Harold Scheffler Papers

Finding aid prepared by Special Collections &Archives
Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, California, 92093-0175
858-534-2533
spcoll@ucsd.edu
Copyright 2005


Descriptive Summary

Title: Harold Scheffler Papers
Identifier/Call Number: MSS 0481
Contributing Institution: Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, California, 92093-0175
Languages: English
Physical Description: 7.0 Linear feet (16 archives boxes, 1 card file box and 7 oversize folders)
Date (inclusive): 1926 - 1981
Abstract: Papers of anthropologist Harold Scheffler, relating to Scheffler's field research on ambilineal descent groups on Choiseul Island in the Solomon Islands between 1958 and 1961, and to his comparative study of religious revitalization movements, especially the Christian Fellowship Church, conducted on Rendova Island between 1967 and 1968. Scheffler studied social structure, kinship and ethnographic semantics among Varisi language speakers on Choiseul Island (1958-1961), among Baniata language speakers on Rendova Island (1967-1968), and among Simbo islanders (1960). Materials include correspondence with colleagues and students; manuscripts of journal articles and published works; ethnographic data collected in diaries, field notes, genealogies, photographs, and sound recordings. Also included are grammars, vocabularies and linguistic materials for the Varisi and Baniata languages of the Solomon Islands.
Creator: Scheffler, Harold W.

Restrictions

Original sound recordings are restricted. Researchers may request user copies be produced in advance.

Acquisition Information

Acquired 1999.

Preferred Citation

Harold Scheffler Papers, MSS 0481. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.

Publication Rights

Publication rights are held by the creator of the collection.

Biography

Harold Walter Scheffler was born on October 24, 1932, in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended Southeast Missouri State College in 1952 and transferred to the University of Missouri the following year. His studies were interrupted by military service with the United States Army, 1954-1955, after which he returned to the University of Missouri and received a B.A. degree in anthropology and sociology in 1956.
Scheffler then went on to the University of Chicago for graduate work in anthropology, receiving an M.A. in 1957. He continued in the doctoral program at Chicago and, with the assistance of a Carnegie Corporation Tri-Institutional Pacific Program grant (1958-1960) and a Fulbright grant (1960-1961), conducted eighteen months of fieldwork (1958-1961) on the island of Choiseul in what was then called the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1963, having submitted a dissertation entitled "Kindred and Kin Groups in Choiseul Island Social Structure" (later published in 1965 as Choiseul Island Social Structure).
Scheffler studied social structure and kinship on Choiseul Island between November 1958 and April 1961. He spent most of his time in the village of Voza in the Tepazaka District, but also lived on the opposite side of the island in Ogo village in the Varisi District and made trips to Simbo Island. Scheffler learned and conducted this research in the Varisi language.
After returning from Choiseul, Scheffler taught at the University of Connecticut (1961-1962) and Bryn Mawr College (1962-1963). He joined the Yale University faculty in 1963, and has remained there throughout his career.
Post-doctoral fellowships and grants from the National Science Foundation enabled him to return to the Solomon Islands. Between 1967 and 1968, Scheffler conducted research on the island of Rendova as the principal investigator in a study entitled "Revitalization Movements in the British Solomons," which compared religious movements in three locations. This project examined the separatist Christian Fellowship Church on New Georgia Island (fieldwork conducted by Frances Hine Harwood), the South Seas Evangelical Mission in the Langalanga Lagoon area of Malaita (fieldwork conducted by Matthew Cooper) and the participation of people on Rendova Island in revitalization movements (fieldwork conducted by Scheffler).

Scope and Content of Collection

Papers of anthropologist Harold Scheffler, relating to Scheffler's field research on ambilineal descent groups on Choiseul Island in the Solomon Islands between 1958 and 1961, and to his comparative study of religious revitalization movements, especially the Christian Fellowship Church, conducted on Rendova Island between 1967 and 1968. Scheffler studied social structure, kinship and ethnographic semantics among Varisi language speakers on Choiseul Island (1958-1961), among Baniata language speakers on Rendova Island (1967-1968), and among Simbo islanders (1960). Materials include correspondence with colleagues and students; manuscripts of journal articles and published works; ethnographic data collected in diaries, field notes, genealogies, photographs, and sound recordings. Also included are grammars, vocabularies and linguistic materials for the Varisi and Baniata languages of the Solomon Islands.
Arranged in eight series: 1) CORRESPONDENCE, 2) WRITINGS BY SCHEFFLER, 3) CHOISEUL ISLAND FIELDWORK, 4) RENDOVA ISLAND FIELDWORK, 5) MISCELLANEOUS FIELDWORK, 6) WRITINGS OF OTHERS, 7) PHOTOGRAPHS and 8) SOUND RECORDINGS.

Digital Content

Selected materials from this collection have been digitized and can be viewed through links in the container list, or by clicking the link below.

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Deacon, Bernard, 1903-1927 -- Notebooks, sketchbooks, etc
Scheffler, Harold W. -- Archives
Choiseul (Solomon Islands) -- Pictorial works
Christianity -- Solomon Islands
Ethnology -- Solomon Islands
Land tenure -- Solomon Islands -- Choiseul
Malekula (Vanuatu)
Oceania
Rendova (Solomon Islands) -- Pictorial works
Social change -- Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands -- History -- 20th century -- Sources
Solomon Islands -- Languages
Solomon Islands -- Pictorial works
Solomon Islands -- Religious life and customs
Solomon Islands -- Social conditions
Solomon Islands -- Social life and customs

 

CORRESPONDENCE

Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) CORRESPONDENCE: Includes letters from anthropologists John Barnes, William Davenport and Murray Groves; the ethnomusicologist Alan Lomax, and two of Scheffler's graduate students, Matthew Cooper and Frances Harwood. There are also letters from government offices in the Solomon Islands, the National Science Foundation and Yale University related to Scheffler's research and travel. Arranged alphabetically.
Box 1, Folder 1

Alexander Turnbull Library 1960 - 1966

Box 1, Folder 2

B - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 3

British Solomon Islands Protectorate. Western Pacific High Commission 1966 - 1967

Box 1, Folder 4

Caughey, John L. 1966

Box 1, Folder 5

Cooper, Matthew 1966 - 1971

Box 1, Folder 6

Davenport, William 1959 - 1966

Box 1, Folder 7

E - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 8

G - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 9

Groves, Murray 1963

Box 1, Folder 10

H - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 11

Harwood, Frances H. 1966 - 1968

Box 1, Folder 12-13

K - L - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 14

Lomax, Alan 1963 May 9

General note

Includes list, "Materials on Tapes Recorded by H. W. Scheffler in Western British Solomon Islands." See also SERIES 8A.
Box 1, Folder 15-16

M - N - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 17

National Science Foundation 1966

Box 1, Folder 18

O - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 19

Page, Bill 1966 - 1967

Box 1, Folder 20-21

R - S - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 22

Tippett, Alan R. 1966

Box 1, Folder 23

Y - Miscellaneous

Box 1, Folder 24

Yale University 1966 - 1967

Box 1, Folder 25

Unidentified correspondents

 

WRITINGS BY SCHEFFLER

Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) WRITINGS BY SCHEFFLER: Manuscripts of Scheffler's journal articles and published works related to the Solomon Islands, including a typescript of his dissertation entitled Kindred and Kin Groups in Choiseul Island Social Structure (1963) and drafts for articles on kinship, land tenure and separatist church movements. Also included are proposals for research grant applications to fund his fieldwork and analysis. Arranged alphabetically by title.
Box 1, Folder 26

Ambilateral Kin Groups - Typescript undated

Box 1, Folder 27

Baniata Kinship Terminology - Incomplete typescript and handwritten notes undated

Box 1, Folder 28

Break-Away Churches in the Solomon Islands - Manuscript with typescript notes undated

Box 1, Folder 29

Choiseul manuscript

General note

Figures: numbered and captioned prints of Baukolo and Voza villages, showing structures, people and activities, burial urns (dolos) and shrines, shell money (kesa) counting, and music making with pan pipes. Also includes loose prints.
Box 1, Folder 30

For Conflict Book - Single handwritten page undated

Box 1, Folder 31

Fulbright Grant Application material - Includes draft curriculum vitae, statement giving educational background and summary of proposed analysis and write-up of dissertation 1959

 

Kindred and Kin Groups in Choiseul Island Social Structure

Box 1, Folder 32

Dissertation, chapters 1 - 3 March 1963

General note

See also SERIES 3B, draft introduction and outline for dissertation in "Residential Histories" notebook.
Box 1, Folder 33

Dissertation, chapters 4 - 7 March 1963

Box 1, Folder 34

Abstract of dissertation

Box 1, Folder 35

Kindred and Kin Groups in Simbo Island Social Structure 1962

Box 1, Folder 36

Political Finance in Melanesia: Big Men and Disks of Shell 1965

 

Revitalization Movements in the British Solomons

Box 2, Folder 1

Application for research grant 1966

General note

Includes an "Accounts" notebook for 1967.
Box 2, Folder 2

Correspondence 1966 - 1968

Box 2, Folder 3

Requests for funding to the National Science Foundation 1966 - 1969

 

Separatist Church in the Solomons

Box 2, Folder 4

Draft and notes undated

Box 2, Folder 5

Notes for a talk 1969 May 5

Box 2, Folder 6

Social Consequences of Peace: Choiseul Island 1963

 

Solomon Islands: Seeking a New Land Custom - In Land Tenure in the Pacific, edited by Ron Crocombe

Box 2, Folder 7

Annotated typescript draft and copy. Includes cover letter to Crocombe 1965, 1971

Box 2, Folder 8

Research notes on land tenure cases in Choiseul, including notecards with manuscript maps 1971

Oversize FB-269, Folder 1

Research maps 1971

Box 2, Folder 9

Research material includes correspondence, copies of legal documents and reports 1971

Box 2, Folder 10

Theoretical Implications - Typescript undated

Box 2, Folder 11

Unidentified comments on papers

Box 2, Folder 12

Unidentified notes on kinship and languages

 

CHOISEUL ISLAND FIELDWORK

Scope and Content of Series

Series 3) CHOISEUL ISLAND FIELDWORK: Scheffler's dissertation field work, including field notes and typescript summaries. Arranged in five subseries: A) Diaries, B) Field Notes, C) Genealogies and Kinship Charts, D) Varisi Language Material and E) Maps.
A) Diaries (1958-1961): Scheffler's day-to-day, handwritten entries describing places visited, contacts made, conversations with informants, new words or usages, and records of expenses during his fieldwork on Choiseul.
B) Field Notes: Notebooks with dated handwritten entries of ethnographic information from informants, typescript notes that organize, synthesize and summarize the field data on land tenure in the notebooks, and typed notecards with field data classified according to the Human Relations Area Files coding system. The notecards also include a sociological census of Choiseul Island, notes on cases brought before the native courts, notes on readings and a bibliography.
C) Genealogies and Kinship Charts: Notebooks and charts with lineage names, relationships and explanations of terminology.
D) Varisi Language Material: Comparative word lists, a dictionary, descriptions of grammatical forms, and several examples of text. Varisi is one of the six languages on Choiseul Island and spoken by many groups outside the Varisi District.
E) Maps: Seven blueprint drainage maps with Scheffler's (?) annotations of topographical features, villages and trails.
 

Diaries

Box 2, Folder 13

No. 1 1958 October 13 - 1959 April 22

Box 2, Folder 14

No. 2 1959 April 24 - August 30

Box 3, Folder 1

No. 3 1959 September 1 - December 1, and 1960 April

Box 3, Folder 2

No. 4 1959 December 13 - 1960 March 12

Box 3, Folder 3

Daily journal, Choiseul 1961 February 17 - April 8

 

Field Notes

Box 3, Folder 4

Analysis notebook 1960 October 27 - 1962 November 6

 

Choiseul field notes

Box 3, Folder 5

Book 1 November 21, 1958 - April 18, 1959

Box 3, Folder 6

Book 2 April 20 - July 8, 1959

Box 3, Folder 7

Book 3 July 13 - October 21, 1959

Box 3, Folder 8

Book 4 - General notes, Varisi side November 5 - November 22, 1959

Box 3, Folder 9

Book 5 - General notes, Varisi side November 23, 1959 - January 5, 1960

Box 4, Folder 1

Book 5 - Second trip February 18 - April 5, 1961

Box 4, Folder 2-3

Field notes - Choiseul Island, British Solomon Islands Protectorate [Versions 1 & 2] 1958 November - 1960 March

Box 4, Folder 4

Household census data, Choiseul No. 1 - Notebook undated

Box 5, Folder 1

Human relations area files classification of field notes - Notecard file undated

General note

Also includes "Sociological Census - Choiseul Island," "Native Court Cases," notes on readings and a bibliography.
Box 6, Folder 1-2

Land tenure field notes. Choiseul Island, British Solomon Island Protectorate 1958 - 1960

Box 6, Folder 3

Native court records - Notebook with cases from Choiseul, British Solomon Islands Protectorate 1950-1960

Box 6, Folder 4

Notebook no. 1 - Native courts and councils, Western Solomons 1954-1958

Box 6, Folder 5

Plant names, in local language, with descriptions and how they are used undated

Box 6, Folder 6

Residential histories, Choiseul - Includes draft introduction and outline of Scheffler's dissertation, with working title "Some Aspects of Choiseul Social Structure: Group Formation and Operation in an Ambilateral Society" undated

General note

See also Series 2, WRITINGS, "Kindred and Kin Groups in Choiseul Island Social Structure."
Box 6, Folder 7-8

Social structure field notes, typed 1958 November - 1960 March

 

Genealogies and Kinship

 

Choiseul notebooks

Box 6, Folder 9

No. 1 1958 November 26 - 1959 March 27

Box 6, Folder 10

No. 2 1959 April 6 - November 4

Box 6, Folder 11

No. 3. Varisi Side 1959 November 16 - December 16

Box 6, Folder 12

No. 4 1959 December 17 - 26

Oversize FB-269, Folder 2

Lineages and genealogies, Choiseul - Charts

Oversize MC-035-08

Maximal lineages - Genealogies. Varisi Language District, Choiseul

Box 7, Folder 3

Personal genealogies, Choiseul - Typed sheets. Includes typed list of equipment and handwritten notes 1959 May 5-6

Oversize MC-035-09

Skeleton genealogies of villages with maps, Choiseul

 

Varisi Language Material

Box 7, Folder 5-6

Choiseul languages: Varisi, Taula, Babatana - Comparative word lists with English translations

Box 7, Folder 7

Lexicostatistical comparisons - Word lists. Choiseul Island languages and dialects and those of several other islands 1959 - 1960

Box 7, Folder 8

Lexicostatistical comparisons, Varisi and Babatana with English - Typescript in English with equivalents in Choiseul languages

Box 7, Folder 9

Linguistic notes, Choiseul undated

Box 7, Folder 10

Texts, Choiseul - Notebook 1961 February - April

Box 7, Folder 11

Varisi Dictionary. Book No. 1. Notebook from Varisi Dictionary of William [?] ca. 1953

 

Varisi language

Box 7, Folder 12

Grammar - Notebook and notecards undated

Box 7, Folder 13

Workbook undated

Box 7, Folder 14

Translated texts - English typescript word lists and typescript Varisi texts with interlineal English translations, dated October 31 - November 29, 1959. Also includes two handwritten texts, Varisi and English 1959 October 31 - November 29

Box 8, Folder 1

Choiseul - Typescript in English with handwritten Varisi equivalents. Includes word lists and phrases

Box 8, Folder 2

Choiseul Island, British Solomon Islands Protectorate. Collected by H. Scheffler - Typescript, English and Varisi 1958 - 1961

Box 8, Folder 3

Notes and worksheets undated

 

Maps

Oversize MC-035-10

Choiseul maps - Seven blueprint maps indicating drainage systems, topographical features, villages and trails

 

RENDOVA ISLAND FIELDWORK

Scope and Content of Series

Series 4: RENDOVA ISLAND FIELDWORK: Scheffler's fieldwork and study of revitalization movements. Arranged in five subseries: A) Diaries, B) Field Notes, C) Genealogies and Kinship Charts, D) Baniata Language Material and E) Maps.
A) Diaries (1967-1968): Rendova diaries contain travel accounts, observations on the Christian Fellowship Church, its leader Silas Eto (Holy Mama) and Frances Harwood's field work.
B) Notebooks: Census data and genealogical information collected on the Baniata side and Rouro.
C) Genealogies and Kinship Charts
D) Baniata Language Materials: Typescript comparative word lists, descriptions of grammatical forms, exercises and a vocabulary compiled by Arthur Capell.
E) Maps: Two commercial maps of Rendova Island (ca. 1965) with annotations, and one commercial map of the Solomon Islands group (1951).
 

Diaries

Box 8, Folder 5

No. 1 1967 July 7 - October 29

Box 8, Folder 6

No. 2 1967 November 9 - 1968 February 20

 

Field Notes

Box 8, Folder 7

History of the Succession of Baniata Chiefs (according to John Kari, et al.) 1967

Box 8, Folder 8

Rendova Census, Baniata side 1967

Box 8, Folder 9

Rendova Census, Rouro, Book 2 1967

Box 8, Folder 10

Rendova Notes No. 1 1967 July 26 - November 23

Box 9, Folder 1

Rendova Notes No. 2 ca. 1967

 

Genealogies and Kinship

Oversize FB-269, Folder 3

Miscellaneous genealogies 1967

 

Baniata Language Material

Box 9, Folder 3

Miscellaneous handwritten word lists and notes undated

Box 9, Folder 4

Rendova Island, British Solomon Islands - Typescript word lists, English/Baniata 1967 - 1968

Box 9, Folder 5

Rendova Island, British Solomons. Section 1, Basic Vocabulary (Entire Swadesh Test List) - Typescript, English/Baniata 1967 - 1968

Box 9, Folder 6

Typescript with enumeration, noun class relationships, pronouns, and simple declarative sentences undated

Box 9, Folder 7

Word list and paradigms, [Version 1] - Typescript, Baniata/Roviana

General note

Includes printed pages from the Baniata Language of Rendova Island, by W. H. L. Waterhouse, 1927 [?].
Box 9, Folder 8

Word list and paradigms, [Version 2] - Typescript word lists, English/Baniata/Roviana

Box 9, Folder 9

Baniata language notes 1967 July 15

Box 9, Folder 10

Baniata language workbook undated

Box 9, Folder 11

Baniata vocabulary compiled by Arthur Capell undated

 

Maps

Oversize MC-035-11

Rendova Island and British Solomon Islands - Annotated by Scheffler 1951 - 1965

 

MISCELLANEOUS FIELDWORK

Scope and Content of Series

Series 5) MISCELLANEOUS FIELDWORK: Notebooks with general observations and bibliographies on the Solomon Islands, the specific island of Simbo (1960) and Ambrym Island in Vanuatu.
Box 9, Folder 12

Ambryn [Ambrym, Vanuatu], Book 1. Genealogies, etc. 1968 April 28 - May 5

Box 10, Folder 1

Bibliographic Notes No. 1. Choiseul and Western Solomons undated

Box 10, Folder 2

Notes on Hocart's M.S. Roviana and Simbo - Notebook with typescript and handwritten notes undated

Box 10, Folder 3

Simbo Genealogies, No. 1. Simbo Island, British Solomon Islands Protectorate 1960 March 30 - April 5

Box 10, Folder 4

Simbo Notes No. 1 1960 March 26 - May 5

Box 10, Folder 5

Solomon Islands Copra Production (No Plantation) - Handwritten notes with production figures 1962-1966

Box 10, Folder 6

Solomon Islands Notes and Bibliography - Expense notebooks for fieldwork on Choiseul and Rendova. Includes loose handwritten notes

 

WRITINGS OF OTHERS

Scope and Content of Series

Series 6) WRITINGS OF OTHERS: Materials primarily relating to separatist church movements, including Frances Harwood's research on the Christian Fellowship Church, an instance of a schismatic church in Melanesia. Also included are handwritten notes, largely related to Ambrym Island, made by British anthropologist Bernard Deacon (1903-1927) and typescript copies of Deacon's notes made by Camilla Wedgwood.
Box 10, Folder 7

Capell, Arthur. "Lexicostatistical Study of the Languages of Choiseul Island, British Solomon Islands" 1968

Box 10, Folder 8

Christian Fellowship Church. Birth and baptismal records for villages of Baniata and Hopono 1914 - 1964

Box 10, Folder 9

Cooper, Matthew. "Ethics in a Melanesian Society," undated

General note

Includes typescript version, "Langalanga Ethics," paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, November 21, 1969.
Box 10, Folder 10

Deacon, Bernard. New Hebrides [Ambrym, Vanuatu] notes 1926 - 1927

General note

Includes Scheffler's provenance note: "Typescript and handwritten notes once held by Camilla Wedgwood and given to Harold Scheffler by E. P. Elkin in Sydney, Australia, in the 1970s."
Box 10, Folder 11

Eto, Silas. "Holy Mama's Autobiography" 1967

General note

Includes copy of a handwritten version in the Roviana language and typescript English translation.
 

Harwood, Frances

 

"The Christian Fellowship Church"

Box 11, Folder 1

Typescript histories provided by informants ca. 1967 - 1968

Box 11, Folder 2

Typescript notes, interviews and correspondence 1966 - 1968

Box 11, Folder 3

"The Christian Fellowship Church: A Revitalization Movement in Melanesia" - Typescript presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Seattle, Washington 1968 November

Box 11, Folder 4

"Research Proposal for Fieldwork on New Georgia, British Solomon Islands Protectorate" - Typescript 1966

General note

See also SERIES 2: Revitalization Movements in the British Solomons.
Box 11, Folder 5

Tanavalu, Levi. "Voza Village, Tepazaka District, Choiseul Island" - Typescript undated

 

Tuza, Esau

Box 11, Folder 6

"The Demolition of Christian Church Buildings by Ancestors: A Personal Observation of ..." 1981

Box 11, Folder 7

"Life, an Attitude to Living: A Cultural Viewpoint from the Solomon Islands" 1981

Box 11, Folder 8

"Overseas Church and the Christian Fellowship Church" - Typescript undated

 

PHOTOGRAPHS

Scope and Content of Series

Series 7) PHOTOGRAPHS. Arranged according to periods of fieldwork in two subseries: A) 1958-1961 and B) 1967-1968. Many of the images in this series have been digitized, and can be viewed through links in the container list, or by clicking the link below.
A) 1958-1961: Slides and black-and-white photographic prints taken between 1958 and 1961 on Choiseul Island, but also on side trips to Papua New Guinea, Norfolk Island and Simbo Island. The images document village life in Voza, Scheffler's base on Choiseul; shell money (kesa) and its surrounding rituals; war making; music making; and, people. The Simbo Island images depict skull houses and shrines.
B) 1967-1968: Images documenting the religious revitalization movements and activities on Rendova, Choiseul, and New Georgia Islands, especially Paradise (Menakasapa) village and the Christian Fellowship Church and its leader, Silas Eto.
 

1958-1961

Box 11, Folder 9

Choiseul. Activities and portraits 1958 - 1961

General note

Includes construction, counting shell money (kesa), fishing, music making, urns (dolos) for burial.
 

Choiseul Bay

 

Choiseul Bay

 

Man at shore

 

Trees at the shore

 

Man at a tree base

 

Man at a tree base

 

Child by house

 

Canoes on shore

 

Male musicians, person in white cloth, and spectators

 

Male musicians, person in white cloth, and spectators

 

Male musicians, female dancers

 

Male musicians with mixed group

 

Male musicians, female dancers

 

Standing up kesa

 

Men and boy in house

 

Woman and child by house, in village

 

Child with string bag

 

Man, woman and child in front of house

 

Portrait of a woman

 

Woman and child

 

Boat at sea

 

Male musicians, spectators

 

Male musicians

 

Male musicians

 

Male musicians, person in white cloth

 

Male musicians, female dancers

 

Re-enactment of a men's feast dance

 

Men during construction of a building

 

Kiu playing

 

Kiu playing

 

Female musician

 

Kiu playing

 

Female musician

 

Kiu playing

 

Standing up kesa

 

Harold Scheffler seated with two men

 

Polosokesa at the shrine of his mother's descent group, Nggolunggolu

 

Vadalo wearing ten ziku above each elbow--the mark of big-man status in the past

 

Man with fishing net

 

Father Laughman

 

Portrait of Harold Scheffler and man

 

Harold Scheffler and man at construction site

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Harold Scheffler and man at Dolo

 

Men in uniform in front of building

 

Urada wearing some of the ornaments of big-man status

 

Kelo kangge, container made of lath and leaf, full of taro and almond pudding for a Christmas feast

 

Ponge volomo with his cache of kesa in three sets, and ziku kesa in the iron kettle

 

Men in uniforms on steps of building

 

Man and Dolo

 

Trees on the shore

 

Trees on the shore

 

Man with fishing net

 

Man and Dolo

 

Men during construction of a building

 

Man in front of house

 

Trees on the shore

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Trees on the shore

 

Low tide on the reef

 

Possible landscape

 

Trees on the shore

 

Kiu playing, Voza

 

Group portrait

 

People in and around house

 

Men playing kiu, and women dancing

 

Group portrait in front of house

 

Portrait of men, boys, Father Laughman, and canoe on shore

 

Portrait of a man

 

Father Laughman, men, boys, and canoe on shore

 

Portrait of a man

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Father Laughman, men, boys, and canoe on shore

 

Man on boat at Choiseul Bay

 

Man and infant in front of house

 

Portrait of a man

 

Portrait of a man

 

Portrait of a man

 

Polosokesa at the shrine of his mother's descent group, Nggolunggolu

 

Man with fishing net

 

Man, infant and bird

 

Man and Dolo

 

Man at shore with fishing gear

 

Baukolo village

 

Ponggevolomo with his cache of kesa in three sets, and ziku kesa in the iron kettle

 

Man on a hill

 

Trees on the shore

 

Man and infant boy

 

Man at a tree base

 

Trees on the shore

 

Crying child

 

Choiseul Bay

 

Man pulling canoe ashore

 

Female musician

 

Men at a dock

 

Female musician

 

Man and Dolo

 

Man building

 

Man building

 

Kiu playing

 

Kiu playing

 

European man on docked boat, Salve Regina

 

Male musicians

 

Kiu playing

 

People at shore with fishing gear

 

Portrait of a woman

 

Man by shrine

 

Man and child

 

Man and boy

 

Men and boy in house

 

Woman and infant in front of house

 

Man and infant in front of house

 

Woman and infant in house

 

Girl and infant

 

Portrait of a man, Mumagavere

 

Portrait of a woman, Korunaia

 

Male musicians, spectators

Box 11, Folder 10

Choiseul. Artifacts 1959 - 1961

 

Kingfisher bird

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield. Shown with ruler

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield

 

Three shell ring valuables, shown with ruler for scale

 

Man on shrine on top of coral outcropping

 

Three shell ring valuables, shown with ruler for scale

 

Man on shrine on top of coral outcropping

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield with handle. Shown with ruler

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield with handle. Shown with ruler

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield. Shown with ruler

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield with handle. Shown with ruler

 

Kingfisher bird

 

Shell valuable. Ring

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Broken shell valuable

 

Undecorated, Roviana style wicker shield. Shown with ruler

 

Man with shell valuable

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Shell valuable. Tridacna gigas clam. Ring with two anthropomorphic figures

 

Kingfisher bird

 

Kingfisher bird

 

Three shell ring valuables, shown with ruler for scale

 

Kingfisher bird

Box 11, Folder 11

Choiseul. Burial urn (dolo) 1959 November 25

 

Pauku and Dolo near Ogo

 

Dolo at Ogo

 

Dolo near Ogo

 

Dolo near Ogo

 

Lola, Anne, and Pauku near Dolo

 

Pauku and Dolo near Ogo

 

Dolo at Ogo

 

Pauku and Dolo near Ogo

Box 11, Folder 12

Choiseul. Canoeing in surf 1958 - 1961

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Grave being made

 

Grave being made

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Group Portrait

 

Canoeing in surf

 

Canoeing in surf

Box 11, Folder 13

Choiseul. Counting shell money (kesa) 1959 July

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Standing up kesa

 

Ponge volomo's kesa

Box 11, Folder 14

Choiseul. Feast at Voza 1959 January 1

General note

A sequence of seventeen photographic prints with Scheffler's annotations.
 

Preparation for feast at Voza

 

Preparation for feast at Voza

 

Preparation for feast

 

Cookery. Feast at Voza

 

Cookery. Feast at Voza

 
 

Preparation for feast

 
 

Preparing for feast at Voza

 

Cookery. Feast at Voza

 

Cookery. Feast at Voza

 

Preparation for feast at Voza

 

Cookery. Feast at Voza

 

Feast at Voza

 

Preparing a cooking pit. Feast at Voza

 
 

Preparation for Feast at Voza

 

Preparing for feast at Voza

Box 11, Folder 15

Choiseul. Group meal, a bird and beach scenes 1958 - 1961

 
 
 
 
 
 

People walking on reef

 

People walking on reef

 

People walking on reef

 
 
 

Child in the rain

 
 

People walking on reef

 

People walking on reef

 

People walking on reef

 
 

Children at a feast

 

Men at a feast

 

People walking on reef

Box 11, Folder 16

Choiseul. Group portraits, beach scenes with ship, dancing and music making, captured bats 1958 - 1961

 

Man carving on a piece of wood

 

Dancers with musicians

 

Group portrait

 

Dancers with musicians

 
 

Two men holding out captured bats

 
 

Portrait of man and woman

 

Family portrait

 

Boat out at sea

 

Boat out at sea

 

Portrait of man woman and child

 

Portrait of man and woman

 
 

Playing sport a on a village field

 

Man carving on a piece of wood

 
 
 
 
 
 

Captured bat

 

Portrait of man, woman and child

 

Portrait of man woman and children

 

Portrait of two young women

 

Captured bat

 

Man and two boys holding captured bats

 
 

Portrait of man, woman and child

 
 

Family portrait

 

Playing a sport on a village field

 

Family portrait

 

Portrait of elderly man

 

Family portrait

 

Group portrait

 

Family portrait

 

Group portrait

 

Family portrait

Box 11, Folder 17

Choiseul. Miscellaneous 1958 - 1961

 

Sanggigae Bay, Choiseul

 
 

Baukolo, Twin Peaks, from Korasokana

 

Zinoa Island and Voza coast from Korasokana

 

Women carrying string bags

 

Gatapale from gardens

 

Sanggigae Bay, Choiseul

 
 

Men and boys walking and carrying objects

 
 

Men and women walking and carrying objects

 

Men and women walking and carrying objects

Box 11, Folder 18

Choiseul. Mission Hospital (?) 1958 - 1961

 

Children on a beach

 

European woman wrapping boy's foot

 

Missionaries with boys

 

European woman wrapping boy's foot

 

Children with sticks

 

Boys playing on beach

 

Man with boat at beach

 

Boys with European woman in front of building

 

Boys playing with ball

 

European woman doctoring foot of boy

 

Boy on beach

 

Man with boat at beach

Box 11, Folder 19

Choiseul. Music making 1958 - 1961

 

Woman dancing

 

Women dancers, male musicians

 

Women dancing

 

Woman dancing

 

Women dancing, musicians

 

Women dancers, male musicians

 

Women dancing

 

Women dancers, male musicians

 
 

Woman dancing

Box 11, Folder 20

Choiseul. Shell money (kesa) 1965

General note

Some images published in "Political Finance in Melanesia: Big Men and Disks of Shell."
Box 11, Folder 21

Choiseul. Village (Voza) activities and people

Box 11, Folder 22

Choiseul. Village scenes, activities and people 1958 - 1961

 

Portrait of woman and children

 

Group in front of a house, village

 

Canopy landscape

 

Portrait of boys at the coast

 

Portrait of boys at the coast

 

Boys in canoes

 

Housebuilding

 

Child and infant

 

Canoe prow sculpture attached to canoe

 

Canopy landscape

 

Canoe being carved

 

Carving a canoe with axes

 

Group at a feast

 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 
 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 

Coastal landscape

 

Packets of leaf wrapped kesa shell money

 

Man on the edge of the forest

 

Packets of leaf wrapped kesa shell money

 

Coastal landscape

 

Woman in a garden

 

Dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress; some with western dress or tops, and white handkerchiefs tied around head or arm

 

Dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress; some with western dress or tops

 

Feast, women and men eating separately

 

Musicians, and dancers dressed in white

 

Musicians, and dancers dressed in white

 

Men in manuru play

 

Dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim, with musicians in background

 

Pudding pound bowl

 

Musicians, and dancers dressed in white

 

Female dancers in white dresses with red trim

 
 

Musicians, and dancers dressed in white

 

Man with bow and arrow

 

Shell rings on a mat

 

Unfinished canoe

 

Europeans in a boat, Choiseul men on shore

 

Decoration of white cowrie shells and white feathers, possibly cockatoo, with figurehead on the prow of a canoe

 

Men mashing up taro root

 

Canoe prow sculpture

 

Unfinished canoe

 

Men mashing up taro root

 

Canoe prow sculpture

 

Carving a canoe with axes

 

Canoe prow sculpture

 

Canoe prow sculpture

 

Canoe prow sculpture

 

Boat and people on a reef

 

Ocean landscape

 

Coastal landscape with canoe

 

Ocean landscape

 

Ocean landscape

 

Boat and people on a reef

 

Boat and people on a reef

 

Ocean landscape

 

Packets of leaf wrapped kesa shell money

 

Coast and ocean landscape

 

Coastal landscape

 

Fire making

 

Motorized boat

 
 
 

Coastal landscape with canoes

 

Coastal landscape

 

Woman planting taro

 

Woman planting taro

 

Man climbing coconut palm

 

Woman planting taro

 

Offering bowl

 

Woman planting taro

 

Young child and infant

 

Children in canoes with large leaves

 

Dolo, or burial urn, from behind with landscape

 

Canoe-prow figurehead sculpture of dark wood with inlay, seated figure

 

Dolo, or burial urn, from behind with landscape

 

Harold Scheffler with dolo, burial urn

 

Coastal landscape

 

Dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Anne Scheffler in a house

 

Fire making

 

Anne Scheffler in a house

 

Anne Scheffler with dolo, burial urn

 
 

Anne Scheffler and cat

 

Dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress, some with western dress or tops

 
 

Fire making

 

Anne Scheffler on a boat

 

Anne Scheffler in a house

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim; musicians in background

 

Carriage to boat

 

Portrait of Anne Scheffler and Lola Tabatabana

 

Portrait of Anne Scheffler and Lola Tabatabana, with cat

 

Fire making

 

Dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress; some with western dress or tops

 

Group of dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress; some with western dress or tops

 

Speechmaking

 

Farewell to the High Commissioner

 

Canoe decoration of white cowrie shells and white feathers, possibly cockatoo, with figurehead on the prow

 

Musicians; one with a guitar, and others with lengths of bamboo to pound on ground

 

Group of dancers in grass skirts and matching headdress; some with western dress or tops

 

Manuru play

 

Two people outside a house

 

Sewn canoe at prow

 

Gathering coconuts

 

Mixed group portrait

 

Skull inside of shrine made of coral slabs with shell ring offerings

 

Shrine with bowl, coral perhaps, with offerings including shell rings

 

Boys playing

 

Woman planting taro

 

Garden and logs

 

Close-up of a dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Manuru play

 

Speechmaking

 

Male musicians, some with guitars, and female dancers with grass skirts and headdress

 

View from behind the burial urn with old coral mound in the foreground

 

Boys with long white clothing, red sashes, and white flags

 

Manuru play

 

Close-up of a dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

View from behind the burial urn with old coral mound in the foreground

 

Dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Burial urn from a distance

 

Close-up of a dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Close-up of a dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Burial urn from a distance

 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 

Close-up of a dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Dolo or burial urn chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Houses, village

 

Houses, village

 

Group walking with European woman

 

Man sitting on tree base

Box 12, Folder 1

Choiseul. Village scenes, ceremonies and artifacts 1958 - 1961

 

Man in a garden

 

Group of men in a village

 

Group portrait

 

Man in a garden

 
 

Bangara stone

 

Group walking

 

Houses in a village

 

Shrine with bowl with offerings

 

Shrine, possibly a fire pit

 

Unfinished canoe

 

Man with a bow and arrow

 

Ceramic pot at a shrine

 
 

Sculpture of a female figure

 

Unfinished canoe

 

Boat with sail

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Official gathering

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Dance performance inside a building

 

Musicians with bamboo instruments

 

Official gathering, European officer

 
 

Pot on a mat

 

Dancers with spears

 

Woman and infant, with surrounding group

 

Splintering wood with a tool

 

Dancers with grass skirts performing in a building

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Dancers with spears

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Official gathering, with dancers

 

Dancer with spear

 

Houses in a village

 

Dancers with shields; large official gathering

 

Forest landscape

 

Boys in a village

 

Houses in a village

 

Men on a boat

 

Houses in a village

 

Coastline landscape

 

Europeans at an official gathering

 

Watching a large ship

 

Europeans at an official gathering

 

Young girl dancers performing in a building

 

Procession of female dancers in costume

 
 

Dancers with spears

 

Musicians with bamboo instruments

 

Village with male in foreground

 

Dancers with shields and spears, with women dancers to the right

 

Official gathering, British flags

 

Prince Philip

 

Procession of dancers with spears and shields

 

Dancers performing in a building

 

Dancers with grass skirts performing in a building

 

Dancers with spears

 

Dancer with shield and spear, and hat

 

Dancers with shields and spears, with women dancers to the right

 

Sculpture of a female figure

 

Portrait of male dancer with spear

 

Dancer with spear

 

Map of southern Solomon Islands

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Dancers with spears, and some with bamboo pan pipes

 

Map of Choiseul

 

Man in grass skirt and boys

 

Girls, one in grass skirt

 

Map of southern Solomon Islands

 

Dancers with shields and spears

 

Houses in a village

 

Coastline landscape

 

Woman and infant

 

Children in canoes with large leaves

 

Chopping a coconut palm

 

Map of Solomon Islands

 

Felled coconut palm

 

Chopping a coconut palm

 

Dancers with shields; large official gathering

 

Woman and child on beach

 

Dancers with shields; large official gathering

 

Boys in canoes

 

Woman and infant

 

Child and infant

 

Official gathering including musicians with large panpipes, and British flag pennants

 

Boys playing

 

Dancers with spears

 

Man with a knife and stringbag

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Group of women and children in a village

 

Felled coconut palm

 

Young child with rice

 

Commonwealth Trading Bank

 

Fire making

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Landscape of the coast and distant mountains

 

Splintering wood

 

Landscape of the coast and distant mountains

 

Man with necklace

 

Docked boat

 

Group of women and children in a village with large leaves

 

Coastline landscape

 

Coastline landscape

 

Man and shrine

 

Anne Scheffler at shrine

 

Coastline landscape with houses

 

Coastline landscape

 

Coastline landscape

 

Coastline landscape

 

White orchid

 

White orchid

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim, white handkerchiefs on head

 

Shrine with bowl with offerings

 
 

Skull in shrine

 

Purple orchid

 

Purple orchid

 

Felled coconut palm

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim, and musicians with bamboo instruments

 

Young child

 

Child and infant

 

Anne Scheffler at shrine

 

Man with shrine, pointing out skull

 

Men in manuru play

 

Anne Scheffler and artifact

 

Man with a knife and stringbag

 

Map of Choiseul

 

Children on steps

 

Landscape of the coast and distant mountains

 

Man using a mortar

 

Canoeing on a river

 

Map of Solomon Islands

 

Map of Choiseul

Box 12, Folder 2

Choiseul. War making at Voza 1959 January 1

 

War at Voza

 

War at Voza

 

Making peace

 

Peace ritual, Voza

 

Kiu playing, Voza

 

Kiu playing, Voza

 

Warring Voza

 

War at Voza

 

At war, Voza

 

War at Voza

 

At war, Voza

 

War at Voza

Box 12, Folder 3

Choiseul and Simbo. Portraits, skulls, bones in shrines, and dancers 1958 - 1961

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim, and musicians with bamboo instruments

 

Landscape of sea and coast

 

Group of people outside a house

 

Men mashing up taro root

 

Children on steps of a house

 

Cannon left from WWII

 

Dancers in white dresses with red trim, and musicians with bamboo instruments

 

Canopy landscape

 

Children in canoes with large leaves

 

Beach landscape

 

Men posing on top of a pile

 

Island and sea landscape

 

Landscape of sea

 

Leader with clam and turtle shell ornament

 

Shrine with skull and ring offerings

 

Canopy landscape

 

Dolo, or burial urn, chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Landscape of hills

 

Motorized boat

 

Sculpture of human figure, and large clam shells with rings

 

Landscape of hills

 

Canoeing on a river

 

Coastline with coconut palms

 

Houses and people in a village

 

Dolo, or burial urn, chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

Shrine with group of skulls

 

Shrine with shell jewelry, skulls, mortar and pestle

 

Woman and children next to a structure

 

People around a pile of coconut halves next to a building

 

Coastline landscape

 

Village on hillside

 

Young child with rice

 

Dancers with spears and shields

 

Aerial view landscape

 

Boat at sea

 

Coastal landscape

 

Docked boat

 

Man in a garden

 

Dancers with white handkerchiefs and dresses; male musicians with bamboo instruments in background

 

Carving a canoe

 

Shrine with skull

 

Fire making

 
 

Portrait of Anne Scheffler and Lola Tabatabana, with cat

 

Aerial view landscape

 

European woman at waterside

 

Anne Scheffler in house

 

Canoe prow carving

 

Coastline landscape from boat

 

Houses in a village

 

Anne Scheffler at burial urn

 

Procession of dancers

 

Dolo, or burial urn, chiseled from a single block of limestone and set upon a pyramid of coral slab

 

People at the coastline with shored canoes

 

Man with necklace

 

Men carrying canoe to sea; matching red skirt and headdress

 

Offering bowl in a shrine

 

Coastline landscape

 

Grass landscape

 

Man with shrine with shelter, skulls, shell jewelry, mortar and pestle

 

Group of women dancers; women in front with shield and spear

 
 

Man and coast landscape

 

Man next to low building

 

Men on rocks

Box 12, Folder 4

New Guinea. Aerial views and views from the ship Tulagi 1960 April

 

Aerial view of islands

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Portraits of various people from the ship Tulagi

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of islands

 

Aerial view of islands

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

View of the sky, outside an airplane

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view from airplane

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

View from the ship Tulagi

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

 

Airplane at New Guinea

 

Aerial view of New Guinea

Box 12, Folder 5

Norfolk Island 1958

 

Norfolk Island

 

Norfolk Island

 

Norfolk Island

Box 12, Folder 6

Other Islands and Trips. Scenes of the New Hebrides [Vanuatu] and canoes, Harold W. Scheffler at Russels Airfield 1958

 

Aerial scenes

 
 
 

Dwelling and garden on the side of the road

 
 

Scenes of New Hebrides

 

Scenes of various islands

 

Scenes of various islands

 

Canoe ornament

 

Canoe ornament

 

Scenes of various islands

 

Canoe ornament

 

Aerial scenes

 

Scenes of the New Hebrides and canoes

 

Woman walking with child

 

Scenes of Bougainville

 
 

Canoe making

 

Canoe making

 

Men chopping tree

 

Scene from ship

 

Scenes of various islands

 

Harold W. Scheffler at Russels Airfield

 

Aerial scenes

 

Aerial scenes

 

Scenes of various islands

 

Aerial scenes

 

Ceramic bowl on shrine

 

Canoeing, ornamented canoes

 

Canoe making

 

Ceramic bowl on a shrine

 

Fuel tanks on Norfolk island

 

Woven canoe

 

Scenes of New Hebrides

 

Norfolk island, fuel tanks

 

Ornamented canoe point

 

Scenes of New Hebrides

 

Canoeing, ornamented canoes

 

Men chopping trees

Box 12, Folder 7

Simbo. Shrines and volcanoes 1958 - 1961

 

Scenes from ship

 

Man leaning on shrine

 

Men, group portrait

 

Landscape scenery

 

Portrait, aerial scenery

 

Landscape scenery

 

Portrait, man beside shrine

 

Shell valuables

 

Mortar and pestle

 

Man leaning on shrine

 
 
 

Scenes from ship

 

Shrine, shell valuables

 

Distant view of Simbo island

 

Men, group portrait

 

Scenes from ship

 

Thermal spring

 
 

Group portrait behind shrine

 

Group portrait, boys on top of shrine

 

Group of men

 

Man gathering eggs out of megapode nest

 

Thermal springs

 

Aerial view of Simbo island

 
 

Scenes from ship

 

Group portrait

 

Thermal springs

 

Landscape scenery

 

Distant view of Simbo island

 

Distant view of Simbo island

 

Scenes from ship

Box 12, Folder 8

Simbo. Skull houses 1959 April

 

Simbo village from Matindingi

 

Simbo from Matindingi

 

Simbo--looking north to Ranongga

 

Simbo Island

 

Simbo from Ove volcano

 

Simbo skull house at Ove

 

Simbo from Ove Volcano

 

Simbo skull house

 

Simbo skull house

 

1967-1969

Box 13, Folder 1

Choiseul. Group portraits

Box 13, Folder 2

Choiseul, New Guinea and Rendova. Part 1 1967 - 1969

General note

Slides. Images includes the leader of the Christian Fellowship Church, Silas Eto (Holy Mama), plants with local names, rock drawings and sculptures, skull shrines, village scenes, and Harold W. Scheffler.
 

People taking goods to a boat

 

People on beach taking goods to a boat

 

Local market

 

Distant view of island

 

Local market

 

Local market

 

Local market

 

Women and small girls

 

Children on beach

 

Woman with canoe

 

Beach scene landscape

 

Children on beach

 

People on beach taking goods to a boat

 

Gathering of shells and wood

 

Caucasian woman on a boat

 

Children on beach

 

Man below tree

 

Man with branches of bush