Important Information for Researchers
Collection Scope and Content Summary
Title: California College of Medicine records
Date (bulk): (bulk 1896-1967)
Collection Number: AS-027
California College of Medicine.
66.4 linear feet
(88 boxes and 2 oversized folders)
Languages: The collection is in English.
University of California, Irvine. Library. Special Collections and Archives.
Irvine, California 92623-9557
Abstract: The California College of Medicine (CCM) records span the years from the establishment of its first predecessor, the Pacific
College of Osteopathy in 1896 to 1967 when CCM was incorporated into UCI. The materials document particularly well the two
major upheavals for osteopathy in California that occurred at the end of this period: the merger in the 1960s of the Doctor
of Osteopathy degree with the Medical Doctor degree, and the merger of CCM with the University of California. Also included
are student records and financial documents from 1914 to 1961.
Important Information for Researchers
The collection is open for research. Medical records are restricted for 100 years, student records for 75 years, and personnel
records for 50 years. Restrictions are noted at the file level.
Property rights and copyright reside with the University of California. For permissions to reproduce or to publish, please
contact the Head of Special Collections and Archives University Archivist.
California College of Medicine Records. AS-027. Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.
Bulk of material acquired from the California College of Medicine Library and Provost's Office before 1973. Accessions since
have been donated by Forest Grunigen, Grace Bell, the UCI Medical Sciences Library, and others.
Preliminary processing by California College of Medicine library staff. Reprocessed by Jennifer Jacobs in 2004. Revisions
by Cyndi Shein in 2007.
Before it became part of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), the UCI College of Medicine went through several incarnations
as a school of osteopathy. Osteopathy splintered from mainstream (or allopathic) medicine in the mid-nineteenth century in
a climate of poor, commercially driven medical education and the proliferation of dangerous and ineffective medical practices
such as blood-letting and the prescription of calomel and emetics. The first osteopaths were opposed to the use of any drugs
for their patients; pharmacology was introduced into osteopathic practice in the early twentieth century. Andrew Still, the
M.D. who founded osteopathy, "discovered" the Osteopathic Principle, which states that all disease can be attributed to lesions
in the spine, and thus may be alleviated by manipulation of the vertebrae (this is why osteopathy is often confused with chiropractics,
although chiropractors do not have the same medical training that osteopaths have, and are only qualified to treat skeletal
complaints). Dr. Still began training osteopaths at his American School of Osteopathy in Kirksville, Missouri in 1892.
The Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirmary (PSO) -- the second osteopathic school -- was established in Anaheim in 1896
by Aubrey C. Moore, D.O., who had studied under Dr. Still, and an M.D., B.W. Scheurer (for a short time, PSO awarded both
the D.O. and the M.D.). For the first four years, PSO awarded the Diplomate of Osteopathy, D.O. In 1900 California legally
recognized the profession, and PSO began awarding the Doctor of Osteopathy, D.O.
The Pacific School of Osteopathy moved to Los Angeles in 1897, to South Pasadena in 1903, then back to Los Angeles in 1904
into quarters on the corner of Mission and Daly. The school changed its name to the Pacific College of Osteopathy (PCO) in
In 1905 Harry Forbes, D.O. and several other former members of the faculty of the S.S. Still College of Osteopathy, Des Moines
established the Los Angeles College of Osteopathy (LACO). Because LACO offered both a two-year course and a three-year course,
the state Board of Medical Examiners did not recognize the degrees LACO was granting. Additionally, the American Osteopathic
Association would not accept LACO as a member because there was already an osteopathic school in Los Angeles, PCO. Despite
these difficulties, which also included a suit brought against LACO by PCO and a suit against the California Board of Medical
Examiners brought by LACO, LACO persisted until 1914 when it merged with PCO to form the College of Osteopathic Physicians
and Surgeons (COPS).
There was one other osteopathic school in California during this time. The California College of Osteopathy was founded in
San Francisco in 1898. This school merged with the American School of Osteopathy in 1912.
COPS was the most enduring of California's osteopathic schools. It garnered several concessions from the medical profession
over the years that enabled it to adequately train osteopaths who were then able to go on to productive careers in California
and elsewhere. For example, in 1915 COPS formed an agreement with the Los Angeles County General Hospital (LACGH) to train
interns there. COPS brought suit against the Medical Examiners in 1919 after they discontinued recognizing COPS as a qualified
educator. During the trial, the burden was on the Medical Examiners to prove that education at COPS was sub-standard compared
to education at California schools granting the M.D. degree. In 1921, while the suit was still being argued, the internship
program sponsored by the LACGH was discontinued. However, the courts ruled in favor of COPS in June of 1921 (Decision by
the Court of Appeal of California, 53 Cal. App. 138; 199 P. 1093; 1921 Cal. App. LEXIS 354). The decision enabled an initiative
to be passed in 1922 providing for a separate California Board of Osteopathic Examiners. This eliminated the former problem
of M.D.s on the Board of Medical Examiners making all the decisions about the suitability of particular osteopaths to practice
their profession. That same year LACGH reinstated the residency training program for COPS.
The California Osteopathic Association (COA), affiliated with the AOA, was incorporated in 1900 as the osteopathic professional
organization in California. The administration of COA and the faculty of COPS overlapped a great deal.
The California osteopathic tradition led by COPS and COA ended in 1961 by consensus among these two groups and the California
Medical Association (CMA) when the two California medical professions merged and D.O.s were no longer awarded in the state
of California. The merger was led by Forest Grunigen, D.O., who had begun talks with the CMA in the mid-1940s. In 1962 all
COPS graduates were offered an M.D. degree in exchange for their D.O. degree and a $65 fee, with no additional qualifying
examination. The new degrees were problematic for some, the M.D.s were not accepted for licensure out-of-state, and few academic
or hospital appointments were given to the former D.O.s, but many went on to have successful careers.
The AOA was vehemently opposed to the merger, and many osteopaths in California agreed. A splinter group, naming themselves
the Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons of California (OPSC), was formed in 1960 from the 500 osteopaths in California who
decided against exchanging their D.O.s for M.D.s. In 1974 OPSC succeeded in convincing the California Supreme Court to rescind
their decision that had formalized the merger. The problems encountered by Californians dissuaded osteopaths in other states
from attempting mergers of their own, and the California experiment was a unique phenomenon.
In 1967 after much debate, the UC-CCM was assigned to UCI, and the college, its faculty, and its administration moved to Irvine.
||Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirmary (PSO) incorporated
||California Osteopathic Association (COA) incorporated
||D.O. degree is recognized in California
||First Doctor of Osteopathy degree is granted at PCO
||PSO changes its name to Pacific College of Osteopathy (PCO)
||Los Angeles College of Osteopathy (LACO) incorporated
||PCO and LACO consolidate to form the College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons (COPS)
||California passes initiative to provide for a separate Board of Osteopathic Examiners
||Los Angeles County General Hospital opens Unit 2, an osteopathic unit
||COA and CMA reach an agreement for unification, though it is rejected by the American Medical Association on the grounds that
it is illegal. The AOA was also opposed to it at this time, as well as 20 years later when the merger actually went through.
||CMA appoints the Committee on Other Professions
||COA merges with the California Medical Association (CMA)
||COPS awards M.D.s to qualified/willing D.O.s.
||COPS changes its name to California College of Medicine (CCM)
||Bill passes to fold CCM into UC system
||Agreement is signed to make CCM part of Irvine campus
||CCM moves to Irvine campus
||B.W. Scheurer, M.D. (PSO)
||Aubrey C. Moore, D.O. (PSO)
||Charles A. Bailey, M.D., D.O. (PSO)
||George Finley Burton, D.O. (PCO)
||Harry Forbes (LACO)
||W.J. Hayden (PCO)
||Harry Forbes (COPS)
||Edward H. Light, acting
||L. van Horn Gerdine
||Carle H. Phinney
||W. Ballentine Henley (COPS and CCM, Provost of UCI-CCM)
Collection Scope and Content Summary
The California College of Medicine (CCM) records span the years from the establishment of its first predecessor, the Pacific
College of Osteopathy in 1896 to 1967 when CCM was incorporated into UCI. There are some items from 1968 to 1970, and a few
earlier and later, included to preserve the context of some files. The materials document particularly well the two major
upheavals for osteopathy in California that occurred at the end of this period: the merger in the 1960s of the Doctor of Osteopathy
degree with the Medical Doctor degree, and the merger of CCM with the University of California. The records are also strong
in vital records, including student records and financial documents, created while the college was named the College of Osteopathic
Physicians and Surgeons from 1914 to 1961.
The materials in the California College of Medicine records are primarily textual, and include correspondence, reports, proposals,
minutes, agendas, financial and legal records, and memoranda, as well as material related to the research and teaching functions
of the college, including syllabi, student work, student records, grade books, and faculty reprints. Photographs, film, artifacts,
and memorabilia can be found in the last two series.
Several organizations not a part of CCM or any of its predecessors are also represented in this collection. As osteopathic
organizations in California, they had strong ties to what was for many years the only osteopathic school in the state, and
their issues and interests overlap. The two most prominent of these groups included here are the Los Angeles County General
hospital (LACGH) (its osteopathic unit became known later as the Los Angeles County Osteopathic Hospital), which served as
the teaching hospital for many of the school's students, and the California Osteopathic Association (COA), the professional
organization that led the D.O./M.D. merger.
Several individuals figure prominently in the CCM Records. W. Ballentine Henley's office files contain correspondence, topical
files and reports from his presidency, as well as a set of 22 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings documenting the school during
his tenure. Dain Tasker, who graduated from PSO in 1898, and later served as a faculty member, wrote in the 1950s a manuscript
history of osteopathy in California, which is included here. Other individuals represented in the records include Forest
Grunigen, Grace Bell, Dorothy Marsh, William W.W. Pritchard, and Warren Bostick.
This collection is arranged into eight series:
- Series 1. Histories, circa 1903-circa 1965. 1.0 linear feet.
- Series 2. Administrative files, 1896-1967 (bulk 1933-1967). 32.9 linear feet.
- Series 3. Research and teaching, 1896-1970. 19.3 linear feet.
- Series 4. Los Angeles County Osteopathic Hospital, 1929-1969. 1.0 linear feet.
- Series 5. Clinics, 1908-1940. 0.8 linear feet.
- Series 6. Osteopathy general files, 1899-1967. 4.1 linear feet.
- Series 7. Photographs and film, 1896-1998. 5.3 linear feet.
- Series 8. Realia, 1896-1963. 2 linear feet.
Publications are arranged separately in California College of Medicine Publications (PS-001). The publications include a
set of course catalogs and announcements from 1896 to 1967, the yearbook
Cortex, newsletters from various departments and student groups, programs and invitations for special events, and other published
Files dated after 1968 were removed to College of Medicine Records (AS-026) or to College of Medicine Publications (PS-002).
About nine linear feet of osteopathic reference files have been separated and sent to other repositories. Those by or about
the American Osteopathic Association were sent there. General files and those about other osteopathic schools were sent to
the Western University's Health Sciences Library in Pomona.
Two letterbooks by Dain L. Tasker dated 1900-1906 and 1913-1938 have been removed to their own archival series, Dain L. Tasker
The following collections related to the California College of Medicine can be found in UC Irvine Special Collections and
- AS-026, College of Medicine Records, comprises the files of the College after it moved to the University of California, Irvine
campus in 1968.
AS-018, Warren L. Bostick papers, provides an insider's view of the history of the California College of Medicine as well
as biographical information on Dr. Bostick. The guide to this collection is available through the Online Archive of California
AS-083, Forest Grunigen Papers, contains minutes, correspondence, and other material from Dr. Grunigen's extensive participation
in the activities of the California Osteopathic Association. The guide to this collection is available through the Online
Archive of California at
AS-095, Dain L. Tasker Letterbooks, contains the correspondence of this faculty member of the College, who instigated the
recognition of the separate D.O. degree in 1914.
PS-001, California College of Medicine Publications, contains the publications of CCM from 1896 to 1967.
PS-003, College of Medicine Publications, contains the publications of COM from 1968 to the present.
Related materials at other repositories include LACO materials and the papers of LACO graduate, Louis Chandler, housed at
Western University's Health Sciences Library in Pomona.
The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
University of California, Irvine -- Archives.
University of California, Irvine. College of Medicine -- History.
California College of Medicine -- Archives.
California Osteopathic Association -- Archives.
California. Board of Osteopathic Examiners.
College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons (Los Angeles, Calif.) -- Archives.
Doctors' Hospital (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Forty-First Medical Society (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Glendale Community Hospital (Calif.).
Henley, W. Ballentine.
Los Angeles City and County Osteopathic Medical Association.
Los Angeles College of Osteopathy -- Archives.
Los Angeles County General Hospital.
Los Angeles County Osteopathic Hospital.
Meyers Clinic (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Monte Sano Hospital (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Pacific College of Osteopathy -- Archives.
Pritchard, William W.W.
Osteopathic medicine -- California -- History.
Osteopathic medicine -- Periodicals.
Osteopathic medicine -- Education.
Osteopathic medicine -- History.
Osteopathic medicine -- Study and teaching.
Tasker, Dain L., 1872-1964.
Genres and Formats of Materials
Photographic prints -- 19th century.
Photographic prints -- 20th century.
Letters -- 19th century.
Letters -- 20th century.
Scrapbooks -- 19th century.
Scrapbooks -- 20th century.
Floor plans -- 20th century.
College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Pacific College of Osteopathy (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Los Angeles College of Osteopathy