Inventory of the Christian World Liberation Front Collection

Donna Brown
Graduate Theological Union Archives
Graduate Theological Union
2400 Ridge Road
Berkeley, California, 94709
Phone: (510) 649-2523/2501
© 2008
Graduate Theological Union. All rights reserved.

Inventory of the Christian World Liberation Front Collection

Collection number: GTU 94-9-03

Graduate Theological Union Archives

Graduate Theological Union

Berkeley, California
Processed by:
Donna Brown
Date Completed:
February 2008
Encoded by:
David Stiver
© 2008 Graduate Theological Union. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Summary

Title: Christian World Liberation Front collection
Dates: 1970-1988
Collection number: GTU 94-9-03
Collector: Black, Edith
Collection Size: 2.5 linear feet (3 archives boxes) 17 documents
Repository: The Graduate Theological Union. Library.
Berkeley, CA 94709
Abstract: The collection contains records about evangelical Christians and the Jesus movement in Berkeley from 1970 through the eighties. Materials primarily represent the Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) and the Spiritual Counterfeits Project (SCP), but also include materials on the Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus and other organizations.
Physical location: 4/C/6
Languages: Languages represented in the collection: English
Complete issues of , No 1, July 1969, through , Vol. 1, No.17, October 20, 1970.


Collection is open for research.

Publication Rights

Copyright has not been assigned to The Graduate Theological Union. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Archivist. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Graduate Theological Union as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

Preferred Citation

Christian World Liberation Front collection, GTU 94-9-03. Graduate Theological Union Archives, Berkeley, CA.

Acquisition Information

Edith Black donated these materials in 1994.

Biography / Administrative History

The Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) was founded in 1969 in Berkeley, California, by Jack Sparks and others from the Campus Crusade for Christ. Disagreeing with the need for headquarters approval of any published material, they became an independent entity.
Sparks, a former teacher at Penn State in statistics and research design, led the organization to become one of the most recognizable Christian groups in Berkeley. Along with individual approaches and distribution of their literature, the group led impromtu gatherings and performed street theater around the University of California campus and Telegraph Avenue. Their mission was to evangelize and convert students and street people.
In 1975, the CWLF disbanded over questions of authority. Neither group continued under the CWLF name. Some members followed Jack Sparks, who formed the New Apostolic Order, which later became the Evangelical Orthodox Church. Other members formed the Berkeley Christian Coalition, which became the Spiritual Counterfeits Project. This organization, despite a defamation lawsuit filed by Witness Lee that forced them into bankruptcy, still collects and interprets information on new religious organizations.
The CWLF published Right On!, one of the first underground papers of the Jesus movement. After the split, the Berkeley Christian Coalition published Radix. More intellectual than many similar publications, the papers featured interviews with local figures ( such as Loni Hancock) and nationally known people (Theodore Roszak, for instance) and used the language of the radical and revolutionary culture with their particular Christian orientation.
Edward E. Plowman, "Whatever Happened to the Jesus Movement," Christianity Today, October 24, 1975, 46-48.
"Spiritual Counterfeits Project," Wikipedia, (accessed February 28, 2008).

Scope and Content of Collection

The collection records activities of the Christian World Liberation Front and its official newsletters. Other materials record the Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus, of which Edith Black was a member, and similar local organizations. The collection consists of two series: 1. Organizational and Information files (materials collected directly from the CWLF organization and materials about the organization); and 2. Newsletters. The newspapers Right On! and Radix are in pristine condition. File folder headings are listed as they were in the donated collection, with headings added if the file was not labeled.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.


Sparks, Jack N.
Brooks, Alexander.
Wallerstedt, Alan.
Spiritual Counterfeits Project.
Berkeley Christian Coalition.
Christian World Liberation Front.
Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus.
Jesus People--California--Berkeley.
Hippies--Religious life.

Sparks, Jack N.
Brooks, Alexander
Wallestedt, Alan

Other Finding Aids

GTU 89-5-016, Berkeley Free Church Collection, 1959-1976, operated its street ministry in Berkeley at the same time.
GTU 92-3-1, Center for Women and Religion collection, 1969-88, contains related material on the local evangelical women's movement.

Related Material

The 1969 issues of Right On can be found in the periodical collection of the Graduate Theological Union, Flora Lamson Hewlett Library.
Donald Heinz, Jesus in Berkeley. PhD diss., Graduate Theological Union, 1976. Heinz spent from 1972 to 1974 as a participant-observer of CWLF. He also wrote an article on the Christian World Liberation Front in The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles Y. Glock and Robert N. Bellah.
Steven Jude Sofranko, Where the Jesus People Went: A Study of Santa Rosa Christian Church and An Intersection of Religious Movements. MA thesis, Graduate Theological Union, 2000.

Separated Material

Roger C. Palms, The Jesus Kids.Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1971.
The God-Men : Witness Lee and the Local Church, Spiritual Counterfeit Project.Berkeley, CA.: Spiritual Counterfeits Project Inc., 1977.

Collection Contents

Box 1 - 2

Series 1 Organizational and Information Files 1964-1992

Physical Description: 1.5 linear feet

Scope and Content Note

Series 1 contains materials that Edith Black collected directly from the CWLF organization and materials about the organization. Other materials include items from religious organizations that were active at the time. Arranged alphabetically.
box-folder 1: 1

Wikipedia article "Spiritual Counterfeits Project" 2008

box-folder 1: 1a

Arthur Waskow 1973-74

box-folder 1: 2

Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus Part I 1979-80

box-folder 1: 3

Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus Part II 1976-1977

box-folder 1: 4

Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus -Total Women 1975-76

box-folder 1: 5

Berkeley Christian Coalition 1976-79

box-folder 1: 6

Berkeley Christian Coalition - Campus Ministry(Gates) 1979-81

box-folder 1: 7

Call to the Streets (book) - Don Williams 1972

box-folder 1: 8

Christian World Liberation Front - Couples Meetings no date

box-folder 1: 9

Christian World Liberation Front - Council 1974-75

box-folder 1: 10

Covenant Circle: A Christian Study Fellowship 1982

box-folder 1: 11

A Critical Analysis of the Evangelical Orthodox Church (New Covenant Apostolic Order) Lloyd R. Thompson Part I 1976

box-folder 1: 12

A Critical Analysis of the Evangelical Orthodox Church (New Covenant Apostolic Order) Lloyd R. Thompson Part 2 1979

box-folder 1: 13

The Crucible : A Forum for Radical Christian Studies 1973-78

box-folder 1: 14

Crucible : mini courses 1973

box-folder 1: 15

Dwight House 1980

box-folder 1: 16

Evangelical Lion Pacific School of Religion 1975

box-folder 1: 17

Christian World Liberation Front, Flyers and Letters 1973-77

box-folder 1: 18

Christian World Liberation Front, Family Letters. 1973-74

box-folder 1: 19

Free Church, Harlan Stelmach, draft Chapter 2 1967

box-folder 1: 20

Free Water 1970

box-folder 1: 21

Friends of the Spiritual Counterfeit Project 1977-87

box-folder 1: 22

Genesis Institute no date

box-folder 1: 23

God's Forever Family, Jack Sparks 1974

box-folder 1: 24

Graduate Theological Union - Ecumenical Associates News 1976

box-folder 1: 25

Graduate Theological Union - So It Goes 1973-77

box-folder 1: 26

Graduate Theological Union-Office of Women's Affairs 1974 -77

box-folder 1: 27

Graduate Theological Union - Office of Women's Affairs (Flyers) 1970

box-folder 1: 28

Handwritten notes on "An Introduction to Ingmar Bergman," lecture by O.S. Guiness no date

box-folder 1: 29

Handwritten notes on "Authority and Permissiveness," Rookmaker no date

box-folder 1: 30

Handwritten notes on "The Creative Christian Lifestyle," O.S. Guiness no date

box-folder 1: 31

Handwritten notes on "Current Trends of Theology," Jim Parker no date

box-folder 1: 32

Handwritten notes on O.S. Guiness no date

box-folder 1: 33

Handwritten notes on "Possible Answers to Basic Philosophical Questions," Schaefer 1965

box-folder 1: 34

Handwritten notes on "The True Freedom" cassette no date

box-folder 1: 35

Handwritten notes on "View of Biblical Law," Uddo Middleman no date

box-folder 1: 36

Handwritten notes on "Biblical Sex Ethic," Jim Hearly no date

box-folder 1: 37

Handwritten notes on "On Marriage," Edith Schaeffer no date

box-folder 1: 38

Handwritten notes on "God of the Gaps" no date

box-folder 1: 39

Handwritten notes on "Verification by Linguistic Analysis," O.S. Guiness no date

box-folder 1: 40

Handwritten notes in regard to the Schaefer Group no date

box-folder 1: 41

House of Berkeley 1977

box-folder 1: 42

Jack Sparks correspondence and writings no date

box-folder 1: 43

Jesus Movement article from Christianity Today 1975

box-folder 1: 44

Christian World Liberation Front - Jill Shook 1974-75

box-folder 1: 45

John Hirt notes 1974

box-folder 1: 46

L'Abri Fellowship - L'Abri Tape Library 1974

box-folder 1: 47

Letters to Street Christians Two Brothers from Berkeley 1971

box-folder 1: 48

Liberation Newspaper no date

box-folder 1: 49

Local Church, Jack Sparks "The Beliefs and Practices of the Local Churches" and "Mind Bending or Mind Renewing" 1977-79

box-folder 1: 50

New Conversations Journal 1976

box-folder 1: 51

Christian World Liberation Front - member outreach , correspondence 1975-77

box-folder 1: 52

Articles, newspaper, photocopies church controversies 1978-84

box-folder 1: 53

Norman K. Gottwald correspondence 1973-75

box-folder 1: 54

Radical Religion : flyers, notes, correspondence 1973-75

box-folder 1: 55

Radical Religion Journal 1974

box-folder 1: 56

Radix flyers 1973-83

box-folder 1: 57

Ramparts Magazine April 1969

box-folder 1: 58

Redeemer King Church Teachings Part I (handwritten notes) 1976

box-folder 1: 59

Redeemer King Church Teachings Part II (handwritten notes) 1976

box-folder 2: 60

SLA and Hearst Statement (an open statement) 1974

box-folder 2: 61

Sojourners- Pro Life and Anti Nuke articles 1979-80

box-folder 2: 62

Spiritual Counterfeits Project Unification Church A Challenge to Sun Myung Moon no date

box-folder 2: 63

Spiritual Counterfeits Project Contemporary Spiritual Trips 1974-75

box-folder 2: 64

Spiritual Counterfeits Project - Cult Information 1975

box-folder 2: 65

Spiritual Counterfeits Project - Journal Part I 1977-79

box-folder 2: 66

Spiritual Counterfeits Project - Journal Part II 1980-82

box-folder 2: 67

New Covenant Apostolic Order brochure 1979

box-folder 2: 68

There is no file folder 68

box-folder 2: 69

There is no file folder 69

box-folder 2: 70

The Street People selections from Right On 1972

box-folder 2: 71

Christian World Liberation Front Street Theatre 1974-76

box-folder 2: 72

Transcript of taped review of Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women's Liberation no date

box-folder 2: 73

Women's Bible Project background 1973

box-folder 2: 74

World Student Christian Federation - 28th general assembly, invitation and flyer 1981

Box 3

Series 2 Newspapers and Newsletters 1970-88

Physical Description: 1 linear feet

Scope and Content Note

Series 2 contains newspapers and newsletters. The 1969 Vol 1 issues of Right On! are missing.
box-folder 3: 75-83

Radix 1976-82

box-folder 3: 84-98

Right On! 1970-76

box-folder 3: 99-100

Spiritual Counterfeits Project Newsletter 1976-88