railroad car -- from railroad, coffin carried to Hall of Trade Unions in Moscow -- inside Hall of Trade Unions, at coffin: Zinoviev and Stalin -- _______________ and Stalin -- Lenin in open casket -- Krupskaia -- Maria Ul'ianova, Lenin's sister, near Krupskaia -- Maria, Krupskaia, Kalinin, Tomsky -- Zetkin wipes tear -- Krupskaia -- Uglianov and Zinoviev -- diplomats and foreign dignitaries pay respects -- Bukharin, Zinoviev and Krupskaia -- January 27,casket borne to Red Square wood mausoleum -- Zinoviev, Kamenev an Stalin carry coffin -- cortege, Moscow street corner -- snow -- Voroshilov and Bukharin carry casket -- Molotov -- "Lenin Our Immortality" inscription -- mausoleum, atop -- masses of mourners, frozen breaths, 30 below zero -- Rykov, Kamenev, and Bukharin -- Yevdokimov speaks from script -- soldiers, flag -- Krupskaia -- frozen breath of masses -- Yevdokimov with paper in hand -- Rykov, profile -- marchers past mausoleum -- coffin "dissolves" into Lenin -- mausoleum chamber.

 

May 1, 1924, May Day celebration -- Yaroslavsky, Kalinin, on rostrum

videotape 8

Reel #118

Note

Note: Video noise on time-coded tapes; 16mm film is free of this.
Physical Description: 08:00

Additional Note

The following six films of the Herman Axelbank Collection were duplicated through funding from The L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Foundation. They comprise a special grouping on the topic of "Jews in the Soviet Union" and "Jews under Nazism." This is a direct transcription from Herman Axelbank's notes giving brief descriptions of the contents of each reel.
 

1952 "Jews under Communism" (rare films of Jewish people in Russia, 1917-1973) -- films of Jewish people in Russia, under Stalin-Khrushchev-Brezhnev decimation of all Jewish cultural life, including murder victims: poet Peretz Markish, speaking Yiddish; director Mikhoels speaking in Russian; Eisenstein; physicist Kapitza; author David Bergelson and entire personnel of "Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee" -- artists, writers and cultural leaders murdered by Stalin on August 12, 1952-- including the Jewish doctors in Stalin's notorious "doctors' frame-up" saved by latter's death in 1953 -- including most recent persecution of Jewish would-be emigrants and secret Jewish cultural gathering in the woods.

 

1917 Jewish Workers' Party in Petrograd parade -- procession to Mars Field in funeral of martyrs of revolution.

 

Banner inscribed in Jewish.

 

1918 Kalinin takes tea with old Jew in village square, symbolic of comparison with Tsar's anti-semitism.

 

1923 Jewish family depicted in silent film "Kombrig Ivanov."

 

1925 Jewish colony in Crimea (Soviet government's several attempts at special Jewish communes).

 

"Finken" is the name of this colony, meaning "sparks" -- Lenin government encouraged "autonomous" Jewish settlements in Crimea, in line with "emancipation of national minorities and flowering of their cultures under Communism" -- later liquidated by Stalin, like Chechens, Tannu-Tuvans and Kalmyks.

 

1927 Caucasian Jewish colony -- Jewish open-air school -- Communist commissar points out to cameraman modern Communist curriculum in contrast with old religious rabbi seen teaching his Bible class -- this outdoor Hebrew religious class is probably the last of its kind filmed in Russia prior to Stalin's obliteration of all Jewish culture.

 

1928 Jewish collective farm in Bokhara celebrates fifth anniversary of its founding -- Moscow commissar greets them -- traditional Jewish dances (Stalin soon liquidated this collective).

 

Crimean Jewish colony -- Jewish settlers drilling for water -- relying on Soviet pledges, they toiled unceasingly to build up this settlement, only to be driven from it later by Stalin -- members scattered to other regions, with most of the pioneers liquidated or shipped to Siberian slave-camps where they died of exposure and starvation, according to one escapee, a Jewish writer now in the U.S.

 

Reel #119

Physical Description: 08:06:00 VHS
 

1929 Jewish colony in Russia -- sign reads "Chahklahyer Schula for Peasant Youth" (Yiddish script) -- where Jewish cultural activities were permitted for a while, in Yiddish (Hebrew, language of the Bible, was forbidden) -- Jewish schoolchildren seen in various activities -- classes, exercises, etc.-- Communist theory propagated by "Yevsek" commissars (Jewish section of Communist party which functioned for a time prior to Stalin's anti-Jewish purges).

 

"Gift from Moscow" -- a radio for "education of workers of this collective."

 

Young "pioneer" indoctrinates his old-fashioned grandfather. Class in Marxism.

 

1934 Jewish state theatre in Moscow.

 

Performing Shakespeare's "King Lear" in Yiddish.

 

Solomon Mikhoels as "King Lear" and Ziskind as the jester -- Director Mikhoels was murdered by Stalin in Minsk in 1948 -- Ziskind was murdered by Stalin together with many other Jewish intellectuals in August, 1952.

 

1941 Jewish anti-Fascist committee, Moscow, in session (soundtrack) --Sergei Eisenstein, film director (second from left) -- Peter Kapitze, physicist -- David Ziskind, leading actor, Jewish state theatre -- Zak, famous pianist (on right).

 

Mikhoels speaks in Russian (soundtrack).

 

Peter Markish (Jewish poet) speaks in Jewish.

 

Reel #120

Physical Description: 08:15:31
 

Hitler's Germany.

 

Book burning -- anti-Jewish slogans smeared on store windows- hooliganism -- handful of Jews flee Germany -- most are trapped in German hell -- Jewish youth, Greenspan, kills Hitler ambassador Vom Rath, is tortured to death in German captivity -- massacre of Jews in Germany begins -- synagogues set on fire with worshippers locked inside -- Jewish shops smeared with "Jude."

 

1939 Destruction of Warsaw -- terror.

 

Hitler inspects his slaughter in Poland.

 

Jewish hostages in Warsaw (German cameramen).

 

Anti-Jewish placards.

 

1941 Warsaw ghetto (German cameramen).

 

Reel #121

Physical Description: 08:24
 

1941 Entire Jewish population of Warsaw herded into small area, sealed off by a brick wall, where they perish from malnutrition and disease.

 

Monstrosities filmed by German cameramen.

 

Mass starvation of entire population.

 

Children who scaled the wall and tried to re-enter with scraps of food, are searched by Germans and made to give up scraps, then murdered.

 

Daily burials.

 

1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising.

 

Ghetto fighters with handful of smuggled small arms, hold off might of German armor for almost three months, starting April, 1943, until entire area is devastated by German artillery, and remnants of fighters murdered.

 

Victims driven to death camps.

 

Murder camps.

 

Reel #122

Physical Description: 08:34
 

1943 Gas chambers.

 

Mass murder of millions of men, women and children.

 

Eichmann -- Hitler -- Himmler.

 

"Elite" German battalions.

 

"SS" killers.

 

Hitler and Himmler, reviewing "elite" killer-brigades in Berlin.

 

Destruction of Warsaw ghetto.

Physical Description: 08:38
 

Execution of remnants of ghetto fighters.

 

Reel #123

Physical Description: 08:40:34
 

1943 Jewish soldiers and officers in Red Army receive decorations in Kremlin -- they are among bravest of fighters against the Germans, proportionally getting highest battle citations.

 

"Jewish doctors' plot" -- doctors framed by Stalin henchmen into false confessions -- Stalin's death saved them.

 

Jewish communities uprooted from towns and villages where they had lived for a thousand years, and forcibly removed to far regions.

Physical Description: 08:46:18
videotape 9

Reel #90

Additional Note

The following four reels of the Herman Axelbank collection were duplicated through funding from the American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. This is a direct transcription from Herman Axelbank's notes giving brief descriptions of the contents of each reel.
 

1944 (23 July) Lublin captured -- horror of German murder camp Maidanek -- German murder barracks where Germans slaughtered 1,500,000 men, women, and children and shipped their clothes, hair, and gold fillings to Berlin -- deathtraps, ovens, hair, teeth, watches, rings.

 

Reel #93

 

1945 Inhabitants return, carts -- road sign: "Gleiwitz" pointer -- white flags in windows -- Auschwitz murder barracks -- pitiful remnant of camp inmates saved by Germans' flight -- railroad yard abandoned by Germans -- torture victims - frozen naked bodies in freight cars - Germans had no time to cover traces -- naked corpses of mother and baby in freight car - clothing of victims strewn about in snow at railroad siding -- -- frozen corpses on snowy ground alongside freight cars -- frozen baby in freight car -- tattooed arms of victims miraculously saved by Russian advance -- German woman in Gleiwitz, well fed and warmly clothed -- road sign: "Berlin 200 km" -- Russians drive on to Berlin.

 

1941 (22 June) German sneak attack -- Russian airfields destroyed -- murder and plunder -- Russian resistance -- Brest fortress defended almost a month against a German division.

 

Reel #97

 

1944 Endless lines of German prisoners -- 57,000 Germans marched through streets of Moscow (summer 1944)-- Minsk recaptured -- Brest -- Byalistok -- Germans destroy, burn all prior retreat -- dynamiting by Germans in retreat -- Lublin captured -- Marshal Grechko -- Marshal Malinovsky -- Odessa and Kishenev liberated -- prisoners, hands raised -- Petsamo, in the north, captured -- Red Army enters Norway -- Kirkenes taken, Russians liberate hundreds of Norwegian freedom fighters -- Vistula defenses smashed -- battlements of German "Vistula Line."

 

1945 Warsaw captured, 17 January-- road sign: "Berlin 120" -- "Berlin 80" -- Germany entered by Red Army -- Distance covered, from Moscow -- tortuous, slow advance westward, in retrospect -- Zhukov in dugout at front -- Berlin - main blow by troops of 1st Byelorussian front -- air offensive -- battle for Berlin -- Russian big guns, German defenses -- tank battle -- Berlin entered by Russian advance patrols -- under siege inside Berlin prior to capitulation -- queues for food -- General Vaigling interrogated by Russians -- fighting inside Berlin -- Uniformed Russian woman handling out bread loaves to Germans -- Red soldier aiding old German -- Hitler's chancery, where he committed suicide, captured -- Goebbels's charred remains -- 2 May:Reichstag attacked and captured -- Berlin capitulates -- Russian inscriptions on columns -- concentration-camp inmates freed, cheer liberators -- Warsaw, Bucharest, Sofia, Budapest Belgrade, and Prague - cheering crowds hail Russian troops.

 

Reel #99

 

1945 Feb.: Yalta conference, three-power conference at Yalta -- Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt -- 27 Apr.: Russians meet with Americans on Elbe -- June: Beirut (Poland) with Stalin in Kremlin -- "Lublin Committee" rules Poland -- Potsdam conference: Stalin, Truman, Churchill; Molotov, Vishinsky, Byrnes, Bohlen -- 8 Aug.: Russo-Japanese war -- Russians attack Japanese in Manchuria, land, sea, and air battles, Japanese surrender -- 25 Aug.: Russians enter Korea -- northern Korea occupied by Red Army -- communists stage wild greeting of Red troops -- Chinese-Soviet friendship treaty, in Kremlin -- Stalin-Chiang Kai-shek pact, while former backs Mao for communist takeover.

videotape 10

Reel #29

Physical Description: 10:00:00
 

1921 Beseiged Kronstadt sailors demanding a more democratic rule and a constituent assembly are battered down by Red Army under Marshall Tukhachevsky -- Commander Dybenko (of Baltic Fleet) speaks -- victorious Bolsheviks leaving bat tered battleship "Sevastopol' " after massacre of mutineers -- Lenin and Trotsky among Red soldiers who put down Kronstadt Mutiny -- behind Lenin is Voroshilov -- at 10th Party Congress (under Stalin, this photo was "doctored", "Stalinized" -- photo above, as it now appears in Soviet history books (76) -- Lenin on April 25, 1921 -- May 1,May Day celebration on Uritskii Square, Petrograd -- Zinoviev, President of Petrograd Soviet, and aides review the parade -- Moscow, May Day celebration on Red Square -- Trotsky addresses graduates of military academy -- Trotsky reviews Red Army -- Red cavalry -- Lenin at 10th All-Russian Conference in Moscow.

 

Reel #30

Physical Description: 10:10:50-10:16:50
 

1921 Trotsky in his office in the Kremlin -- Famine in the Volga Region -- destruction of industrial plants and bridges following civil war -- continued peasant uprisings -- homeless starving children -- small amounts of grain shipped by Soviet government to famine-stricken areas -- grain sacks checked -- refugees in stricken areas flee in search for food -- foraging for food along the Volga -- soup made of weed concoctions -- homeless at railroad stations -- deserted villages -- official Soviet communications -- Leslie's Weekly (1891)-- refugees along the river - dead mother and baby American aid -- American Relief Administration -- American food arrives in Petrograd harbor for transport -- Colonel Haskell -- children saved -- hot water for tea -- field kitchens -- innoculations against typhus -- church treasures taken by commissars for famine relief -- Archbishop Antonin gets credentials of commissar -- Church of the Redemption, Moscow -- Chicago, USA -- "Friends of Soviet Russia" shipments of foods and medication to famine stricken Russians.

 

Reel #32

Physical Description: 10:17:28-10:26:19
 

1922 Band plays the "Intenationale" -- mass singing -- Trotsky administers "Oath of Red Soldier" to new recruits -- German junkers plane demonstrated for Red Army in Moscow -- Russo-German cooperation for joint arming -- German "aeromobile" demonstrated to Russians (from Moscow to Sevastopol) -- June 8 to August 7,Social Revolutionary trial in Moscow -- first "show trial" of anti-communists -- Abram Gotz, Dimitri Donskoi, Michael Hendlman, Evgeniia Ratner, Gershenstein, Artemyev, Leekach, Elena Ivanova, and Vladimir Agapov -- parade and mass meeting on Red Square in condemnation of defendants -- Krylenko, the prosecutor -- Rosenfeld and Anderson Nexo, foreign counsel for defendants -- Piatakov addresses hugh mass meeting on Red Square -- Bukharin speaks condemning the defendants -- refreshments -- passes required to enter courthouse -- prison van -- prisoners emerge and are led to courtroom -- infuriated public sits in at trial.

 

Reel #33

Physical Description: 10:26:56
 

1922 Stenographers -- judges -- Pokrovsky, the historian -- Konopleva, defendant, testifies -- Dverzhets, Jacob, defendants, testifies -- prisoners dock -- trial concludes -- Kashira, hydro-electic power station at Kashira, near Moscow, completed (during Lenin's illness at Gorki) -- Rykov speaks -- Yenukidza with Rykov, advancing toward camera -- Ostrovsky-Mahlee Theatre, Moscow -- Moscow Art Theatre -- celebration of Theatre Stanislavsky anniversary -- Kachalov -- Mirovich-Danchenko -- Nikolai Ostrovsky (blind) -- statue of Alexander III in Petrograd with new inscription: "ignominous" -- CHEKA training grounds in Kremlin -- execution squads -- firing squads -- Russo-Finnish Punitiv Expedition, led by General Sidiakin, for alleged night attack on Red Army outpost by Finnish irregulars -- Finland border attack by Red Army -- Red Army brigade mounts attack on Finnish border outposts -- Sidiakin hailed in Petrograd victory celebration.

 

Reel #34

Physical Description: 10:37:49-10:47:50
 

1922 Lenin seated with Stalin at Gorki -- Red International of Trade Unions -- Red Trade Union International Congress in Moscow -- Lozovsky, President of Red Trade Union International, addresses delegates -- Hillman, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America aids Russia: takes over 40 Russian clothing factories, introduces American labor-saving methods -- Sidney Hillman, President of A.C.W.O.A., supervises reorganized plants -- Yakivenko, Commissar of Agriculture, makes the rounds of local farmers, discusses their problems and government deliveries of their grain -- Agriculture Commissar with farmers during NEP era -- American tractors sent by "Friends of Soviet Russia" are carefully studied -- August 22,Lenin at Gorki -- Zinoviev speaks at outdoor mass meeting in Petrograd -- Thomas, Albert, French socialist, addresses mass meeting -- Yevdokimov, Chairman C.E.C. of Petrograd Soviet -- Lenin in his study at Gorki -- International Youth Congress in Moscow -- Willi Muenzenberg (Lenin's protoge from the International Youth Federation; later murdered by Stalin), President of Youth International addresses congress -- Lunacharsky, Commissar of Education, speaks -- Lozovsky speaks -- Zinoviev addresses delegates -- September 1922,Lenin with Krupskaia, niece and nephew, at Gorki -- International Womens Congress in Moscow -- Klara Zetkin speaks -- Lenin, Krupskaia, Lenin's sister Elizarova at Gorki -- Congress of People of the Far East -- participation of young Ho-Chi-Min -- women from China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Persia, India, and Turkestan, represented at this congress convened by the Comintern -- (Lenin at Gorki (last photo ever taken) -- Lenin on stroll in garden at Gorki -- Lenin seated with Krupskaia on garden bench -- Lenin holding cat -- Lenin walking with nephew, Victor, in garden -- Lenin seated with dog -- Lenin reclining in garden chair, Krupskaia seated on bench -- Lenin in overcoat, seated on garden bench) -- Lenin at session of Party Central Committee in Kremlin, October 5, 1922-- Lenin at his desk in Kremlin, October 7, 1922-- Lenin in Moscow, October 7, 1922-- 5th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution celebrated on Uritskii Square, November 7, 1922-- Zinoviev head celebration -- Salutskii, a C.E.C. member of the Petrograd Soviet -- Moscow celebrates 5th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution on Red Square -- Trotsky arrives, followed by foreign delegates to the 4th Congress of the Comintern (to convene on November 14) -- Trotsky's opening address -- Red Army generals (later murdered by Stalin) -- parade of Moscow garrison -- foreign visitors on reviewing stand -- foreign delegates to the Comintern: Max Eastman, Louis Fraina, Rose Pastor Stokes, Charles Ruthenberg, Max Bedacht -- naval personnel -- Trotsky salutes the Red Army, Voroshilov behim him -- General Muralov (murdered by Stalin 1936-37) in rear -- Lunacharsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, on rostrum -- Kamenev and Zinoviev -- Stalin -- Klara Zetkin seated on rostrum -- Stalin turns to camera -- Klara Zetkin -- Radek and his little daughter -- November 14,4th Congress of Comintern in Petrograd -- train arrives with foreign delegates -- Willi Muenzenburg at left -- delegates leave station in Petrograd -- Max Eastman among arrivals, hat in hand.

 

Reel #35

Physical Description: 10:48:29-10:58:23
 

1922 Yevdokimov, member of Petrograd Soviet (later murdered by Stalin), greets delegates -- Fritz Heckert, German communist, speaks to welcoming crowds -- Zinoviev speaks -- Felix Kohn, delegate from Poland, speaks -- Lunacharsky greets delegates -- Congress opens at Marinsky Theatre (note Trotsky portrait at upper left proscenium) -- Klara Zetkin -- Zinoviev -- delegates rise, sing "Internationale" -- Petrograd garrison parades in honor of delegates to Comintern (note rickety military vehicles) -- Mars Field, wreath place on grave of martyrs of the revolution -- Congress moves to Moscow for last sessions -- railroad stations display portraits of Lenin, Marx, and Trotsky -- trolleys in Moscow take delegates to Congress Hall (the Tsar's throne room) -- trolleys decorated with bunting and portraits of Lenin and Trotsky -- throne room of the tsars -- Zetkin, Zinoviev, on dais and on extreme right American delegate -- Earl Browder -- group of delegates -- Roy, from India, speaks -- Sen Katayama, of Japan, speaks -- Billings, American negro delegate, speaks -- Azario, from Italy, speaks -- Katayama speaks -- _____, from Bulgaria, speaks -- Trotsky addresses congress -- C.E.C. of Comintern -- Zinoviev and Klara Zetkin -- Australian communist delegates (Crawford and __________) -- Claude McKay, American negro delegate with Egyptian delegate -- Salutskii and Yevdokimov -- Lunacharsky -- Max Eastman and Claude McKay -- Zinoviev speaks -- Lenin attends the Comintern for the last time -- Lenin taking notes prior to speaking -- Lenin addresses the 4th Congress of the Comintern -- Trotsky taking notes prior to speaking -- Trotsky addresses the Congress --

 

1923 April 17, 1923,12th Party Congress -- Trotsky at 12th Party Congress -- Rykov, seen ascending platform -- Bukharin speaks -- Trotsky, Muralov, at rear.

videotape 11

Reel #36

Physical Description: 11:00:00-11:09:33
 

1923 May Day in European capitals, May 1st, 1923:London, Zurich, Stockholm, Paris, Berlin, Oslo, Prague -- May 1, 1923,Moscow May Day celebration -- Trotsky, Muralov -- International Workers Aid (Comintern organization) headquarters in Moscow, during Soviet Russia's first agricultural exposition -- Trotsky's portrait on the wall -- tea served free to all -- Rykov speaks -- agricultural exposition in Moscow -- Komsomol (Young Communist League) youth at the exposition -- Chicherin speaks in open-air stadium at the fair -- Krassin, Commissar of Trade, speaks -- "Internationale" sung by 40,000 voices -- organizers of this first Russian fair in 1923 -- free lunches.

 

Reel #41

Physical Description: 11:10:11
 

1924, 1927, 1928, 1929 Lozovsky, President of Red Trade Union International speaks -- portraits of "Lenin-child" carried by children everywhere -- Comintern delegates on rostrum -- Rykov, Acting Premier, among foreign delegates on rostrum -- Zetkin, seated, among delegates on rostrum -- Ho-Chi-Min on rostrum -- Felix Kohn, delegate from Poland, waves -- Bulgaria: Sofia Cathedral dynamited by communists -- untold number of suspects including liberals, socialists, executed by Bulgarian government -- Communist Party banned in Bulgaria -- Moscow: "Religion is Opium of the People" on facade of Moscow City Hall -- Sacco-Vanzetti: cause celebre of Comintern, moving American communists to wage nationwide campaign to save their lives -- Stalin, Kaganovich, Molotov, prior to Trotsky's banishment to Alma Ata -- Kerensky in Paris -- Trotsky in exile on Prinkipo Island, Turkey, under guard by Turkish secret agents -- Natalia Sedov, Trotsky's wife, and son, Leon Sedov, at Prinkipo.

 

Reel #42

Physical Description: 11:20:12-11:29:12
 

Trotsky visit ruins of Pompei, under Italian police guard

 

1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1960, 1929 November 20, 1932,Trotsky on way to Copenhagen, Denmark -- Trotsky speaks in Copenhagen, November 26, 1932,(soundtrack) to 2,000 audience (labor group) -- Trotsky in France, 1933,under tight security against Stalin agents -- Trotsky in Norway -- Trotsky interned by Norwegian government in 1936 when he denounced Stalin's frame-up trials in 1936 -- Trotsky arrives in Tampico, Mexico, 1937,given asylum by Mexican President Cardenas and invited to live with painter Diego Rivera -- Trotsky speaks in English (soundtrack), denouncing Stalin's falsifications and frame-up trials -- friends of Trotsky guard him at his home in Acapulco in 1939, following an assassination attempt by Mexican Stalinists -- Sylvia Ageloff, who introduced her friend (assassin) to Trotsky in 1940 -- assassin who murdered Trotsky with pickaxe on August 20, 1940 -- reserve weapons found on assassin -- murder weapon -- victim's broken glasses -- nurse attending dying Trotsky -- Trotsky dies in Mexico -- assassin, following capture -- Trotsky's grave in Mexico -- assassin, released after 20 years incarceration, admitted to Cuba and apparently taken off to the U.S.S.R. under guard, 1960.Stalin's 50th birthday in his apartment in the Kremlin -- Kirov, Kaganovich, Kuibyshev, Molotov, Ordjonikidze, Kalinin, Voroshilov.

Note

No sound Track on Trotsky Speech; Speech on film
 

Reel #47

Physical Description: 11:29:39:01-11:39:50
 

1936 Kalmyks, Autonomous Region of Kalmyk Republic on the Caspian Sea, when it was a flourishing community with collectives and large fishing industry -- Elista, Kalmyk capitol, end of December 1943-- Stalin ordered deportation of entire Kalmyk population to Siberian slave camps -- Kalmyk Autonomous Republic prior to its liquidation.

 

Stalin "child lover", one of periodic filming of Stalin's human side -- Stalin lifts child affectionately -- Stalin entertained by Georgian state troupe -- sword dance -- Caucasian sword dancing -- Stalin portraits everywhere -- song and dance festival in Stalin's native Georgia -- Stalin arrives with Voroshilov -- Molotov, Stalin and Kalinin in front row -- mass dancing.

 

Voting for Stalin -- Stalin votes for himself -- Molotov, Kalinin, and Mikoyan vote for Stalin.

 

Election celebration on Red Square -- sea of Stalin portraits.

 

August 1936,purge trials -- Stalin's framed trials of his oppositionists -- false confessions by victims -- Kamenev prior to his execution -- Vishinskii at purge trials in Moscow -- witnesses and victims testimony -- Vishinskii's assistants -- Piatakov shielding his eyes -- firing squad in the Kremlin.

 

1937 Tchkalov and Gramov flight -- polar flight -- to San Francisco -- San Francisco's reception to Soviet polar flyers -- spectacular feats to muffle sounds of firing squads -- Troyanovsky greets flyers in San Francisco.

 

Reel #62

Physical Description: 11:40:31-11:48:40
 

1940 Timoshenko's plane arrives in Kishinev -- Khrushchev greets him -- Timoshenko's hometown folks kiss him and Khrushchev. While Germans overrun Europe, Stalin celebrates 23rd anniversary of Bolshevik Revolution -- November 7, 1940,Red Air Force and armor, poised for Red Square show -- Moscow Garrison at attention, awaiting the appearance of Stalin -- Stalin emerges from Kremlin, greets Kaganovich, Molotov, Kalinin, Voroshilov, and Andreiev -- they walk to the mausoleum -- Stalin and Shvernik -- Timoshenko opens ceremonies -- Stalin and Voroshilov -- Timoshenko -- Shaposhnikov and Budionny -- Andreiev, Beria, Molotov, Mikoyan, Voroshilov, Beria and Shvernik -- Shvernik and Stalin -- Bulganin, Malenkov, Beria, Mikoyan, Voroshilov, Kaganovich. Molotov in Berlin -- Mannerheim with Hitler.

 

1941 April 1941, on eve of Hitler's onslaught, First Degree Stalin Prize awarded to Olga Lepeshinskaia, premiere danseuse of the Bolshoi Ballet -- Lepeshinskaia dances (soundtrack).

 

May 1, 1941, Stalin celebrates May Day on Red Square -- heavy armor poised for big parade -- German military attaches last look at Soviet tanks and planes -- Stalin struts to podium, flanked by Molotov and Voroshilov, followed by entourage.

 

Film #152 (open)

Scope and Content Note

FILM GUIDE
CODE NO. 614700
RUSSIA: CZAR TO LENIN
(30 minutes-black and white)
Presented by McGRAW-HILL TEXT-FILMS
FOR USE IN
High school and college classes in World History and Russian History.
PURPOSE OF THE FILM
To depict the events during the years 1914-1920 when the Bolsheviks seized control of the Russian government and fought to maintain themselves in power until Vladimir Lenin had replaced the Czar as the head of that government.
CONTENT OF THE FILM
The film tells the story of the Russian Revolution from its outbreak in February of 1917 to November 1920 when the last of the counter-revolutionary forces were defeated. Rare pictures of the fighting and of the personalities involved are used.
The film story begins with scenes of Czar Nicholas I1 and his family just before the outbreak of World War I. The character of the Czar is brought out and the frivolous ways in which he and his family amused themselves while the country seethed with discontent are shown.
As a result of the disaster suffered by the army and the hardships endured by the populace, discontent flared into the open. Trouble first began in the streets at Petrograd where crowds gathered to sing revolutionary songs and display banners demanding Peace, Bread, and Liberty! Although the Czar ordered the soldiers to disperse the mobs, the soldiers refused and actually joined the people. A workers' council called a soviet was formed in Petrograd. Four of the Czar's regiments mutinied and placed themselves at the disposal of the revolutionists. Although the Czar sent other troops from the front, they too joined the revolt. The Czar was forced to abdicate.
The film then shows the events of the early stages of the Revolution: how the Grand Duke Michael Romanov refused the throne, how a government was organized under Prince Lwow and then, later, under Alexander Kerensky. The film also shows the gathering forces that opposed each other under the moderate government of Prince Lwow and Kerensky. It shows the arrival of Lenin and the struggle for power that took place which resulted in Lenin's seizure of the reins of government.
Scenes showing how Lenin, with the aid of Trotsky, maintained himself and the Bolsheviks in power, and how the war with Germany ended, at Lenin's insistence, on most unfavorable terms, are presented. The treaty of Brest-Litovsk, however, did not bring peace to Russia, for now most of the world was against her. Former allies were dismayed at her withdrawal from the war and shocked at the character of the Bolshevik government. Allied troops landed at Archangel and at Vladivostok. Czecho-slovak war prisoners seized the Trans-Siberian railroad. Within a year fourteen hostile counter-revolutionary armies were fighting against the Soviets.
For the next three years Russia was subjected to a violent civil war. Ruthless terror and killing became common practice on both sides. The Czar and all his family were shot to death, their bodies burned, and the ashes scattered in a swamp. Lenin himself was wounded by an assassin.
Of the counter-revolutionary armies the most important were led by General Denikin in the south, Admiral Kolchak in the east, General Bogayevsky in the southwest, and General Yudenich in the northwest. But Trotsky had done his work well; the Red Army defeated each in turn until finally, in mid-November of 1920, the last of General Denikin's troops fled from the Crimea to end the civil war. In the meanwhile, the Allies had tired of the occupation and had withdrawn their troops.
The infant Soviet Republic with Lenin at the helm had survived. Lenin and the Bolsheviks (now called Communists) could turn their attention to rebuilding the shattered nation.
BEFORE VIEWING THE FILM
Historical Background
The appearance of the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
The rise of the Social Democratic Party
World War I
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Russian Revolution, 1905
Historical Personalities
Czar Nicholas II
Rasputin
Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
M. L. Kalinin
Josef Djugashivili
Prince Lwow
Alexander Kerensky
Admiral Kolchak
General Denikin
Marshall Budenny
Basic Vocabulary
autocracy
Duma
Bolsheviks
Mensheviks
despotism
anarchy
capitalist
Soviet
agitator
fraternize
Cheka
commissar
Guide Questions
1. Why are major wars often breeders of revolutionary movements within the nations which participate in them?
2. Often revolutions which start as moderate movements result in radical developments of either the right or left. Why is this so?
3. Why is it often possible for a small, well-organized minority to seize control of a nation?
4. Marx had predicted that Communist revolutions would take place first in the highly industrialized nations. Yet the first successful Communist seizure of power took place in Russia, a relatively backward agrarian nation. Why?
AFTER VIEWING THE FILM
Discussion Activities
1. What conditions in Russia led to the Revolution of 1917?
2. Why did the Russian army make such a poor showing in World War I?
3. Why did the moderate governments of Prince Lwow and Kerensky fail?
4. Why did Lenin submit to the harsh German terms at Brest-Litovsk?
5. Why did Russia's former war allies intervene and then lose interest?
6. What were Lenin's objectives for world wide communism?
7. After the war with Germany was ended, what opposition did Lenin and the Bolsheviks face at home? How was this opposition overcome?
8. How would you assess Trotsky's role in the Revolution?
For Further Research
1. Find out why the Communists were not successful in capturing the governments of other nations which had participated in World War I. Compare this situation with what happened as a result of World War II.
2. What was Lenin's philosophy of bringing about a communist revolution? Find out also why Lenin turned to Marxism.
3. Find out how Lenin dealt with the Constituent Assembly when the Bolsheviks failed to obtain a majority of the delegates.
4. Determine Stalin's role in the Revolution.
5. Find out what purpose the troops of the United States served in the Allied intervention in Russia in 1918 and immediately thereafter.
REFERENCES
Brinton, Crane. The Anatomy of Revolution. Norton, 1938.
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. The State and Revolution. Vanguard, 1927.
RELATED McGRAW-HILL PRODUCTS
Films
Who Goes There?-A Primer on Communism
Stalin
Lenin and Trotsky
The Death of Stalin, Parts I and II
Nikita Khrushchev
The Rise of Khrushchev
Khrushchev and Berlin
Soviet Russia: From Revolution to Empire
Nightmare in Red
The Rise of Soviet Power, Parts I and II
The Nazi-Soviet War
The Kremlin, Parts I and II
A Visit to Moscow
Meet Comrade Student
The Soviet Woman, Parts I and II
Filmstrips
Communism: What You Should Know About It and Why Soviet Union Series
Teacher's Guide Prepared By:
Professor Emlyn Jones, Chairman, Division of History and the Social Sciences,
Green River College, Auburn, Washington
For further information on any of the above films and filmstrips, address inquiries to:
Text-Film Division
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
330 West 42nd Street New York, N. Y. 10036
Film shelf

Tsar to Lenin: Max Eastman Version 1937

Physical Description: 1:06 duration Two 16 mm reels

Scope and Content Note

Archive footage documentary assembled by Herman Axelbank, and narrated by Max Eastman, about the Russian Revolution. (Alternate cuts (edits) of this film exist, including one narrated by Valentine Dyall.) Use copy reference number: 79073_f_0006253