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Inventory of the Christian World Liberation Front Collection
GTU 94-9-03  
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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Access
  • Publication Rights
  • Preferred Citation
  • Acquisition Information
  • Biography / Administrative History
  • Scope and Content of Collection
  • Indexing Terms
  • Index
  • Other Finding Aids
  • Related Material
  • Separated Material

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Christian World Liberation Front collection
    Dates: 1970-1988
    Collection number: GTU 94-9-03
    Collector: Black, Edith
    Collection Size: 2.5 linear feet (3 archives boxes) 17 documents
    Repository: The Graduate Theological Union. Library.
    Berkeley, CA 94709
    Abstract: The collection contains records about evangelical Christians and the Jesus movement in Berkeley from 1970 through the eighties. Materials primarily represent the Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) and the Spiritual Counterfeits Project (SCP), but also include materials on the Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus and other organizations.
    Physical location: 4/C/6
    Languages: Languages represented in the collection: English
    Complete issues of , No 1, July 1969, through , Vol. 1, No.17, October 20, 1970.


    Collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to The Graduate Theological Union. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Archivist. Permission for publication is given on behalf of The Graduate Theological Union as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

    Preferred Citation

    Christian World Liberation Front collection, GTU 94-9-03. Graduate Theological Union Archives, Berkeley, CA.

    Acquisition Information

    Edith Black donated these materials in 1994.

    Biography / Administrative History

    The Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) was founded in 1969 in Berkeley, California, by Jack Sparks and others from the Campus Crusade for Christ. Disagreeing with the need for headquarters approval of any published material, they became an independent entity.
    Sparks, a former teacher at Penn State in statistics and research design, led the organization to become one of the most recognizable Christian groups in Berkeley. Along with individual approaches and distribution of their literature, the group led impromtu gatherings and performed street theater around the University of California campus and Telegraph Avenue. Their mission was to evangelize and convert students and street people.
    In 1975, the CWLF disbanded over questions of authority. Neither group continued under the CWLF name. Some members followed Jack Sparks, who formed the New Apostolic Order, which later became the Evangelical Orthodox Church. Other members formed the Berkeley Christian Coalition, which became the Spiritual Counterfeits Project. This organization, despite a defamation lawsuit filed by Witness Lee that forced them into bankruptcy, still collects and interprets information on new religious organizations.
    The CWLF published Right On!, one of the first underground papers of the Jesus movement. After the split, the Berkeley Christian Coalition published Radix. More intellectual than many similar publications, the papers featured interviews with local figures ( such as Loni Hancock) and nationally known people (Theodore Roszak, for instance) and used the language of the radical and revolutionary culture with their particular Christian orientation.
    Edward E. Plowman, "Whatever Happened to the Jesus Movement," Christianity Today, October 24, 1975, 46-48.
    "Spiritual Counterfeits Project," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritual_Counterfeits_Project (accessed February 28, 2008).

    Scope and Content of Collection

    The collection records activities of the Christian World Liberation Front and its official newsletters. Other materials record the Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus, of which Edith Black was a member, and similar local organizations. The collection consists of two series: 1. Organizational and Information files (materials collected directly from the CWLF organization and materials about the organization); and 2. Newsletters. The newspapers Right On! and Radix are in pristine condition. File folder headings are listed as they were in the donated collection, with headings added if the file was not labeled.

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.


    Sparks, Jack N.
    Brooks, Alexander.
    Wallerstedt, Alan.
    Spiritual Counterfeits Project.
    Berkeley Christian Coalition.
    Christian World Liberation Front.
    Bay Area Evangelical Women's Caucus.
    Jesus People--California--Berkeley.
    Hippies--Religious life.

    Sparks, Jack N.
    Brooks, Alexander
    Wallestedt, Alan

    Other Finding Aids

    GTU 89-5-016, Berkeley Free Church Collection, 1959-1976, operated its street ministry in Berkeley at the same time.
    GTU 92-3-1, Center for Women and Religion collection, 1969-88, contains related material on the local evangelical women's movement.

    Related Material

    The 1969 issues of Right On can be found in the periodical collection of the Graduate Theological Union, Flora Lamson Hewlett Library.
    Donald Heinz, Jesus in Berkeley. PhD diss., Graduate Theological Union, 1976. Heinz spent from 1972 to 1974 as a participant-observer of CWLF. He also wrote an article on the Christian World Liberation Front in The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles Y. Glock and Robert N. Bellah.
    Steven Jude Sofranko, Where the Jesus People Went: A Study of Santa Rosa Christian Church and An Intersection of Religious Movements. MA thesis, Graduate Theological Union, 2000.

    Separated Material

    Roger C. Palms, The Jesus Kids.Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1971.
    The God-Men : Witness Lee and the Local Church, Spiritual Counterfeit Project.Berkeley, CA.: Spiritual Counterfeits Project Inc., 1977.