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Guide to the Okhrana records

Finding aid prepared by Andrej Kobal
Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford, CA, 94305-6010
(650) 723-3563
© 1964 Hoover Institution Archives. All rights reserved


Title: Okhrana records
Date (inclusive): 1883-1917
Collection Number: 26001
Creator: Russia. Departament politsii. Zagranichnaia agentura (Paris)
Physical Description: 206 manuscript boxes, 26 scrapbooks, 163,802 biographical and reference cards, 8 linear feet of photographs (108 linear feet)
Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Archives
Language of the materials: Russian, French, Polish, German, English, Yiddish, and Latvian
Abstract: Intelligence reports from agents in the field and the Paris office, dispatches, circulars, headquarters studies, correspondence of revolutionaries, and photographs, relating to activities of Russian revolutionists abroad. Collection is available on microfilm (509 reels).
Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives

Access

Microfilm only available for use.
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

Publication Rights

For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Okhrana records, [Index number, Folder number], Hoover Institution Archives.

Acquisition Information

Acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives in 1926.

Accruals

Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find the collection in Stanford University's online catalog at http://searchworks.stanford.edu/ . Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the catalog is larger than the number of boxes listed in this finding aid.

Related Collections

Vladimir A. Burtsev papers, Hoover Institution Archives
Vasilii A. Maklakov papers, Hoover Institution Archives
Aleksandr Pavlovich Martynov writings, Hoover Institution Archives
Boris Nicolaevsky papers, Hoover Institution Archives
Winifred V. Ramplee-Smith collection, Hoover Institution Archives
Russia. Posol'stvo (France) records, Hoover Institution Archives
Russian subject collection, Hoover Institution Archives
Viktor Nikolaevich Russiian typescript, Hoover Institution Archives

Historical Note

Russian Imperial Secret Police (Okhrana), Paris office.

Scope and Content of Collection

Intelligence reports from agents in the field and the Paris office, dispatches, circulars, headquarters studies, correspondence of revolutionaries, and photographs, relating to activities of Russian revolutionists abroad. Collection is available on microfilm (509 reels).

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Russia. Okhrannye otdeleniia.
Revolutionaries--Russia.
Russia--History--Alexander III, 1881-1894.
Russia--History--Nicholas II, 1894-1917.
Secret service--Russia.
Socialism--Russia.

Box: 1-3

I. History of the Okhrana

Scope and Contents Note

The files of the Okhrana office in Paris don't contain statute books giving the legal provision of the agency or printed materials on its establishment and growth. The Special Corps of Gendarmes publications that comprise part of this file, however, give frequent references to pertinent legislation. The collection of annual Vedomost' and Obzor, large volumes covering the period 1887-1901, while intended for the purpose of briefing Okhrana personnel, present the intelligence service by guberniia and illustrate the history of the Okhrana within the empire. The yearly volumes of the Vedomost' (Reports of the Findings of the Imperial Gendarmerie Concerning Offenses Against the State) cover the period from 1887-1897 (with volumes 1892-1894 bound together with the volumes of the Obzor). The Obzor (Review of Important Findings of the Gendarmerie) covers the years 1892-1901.
Another printed item included under this index is the 1894 Zapiska (a report on the political situation in Poland), which gives Okhrana accounts by guberniia. A short history of the Okhrana abroad is also given in the notes of principal agent Marcel Bittard-Monin, while the small number of documents under this topic serve as a sampling of early operations or as a reference to the laws concerning the service.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 1-11
 

Vedomost' doznaniam, proizvodishimsia v zhandarmskikh upravleniakh Imperii po gosudarstvennym prestupleniam 1887-1897

Index I, Folder 1

Volume XII 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 4
Index I, Folder 2

Volume XIII 1888

Note

Available on microfilm reel 4
Index I, Folder 3

Volume XIV 1889

Note

Available on microfilm reel 4
Index I, Folder 4

Volume XV 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 4
Index I, Folder 5

Volume XVI 1891

Note

Available on microfilm reel 4
Index I, Folder 6

Volume XVIII 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 6
Index I, Folder 7

Volume XIX 1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 6
Index I, Folder 8

Volume XX 1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 6
Index I, Folder 9

Volume XXI 1897

Note

Available on microfilm reel 6
 

Obzor vaznieishikh doznanii, proizvodivshikhsia v zhandarmskikh upravleniiakh Imperii, po gosudarstvennym prestupleniiam 1892-1901

Index I, Folder 10

Volume XVII 1892-1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 10
Index I, Folder 11

Volume XVIII 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 10
Index I, Folder 12

Volumes XIX-XX 1895-1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 8
Index 1, Folder 13

Volume XXI 1897

Note

Available on microfilm reel 8
Index I, Folder 14

Volume XXII-XXIII 1898-1899

Scope and Contents note

Includes appended alphabetical list of offenders

Note

Available on microfilm reel 8
Index I, Folder 15

Volume XXIV 1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 9
Index I, Folder 16

Volume XXV 1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 9
Index I, Folder 17

Memorandum of the French Minister of the Interior to the Minister of Foreign Affairs 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 18

Background information on French Minister Lockroy 1873

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 19

Notes of principal non-Russian agent Marcel Bittard-Monin on the history of the Okhrana in Paris

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 20

News item on a meeting of security chiefs in Petersburg 1913 July

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 21

References to the basic law of 1896 on the maintenance of Okhrana personnel. Incoming dispatch 1904 April 20

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 22

Incoming and circular letters 1903, 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 23

Zapiska. Printed report on the political situation in Poland; Okhrana accounts by guberniias 1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index I, Folder 24

Reference sheet: See IIc for Obshchii sostav upravlenii i chinov otdel'nago korpusa zhandarmov

Box: 4-10

II. History of Okhrana abroad

Box: 4

a. Paris office

Scope and Contents Note

The earliest document in this series is dated 1886, the year after Petr Ivanovich Rachkovskii was sent to Paris as the representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (M.V.D.), or several years after his predecessor Petr Vasil'evich Korvin-Krukovskii (Pierre Newsky) was known to have acted in the Okhrana capacity in France.
Only the dispatches concerning the growth and responsibilities of the Okhrana office are included in this series. Of particular significance is Rachkovskii's letter to Fragnan, chief of the Paris police, explaining his position and responsibility as chief of the Okhrana mission in Paris. A short draft on the history of the Paris Office and activities prepared by a member of the 1917 commission which terminated the Okhrana abroad is also included.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIa, Folder 1

Incoming and outgoing Okhrana dispatches concerning the growth, responsibilities, and management of the Paris office 1886-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIa, Folder 2

Instructions for collecting military intelligence issued to Manasevich-Manuilov 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIa, Folder 3

English translation of Rachkovskii's letter to Fragnan, Chief of Police of Paris, explaining his position and responsibilities as Okhrana chief in Paris 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIa, Folder 4

Introductory draft on the history of the Paris Okhrana, written for publication by a member of the revolutionary investigative commission 1917

Scope and Contents Note

Includes an English translation

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIa, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

 

Reference: See IId for letter of instructions for the reorganization of the Paris Agentura, 1913

Box: 4-7

b. European and other outposts

 

General

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 1

Outgoing reports #1360 and #1361 on the organization of surveillance according to new principles 1913

Scope and Contents note

Includes a list of agents by country

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 2

Notes giving agents' names and spheres of operation by countries and targets 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 3

Distribution of deep cover agents of military age by countries 1914 or 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 4

Incoming and outgoing dispatches 1906-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 5

Reference: See operational card file by countries in XIIIf(4)

 

Austria-Hungary

Scope and Contents Note

Proposals were made for the establishment of a separate agentura in Vienna, but no action was taken despite the fact that Russian revolutionaries in Galicia and Trieste (as described in the case of the transfer of large sums of money through a Ljubljana bank) called for some local operations. The only permanent Okhrana agent resident in Vienna was Hans Tuppinger. (See his file in IIIe, Folder No. 3)
Index IIb, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to operational tasks and placement of agents 1906-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
 

Balkan Okhranka

Scope and Contents Note

The Balkan Okhrana was subject to many changes, first with an office in Romania reporting to Odessa, then changing the seat to Sofia and reporting to the Paris Office. The organization developed into a major network, with operatives in all the Balkan countries and Vienna. The documents contained in this collection cover the period from 1886 to 1906, when the Balkan Okhrana ceased as separate unit.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 11-12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Incoming and outgoing dispatches concerning the Balkan Okhranka (Bucharest and Sofia) 1886-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 11
Index IIb, Folder 2

Operational and intelligence reports by Okhranka chief Vladimir Przhestiak (Tsitovskii) from Bucharest 1902-1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 3

Letters from agent Melas 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 4

Letters from agent Alfredi in Romania 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 5

Letter on engaging agents on the Prut river border 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 6

Names and addreses of four Balkan Okhranka agents

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

 

Germany

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 4 contains only a small portion of the archive of the Berlin Agentura, which existed as a completely separate establishment attached to the imperial consulate from 1900 to 1904, under the direction of Arkadii Garting. He reported directly to Headquarters, but copies of all dispatches were also sent to the Paris Office. Upon liquidation, the archives of the Berlin Agentura were transferred to Paris. See particularly the separate sets of Berlin dispatches of the period in the Outgoing and Incoming volumes under XIIIb(1) and XIIIc(1). The dispatches and notes in this collection pertain to the structure and functioning of the Berlin Agentura, the agent problems after its closure, and a note relating to non-Russian agent work in Germany in 1911. For agent activities in Germany from 1905 to 1914, see folders on agents Neuhaus and Woltz in IIIe, Folder No. 3, and in VIk.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning the Berlin Agentura and subsequent Okhrana establishment in Germany 1900-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 2

Letters written by agents or prospective agents after the closing of the Berlin Agentura 1905-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 3

Reports from an agent named Hengl 1906-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 4

Note concerning non-Russian agents' work in Germany 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 5

Reference: See reports of agents Neuhaus and Woltz from 1901-1905 in VIk

Index IIb, Folder 6

Reference: See Garting's first progress report, September 1/14, 1905, in IIa, Folder 1

 

Italy

Scope and Contents Note

A separate agentura responsible to the Paris Office was recommended in a 1909 dispatch. No action was taken, despite major operational tasks along the Italian Riviera, where several of the more prosperous revolutionaries had settled. Instead, the Paris Office had a continuous rotation of networks of surveillance agents in the area and operatives in contact with post offices and the police. In 1914, principal agent Invernizzi established a cover firm for Italian Okhrana agents which was administered as a separate team until the Okhrana's termination. (See also the folder in IIIg for the cover firm in Italy and other folders on Invernizzi in IIIe and VIk.)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Outgoing dispatch to Headquarters recommending the establishment of an agentura in Italy 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 2

Intelligence and operational reports submitted to Paris Office by principal agent Invernizzi for his team operating in Italy 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
 

Scandinavia

Scope and Contents Note

A separate agentura was proposed for Scandinavia in 1906 to investigate arms shipments and clandestine routes. The proposal was not accepted. Agent Sambain's missions to Scandinavia developed some intelligence reporting equivalent to that of a permanent outpost. See XIc(1).

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Dispatches recommending agentura establishments in Sweden and Norway 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
 

Switzerland

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 6 contains a small number of documents referring to other European outposts. Two sets of reports from Switzerland reveal that Bogdanov was a resident agent there in 1887 and Dmitriev in 1907-1908, each reporting directly to the Paris Office. Surveillance agents, likewise, were at times resident operatives working closely with local security officers, and at times engaging them as Okhrana agents. See documents on agent Treichler in IIIe, Folder No. 3.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Reports from agent Bogdanov to Chief Rachkovskii in Paris 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 2

Reports from agent Dmitriev 1907-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

 

United States

Scope and Contents Note

At times, a separate outpost was proposed for the United States, but never successfully. The Paris Office was on record as having no adequate coverage for revolutionaries in North America. There was some correspondence with the consular offices in the United States and reports were received from various Russian exiles. Extensive coverage came only after the dispatch of George Patrick to New York in 1912. (See folder on Patrick "Lucy" in IIIf.) The Investigation Commission of 1917 traced 11 Okhrana secret agents in the United States and Canada, according to a draft memo in this folder.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 1

Dispatch from Headquarters in St. Petersburg requesting surveillance of revolutionary Govorukhin going to America 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 2

Okhrana agents in America, a roster compiled by the Investigation Commission 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 3

Reference: See folder on agent Patrick (Lucy) in IIIf

 

England

Scope and Contents Note

The first request of Headquarters to dispatch Paris agents to London came in 1890. Throughout the 1890s, there are records of resident secret agents, both British and Russian, but they were essentially only correspondents. At no time until 1912 did there appear anything like a regular outpost. Intelligence requirements were covered by individually engaged agents and by close liaison with Scotland Yard. When Francis Powell became a principal agent in London, the non-Russian agents came under his supervision, while Captains Dolgov and Litvin served at various times as resident case officers for the Russian secret operatives. During World War I, the Okhrana kept a resident in Newcastle to monitor arriving and departing Russian passengers.
Among the voluminous papers in this collection, Folder No. 2 contains mostly reports from the 1890s. The names of British people in the service of the Okhrana are in Folder No. 4. The folders containing agent Powell's dispatches discuss operational problems in London, instructions, monthly statements of accounts, and other materials.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 12-16
Index IIb, Folder 1

Dispatches on the placement of agents in London 1890-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 12
Index IIb, Folder 2

Reports from London agents, including Farce, on Burtsev, anarchists, Free Russia, and other early revolutionary groups 1891-1902

Note

Available on microfilm reels 12-14
Index IIb, Folder 3

French translation of news items attacking the Okhrana establishment in London 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 4

Names of British in the service of the Okhrana 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 5

Letters from principal agent Francis Powell concerning operational problems in London 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 6

Letters from Chief Krasil'nikov to case officer Anton Ivanovich Litvin in London 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
 

Operational and intelligence reports from case officer Litvin in London to Chief Krasil'nikov in Paris

Index IIb, Folder 7

1915 April-September

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 8

1915 October-December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 9

1916 January-April

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 10

1916 May-November

Note

Available on microfilm reel 14
Index IIb, Folder 11

Financial statements, expense accounts, and receipts pertaining to operations of case officer Litvin in London 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 15
 

London office (Powell and others) monthly statements of accounts, receipts, and bills 1906-1917

Index IIb, Folder 12

1906-1915 June

Note

Available on microfilm reel 15
Index IIb, Folder 13

1915 July-December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 15
Index IIb, Folder 14

1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 15
Index IIb, Folder 15

1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 16
Index IIb, Folder 16

Receipts of individual British agents 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 16
Index IIb, Folder 17

Letters of instructions from Bittard-Monin to Powell in London 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 16
Box: 7

c. Official rosters and other publications

Scope and Contents Note

The three volumes filed under this index are the only printed reference materials found in the Okhrana files. They include a book on the structure, administration, and ranks of the Corps of Gendarmes, lists of officers associated with the Okhrana abroad, and a book on rail facilities with a chapter on passenger regulations, including provisions on state security.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 16-18
Index IIc, Folder 1

Obshchii sostav upravelnii i chinov otdel'nago korpusa zhandarmov, St. Petersburg 1903 July 20

Note

Available on microfilm reel 16
Index IIc, Folder 2

Ezhegodnik Ministerstva Inostrannykh Del 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 16
Index IIc, Folder 3

Ukazatel' zheleznodorozhnykh, parokhodnykh i drugikh passazhirskikh soobshchenii 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reels 17-18
Box: 8

d. Reorganization of 1913

Scope and Contents Note

The radical reorganization in 1913 of the Okhrana abroad affected mostly non-Russian agent networks. Revolutionary counterintelligence under Burtsev was never in a position to expose the identities of Russian secret agents more than one at a time, since these agents operated alone and unknown to each other. Non-Russian agents, however, usually worked in teams, so each one often knew his colleagues. Thus, when any non-Russian agent went "sour," there was the immediate danger he would betray Okhrana agents to the revolutionaries. These non-Russian agents were predominantly mercenary; some earned money from the revolutionaries after they had lost their income from the Okhrana.
In 1913 Burtsev's office was able to furnish releases to the Paris press listing the names and affiliations of most of the Okhrana's non-Russian agents. Propaganda against the Okhrana abroad led to parliamentary interpellations and general public condemnation of the "ruthless tsarist police" in France, England, Italy, and elsewhere. The Okhrana was forced to reorganize. It made public announcements of complete dissolution and went through the motions of dismissing all non-Russian agents, whether exposed to the public or not.
In the meantime, however, the Okhrana set up a cover firm in France to absorb the better operatives and set up agents in Italy, England, and elsewhere on a different, more secure administrative footing. The dispatches in this collection contain some exhaustive analysis of the operational problems as interpreted by the Paris Chief Krasil'nikov and comments received from all top officials at Headquarters.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 1

Dispatch from Headquarters discussing problems prior to reorganization 1913 September

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 2

Memorandum from Chief Beletskii at Headquarters stating the difficulties of the Paris Okhrana and the need for changes 1913 September 27

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 3

Telegrams and other notes regarding trips and meetings to discuss the reorganization 1913 September-October

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 4

Krasil'nikov's analysis of Paris Office investigation units; basis of proposed reorganization 1913 September 9

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 5

Outgoing dispatches to Headquarters on the proposed structure of the reorganized agentura abroad 1913 August

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 6

Dispatch from Broetskii with recommendations for a cover firm to replace the direct contracting of investigation agents 1913 September 18

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 7

Letter of instructions from Headquarters on the reorganization 1913 December 31

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 8

Statement signed by twenty Headquarters officials informed about the change in addressing communications to the Paris Okhrana 1913 October 23

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 9

Incoming and outgoing communications pertaining to the reorganization and final accounting 1913 September-1914 February

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 10

Dispatch from Beletskii on changes required in the agentura's investigation structure 1913 November 23

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 11

Letter from agent Henri Durin in response to Sushkov's inquiries regarding dismissal and subsequent rehiring of French agents 1913 November 17

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IId, Folder 12

Reference: See Broetskii's memorandum of October 1913 for estimates of the budget of the reorganized investigation units in IVa

Box: 8-9

e. Wartime Okhrana

Scope and Contents Note

As noted in many dispatches, Okhrana activities were limited to collecting information on subversives at home and abroad, with a prohibition on collecting military intelligence. When World War I broke out, however, the Okhrana's interests were spontaneously directed to counterespionage against Germany and Austria and soon after to gathering political, economic, sociological, and military information on the Central Powers. When Allied intelligence was centralized in Paris, the Okhrana office there became one of its sources of information, with the Russian military mission in Paris as the channel of communication.
The original purpose of the Okhrana was neglected during the war due to a lack of personnel and the loss of many communication lines. Many of the non-Russian agents were drafted into Allied military service and all contacts with the experienced detectives in Berlin (Neuhaus) and Vienna (Tuppinger) were terminated. Some of the Russian secret agents were exempted from military service, but they, too, had to be spared for intelligence in connection with the war effort.
Like many other government and Allied agencies, the Okhrana moved to Bordeaux after the threat of German advance into Paris. Only a skeleton crew with a few files was left at rue de Grenelle. Krasil'nikov's dispatch to Headquarters stated that his office would be at Bordeaux, with outposts remaining in Paris, London, and Bern.
Of particular interest are Headquarters circulars on the threat of internal revolutions and instructions regarding the Okhrana in wartime. Several issues on account of the war are covered, including positive intelligence tasks and running agents into Germany from Switzerland, the work of the revolutionaries for Germany, and the attempted mutiny of the SS Askold in Toulon.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 19-20
Index IIe, Folder 1

Headquarters circulars on the internal revolutionary threat in Russia during wartime 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 2

Headquarters circulars on reorganization and changes in the Okhrana during wartime 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 3

Headquarters circulars on subversive groups (Jewish Bund, Social Democrats, etc.) and on individual revolutionary activities in wartime 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 5

Outgoing report from Krasil'nikov to Petersburg re: wartime reorganization of the Okhrana with headquarters in Bordeaux and outposts in Paris, Bern and London. Assignment of case officers 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 6

Dispatches and notes in connection with moving the Okhrana office from Paris to Bordeaux and back to Paris; costs, inventory of furnishings, transfer of intelligence records 1914 August-1915 March

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 7

Telegrams from Krasil'nikov in Bordeaux 1914 August-December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 8

Outgoing dispatches referring to the war and to revolutionaries as targets in time of war 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 9

Deciphered telegrams concerning personnel needs in time of war 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 10

Headquarters circulars on the position of agents who are subject to military service 1914 August-September

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 11

Dispatches and telegrams concerning agents exempt from military duty; operational difficulties due to the removal of agents; transfer of Counselor Iosefovich 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 12

Names of French agents remaining in the service of the Okhrana 1914 October

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 13

Communications obliging Okhrana officials for contributions for the war effort 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 19
Index IIe, Folder 14

Statements of the French Ministry of War on Russian volunteers killed in action 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 15

Records on individual Russian subjects evading military service 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 16

Positive intelligence reports from Okhrana agents in Germany 1915-1916

Note

See also report on Paris Okhrana agent in Germany, 1916, in VIIc

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 17

Dispatches and reports from agent "Lebuk" (Sanvelov) to the Russian military attaché in Switzerland 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 18

Wartime reports of agent "Amerikanets" (Popov) concerning political situations, the Balkans, etc. Report on the German Social Democratic Party 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 19

Investigation reports and notes concerning an attempted mutiny on the Russian cruiser Askold in Toulon harbor 1916

Note

See also XXIVk

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 20

Letters from Krasil'nikov to Litvin analyzing his work as chief of the London agentura from 1915-1916; and reports from Litvin 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 21

Reports from principal agent Francis Powell in London 1914-1916

Note

See also folder on Francis Powell in VIk

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 22

Wire informing of the arrest of Henry Bint, principal agent in Switzerland running operations into Germany 1917

Note

See also IIIe and VIk

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 23

List and notes on German spies in Switzerland 1915-1917

Note

For complete Okhrana lists and records of operation, see VIIIb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 24

Debriefing report in French by an agent who toured Germany 1915

Note

See VIIIc

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 25

Telegram concerning the effort to engage Danish Count Holstein for agent work 1916

Note

See VIIIb, Folder 3

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 26

Clippings from French, German, and English newspapers on the crisis in Russia and an anticipated separate peace between Russia and Germany 1916-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 27

Letter from French Army General Staff concerning Chapirov 1916

Note

See VIIIc and Vb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 28

Wires concerning the full name of the new director of police 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 29

Draft and part of report on the anarcho-communist plan to murder the Russian military attaché in America 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 30

Outgoing dispatch reporting on the disloyalty of the Russian Supply Mission in London with a report from Litvin 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 31

Wire from Izvolskii concerning the acceptance of Russian émigrés in the Russian army 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 32

German propaganda article for Russian prisoners of war and copy of Russkii vestnik, no. 26 1915, 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 33

Dispatch on the pro-German Socialist Congress at The Hague and report on the German Social Democratic Party 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 34

Reports in French on conferences of Russian nationalities 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 35

Note to Vissarionov about a resolution to send a unit of the Okhrana abroad 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 36

Headquarters circular on Malinovskii's activities in Germany 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 37

Chief Krasil'nikov's notes of instructions to principal agent Bittard-Monin 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 38

Letters from Bittard-Monin with instructions to his agents 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 39

Report on ex-Colonel Oberuchev's work for the Germans 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 40

Report on the placement of an agent in Sweden 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 41

Various notes on the evacuation of Russian citizens, their return to Russia, etc. 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 42

Report on Russian anarchists in Chicago in the service of the Germans 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 43

Outgoing dispatches 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIe, Folder 44

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 9-10

f. Termination of the Okhrana

Scope and Contents Note

The Provisional Government of 1917 dispatched a commission to Paris to investigate Okhrana activities soon after the February Revolution. The head of this commission, Evgenii Rapp, and several of its members were revolutionaries that had been surveilled by the Okhrana in Paris. Many of their investigation papers remain with the Okhrana files. The commission's aim, at least during their first months in Paris, was to uncover all Russian secret agents or "provocateurs" engaged to penetrate revolutionary groups.
After the October Revolution, the commission changed its purpose. The notes of its investigations show that the interest turned toward uncovering Okhrana operations against Germany. It may be assumed that this change came on the instructions of the Bolshevik regime, interested in having such materials on hand at Brest-Litovsk.
This series contains the protocols for interrogating Chief Krasil'nikov and important staff agents (case officers) and employees. Some of the materials show Valerian Agafonov?s assembly of materials on secret agents, which was later reproduced (in many passages verbatim) in his book Zagranichnaia Okhranka, "Kniga," Petrograd, 1918. Also included in this collection are a series of long memoranda written by Ianishevskii of the Russian Embassy in Rome concerning the Polish movement for independence, which he submitted to the commission for review.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 20-21
Index IIf, Folder 1

Blank letterheads of the Ministry of Justice

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 2

Blank letterheads of the Okhrana

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 3

Krasil'nikov's explanatory letter on finances for the Provisional Government 1917 September 9

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 4

Instructions and rules of the Commission 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 5

Protocol on the transfer of archives and office inventory 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 6

Final accounting of Paris Okhrana expenditures for January-March 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 7

Background report on Evgenii Rapp, chairman of the Commission and letter appointing Rapp 1910, 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 20
Index IIf, Folder 8

Statement on members of the Commission 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 9

Leaflets and bulletins published by the Commission and collaborating revolutionaries 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 10

Protocols of the interrogation of Krasil'nikov, Lustig, Likhovskii, and Mel'nikov 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 11

Letters to the Commission from various émigrés used in the investigation: accusations, self-defense, etc. 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 12

Letters and other papers connected with the investigation of "Valerian," Burtsev's assistant, and his connection with the Okhrana 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 13

Papers on the investigation of Aaron A.R. Taratuta 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 14

Individual reports of the Commission on the investigation of Okhrana agents Isaak Abramov, Evsei Brontman, Efim Simkov-Brut, Vakman, Demetrashvili, Iakov Zhitomirskii, Aleksei Savinkov, "Kozel Sanvelov," Aleksei Staal, Albert Orlov, and Il'ia Chir'ev 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 15

Statements on other individuals investigated by the Commission 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 16

Commission's compilation of the names of Okhrana agents and their locations 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 17

Draft of the Commission's protocol on agents in America 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 18

Report on the Commission's work in Switzerland 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 19

Letters from Bint to Rapp and Mel'nikov offering his service to the Commission 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 20

Letters to and from the Commission after the closing of the Okhrana 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 21

Memoranda by Ianishevskii on the Polish movement and statement by Girs concerning Ianishevskii at the Russian Embassy in Rome 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIf, Folder 22

Notation on the numbers of incoming dispatches for 1916 which were missing when the Commission took over 1917

Note

Most of these numbers have been located when the files were organized, 1962-1964

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Box: 10-26

III. Organization and structure

Box: 10

a. Policy and functional responsibility

Scope and Contents Note

This series documents Headquarters policy concerning the status, official position, and approved activities of the Okhrana establishments abroad. No specific memorandum or order from Headquarters to the chief of the Paris center defines in full the position and authorized activities, but the documents included under this topic give some insight into the structure and workings of the establishment abroad. Until 1909, dispatches from Headquarters were addressed directly to the chief of the Paris Office or to the "Director of the Agentura Abroad" (Zaveduiushchemu zagranichnoi agenturoi). After the downfall of Garting as Paris chief, when the revolutionaries exposed him as a provocateur and he was sentenced by the French court for criminal acts in 1890, Headquarters made it a rule to address official dispatches with the preamble: "To the representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, delegated abroad for liaison with local authorities and Russian embassies and consulates." Headquarters did not fully adhere to its own ruling, but demanded that all other Okhrana agencies in Russia use the specifically prescribed title in addressing communications to the Paris Office.
As a matter of policy, Headquarters insisted on designating Okhrana missions abroad as agencies representing not only the M.V.D. of Russia, concerned with subversives threatening terror of the existing law and order, but of all other monarchic or bourgeois countries as well.
Despite this expressed policy of limiting the Okhrana abroad to counter-intelligence against the revolutionaries, its functions spread beyond this pronounced purpose. Thus, before and especially during the Russo-Japanese War, the Okhrana abroad assisted their military counterparts until Headquarters issued a definite order forbidding military intelligence and espionage.
Soon after the outbreak of war, despite the fact that the files contain no instructions to that effect, the Okhrana abroad was soon involved in counter-intelligence and counter-espionage against Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Turkey. It also mounted political and economic intelligence operations against the Central Powers. (See the folder on the wartime Okhrana under Index Number IIe.)
The folder under this heading (IIIa) also contains Headquarters rules on the position of the Okhrana in emergency situations, such as the internal upheavals of 1905 and their aftermath.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 1

Incoming dispatches from headquarters containing instructions on policy and functional responsibility of the Paris Okhrana 1887-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 2

Orders from Headquarters regarding military intelligence and espionage 1906-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 3

Letter from Paris to the Russian Mission in Switzerland on the functional limits of the Okhrana 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 4

Incoming dispatches from Garting in Berlin on responsibilities, agent assignments, and funds 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 5

Emergency statutes of the Okhrana 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 6

Dispatches concerning the proposal from Headquarters to place staff agent Lt. Col. Erhardt in charge of the Paris office 1911-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 7

English translations of Rachkovskii's letter to the Chief of Police in Paris explaining his position and responsibilities 1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 8

Letter of authority for Krasil'nikov in connection with Poincaré's travel to Russia 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 9

Andreev's report on the status of the Okhrana abroad after Garting's departure 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 10

Positions of officials -- statement of pay 1913 December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 11

Draft of dispatch by Titular Counselor Mel'nikov 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 12

Note on incognito arrival of Headquarters Chief "Wolf" 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 13

Instructions from headquarters requiring separate dispatch for each intelligence or operational item 1906-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 21
Index IIIa, Folder 14

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 11-12

b. Okhrana chiefs and case officers

Scope and Contents Note

Okhrana chiefs in Paris were accorded a permanent tenure of office after the assignment of Petr Ivanovich Rachkovskii in 1885 as the representative of the M.V.D. Petr Korvin-Krukovskii (Pierre Newsky) before him (1883-1885) did not develop an "agentura" but introduced agent operations against subversive elements abroad. Thus, the formal establishment of the Paris Okhrana came only after the arrival of Rachkovskii with instructions to be an overt representative of the M.V.D. The succession of Okhrana chiefs in Paris was as follows: Petr Ivanovich Rachkovskii (January 1885-November 1902); Leonid Aleksandrovich Rataev (November 1902-August 1905); Arkadii Mikhailovich Garting (August 1905-January 1909); Captain Andreev (February-November 1909); and Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Krasil'nikov (November 1909-March 1917).
The folders on the officers running the Paris Office are supplemented by separate folders in XIIb containing planning and operational material under the four consecutive chiefs in Paris -- Rachkovskii, Rataev, Garting, and Krasil'nikov.
Materials on all leading case officers are included under this Index number. The case officers, agents in the Paris office who handled deep cover agents abroad, were predominantly gendarme officers whose ranks ranged from Captain to Colonel, with years of Okhrana operations experience in Russia.
While the Paris Office took care of the administrative problems, such as funds and communications, the relations of the Paris Office with case officers was strictly under cover, not known to French Sûreté or Scotland Yard, despite the close liaison frequently maintained with these organizations.
With the exception of Mikhail Barkov, one of the earlier case officers handling agents of the Berlin agentura, the officers were assigned from the very beginning as supervisors of operations and agents. Barkov became a case officer after serving as a secret agent and his charges as case officer were non-Russian agents. Permanent officials of the Paris Office likewise occasionally became case officers, such as Bobrov, Molchanov, Mel'nikov, and Sushkov. Ivan Fedorovich Manasevich-Manuilov, a staff agent assigned by Headquarters for political action in Paris (influencing the press, developing diplomatic contacts, etc.), served at times as a case officer with his own agents, as in the case of acquiring and deciphering the Japanese code in 1905. (See folder in VIIIa.)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 22-25
Index IIIb, Folder 1

Two letters by Korvin-Krukovskii, the Paris Okhrana predecessor of Rachkovskii; and dispatches dealing with administrative matters and personal problems of Paris chiefs and staff agents 1888-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 2

Papers pertaining to Rachkovskii, Paris Chief from 1885-1902

Note

See also his file in XIIb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 3

Dispatch to Garting in Berlin instructing him to see Rataev (Paris Chief from 1902-1905) 1903

Note

See also XIIb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 4

Letter from Garting ("Artek") requesting his conversion from Judaism 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 5

Dispatch on the termination of pension and other papers on or by Chief Garting 1903, 1908

Note

See also XIIb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 6

Papers pertaining to Krasil'nikov's position as chief of the Paris Okhrana (from 1910-1917) 1912-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 7

Dispatches concerning the assignment and responsibilities of staff officials and case officers 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 8

Notes and dispatches of Acting Chief Captain Andreev 1908-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 9

Letter from case officer Aleksei D. Arbuzov to Krasil'nikov 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 10

Mikhail Barkov, case officer 1894-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 11

Mikhail Bobrov, temporary case officer 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 22
Index IIIb, Folder 12

Captain Dolgov, case officer 1909-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reels 22-23
Index IIIb, Folder 13-18

Lt. Col. Erhardt, staff agent in charge of secret agents 1910-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 23
Index IIIb, Folder 19

Lt. Col. von Kotten, staff agent in charge of secret agents 1910, 1914

Scope and Contents Note

Includes his Okhrana service records from Moscow and medical statement after the attack on his life

Note

Available on microfilm reel 23
Index IIIb, Folder 21

Captain Likhovskii 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 23
Index IIIb, Folder 22-23

Captain Anton Ivanovich Litvin, staff agent, case officer for London operations 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 23-24
Index IIIb, Folder 24-26

Lt. Col. Lustig, staff agent 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 24
Index IIIb, Folder 27

Lt. Col. Martynov, staff agent 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 24
Index IIIb, Folder 28-29

Captain Rek ("S. Repin"), staff officer and deputy to Lt. Colonel Erhardt 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reels 24-25
Index IIIb, Folder 30

Ivan F. Manasevich-Manuilov, staff agent 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIb, Folder 31

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 12-13

c. Officials and clerical personnel

Scope and Contents Note

Like their chiefs, the employees assigned to the Paris Office by Headquarters usually enjoyed a long, permanent tenure as in the cases of Mel'nikov, Chashnikov, Molchanov, and Bobrov. Each had his specifically assigned duties relative to the official rank of "gubernskii sekretar'" or the equivalent. Permanency of tenure was enhanced by language and area requirements. Long years of service abroad made the officials good linguists, the main qualification for translators of raw reports from non-Russian agents. When an official wanted to marry a foreign national, the spouse had to have a security check, and approval had to be granted by the Okhrana Director in St. Petersburg (as in Mel'nikov's case).
The employees received bonuses for Christmas and other holidays as well as sick pay. They were also awarded medals for long term service or other distinctions. When under suspicion with regard to loyalty, they were placed under watch and surveillance (see folder 14 on Sushkov).

Note

Available on microfilm reels 25-27
Index IIIc, Folder 1

Dispatches and other notes related to permanent officials and clerks of the Paris Okhrana office 1890-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 2-3

Mikhail Bobrov, secretary 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 4

Nikolai N. Chashnikov, for many years clerk, then pensioner of Paris Okhrana 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 5

Mariia Fedorova, correspondence clerk 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 6

Leontii Gol'shman, clerk 1916-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 7

Iu. Iozefovich, in charge of accounts 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 8

Georgii Kozhanov, clerk 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 25
Index IIIc, Folder 9-12

Ivan Semenovich Mel'nikov, in charge of records 1907-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reels 25-26
Index IIIc, Folder 13

Ivan M. Molchanov, administrative officer 1907-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 26
Index IIIc, Folder 14-17

Boris Sushkov, deputy to the Paris chief 1908-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 26
Index IIIc, Folder 18-19

Nikolai Volokhovskii, Paris Okhrana secretary 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIIc, Folder 20

Aleksandr Konstantinov Il'in, registry clerk 1907, 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIIc, Folder 21

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 13-14

d. Use of diplomatic and other status

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana developed a policy against the use of diplomatic, consular, or military attaché covers for its office personnel or Russian agents abroad. It expressly forbade non-Russian agents from making any allusions to Russian diplomatic missions abroad and permitted them, only in exceptional cases, to admit connection with the Russian special police of the M.V.D.
The documents contained herein pertain mostly to agent and case officer Mikhail Nikolaevich Barkov, operating in Germany under the cover of a consular officer in Berlin. As distinct from the Paris center, the Berlin agentura was housed in the office of the consulate, as set up by Arkadii Garting in 1901. When Garting left in 1905, the Berlin agentura was officially terminated and its files transferred to the Paris center. However, Barkov, Garting's chief deputy in Berlin, remained in the consulate there to continue under that cover as case officer for the non-Russian agents in Germany.
Diplomatic and consular offices were also used as cover for Okhrana operatives in the Balkan countries. (See the folders in IIb on the Balkan Okhranka.) In other countries of Europe, Okhrana operatives found operational support and exchanged information. However, this relationship was not formalized and was dependent mostly upon personal contact between the principals of the Okhrana with the chiefs of the diplomatic and consular missions. (See folders under Index Number Vg.)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 27-28
Index IIId, Folder 1

Note on the disposal of the papers of agent Mikhail Nikolaevich Barkov, engaged under consular cover in Berlin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIId, Folder 2

Barkov's passport, bankbook, police certificate, and photographs

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIId, Folder 3

Barkov's notebooks with addresses of his subordinate and cooperating agents, official and other contacts in Germany and Denmark, and the names and locations of revolutionaries

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIId, Folder 4

Letters, telegrams, and notes from agent Barkov's folder re: personal affairs and intelligence matters 1889-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIId, Folder 5

Letters containing operational and intelligence information, mostly from Barkov in Berlin to Garting in Paris 1906-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 27
Index IIId, Folder 6

Letters from agent Barkov undated

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIId, Folder 7

French and German newspaper clippings, kept by agent Barkov, on Russian espionage in Germany, and on terrorists 1904-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIId, Folder 8

Receipts 1904-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIId, Folder 9

Reference: See also file Vg, "Relations with missions abroad"

Box: 14-20

e. Investigation agents and teams - French and other European

Scope and Contents Note

The collection of non-Russian agent rosters compiled under No. 1 of this index ranges from 1905, when Chief Garting greatly expanded the use of French and other Western detectives for investigation work, to 1913, when all non-Russian agents were publicly dismissed. Most of the rosters were maintained by the Okhrana's principal non-Russian agent in Paris, Marcel Bittard-Monin. His rosters and lists were compiled for bookkeeping purposes and also as operational guides. Some rosters contain agent groups by areas, others by target or investigation as assigned. Much of this roster compilation entailed notations on changes of operational schemes: an agent assigned one week with a team in the Italian Riviera may be sent the following week to track a terrorist in Germany and the next week to protect a high dignitary. Thus, the rosters with all the entered notations were subject to constant amendments, and an overall review of the Okhrana's agent teams can be possible only by the study of the rosters through the entire period covered.
The long list of folders on individual non-Russian agents, collected under No. 3 of this index, represents the bulk of this group of documents. 122 dossiers are arranged in alphabetical order; records may contain one note on the agent or a hundred. This collection of agent dossiers was started by Marcel Bittard-Monin in his office at Rue Chomel in Paris. His original folders on subordinate agents have been retained; each contains the uniform table of information on the first page of the dossier's hard cover, giving the agent's full name, origin, age, background, record of service, and decorations. The contents of each dossier also include, where available, papers on the agent's recruitment, evaluation, effectiveness, security breaches, promotion, dismissal, pension, etc. (Records of actual agent accomplishments, problems in handling him, and intelligence reports may also be found under VId, VIj, or VIk.)
Bittard-Monin's folders in this collection and the folders containing instructions to subordinate agents constitute another significant section under this topic (IIIe). Folder No. 8 contains Monin's intelligence and operational communications concerning a major investigation in Italy in 1911, while folder No. 9 holds Monin's instructions from his Paris office to 53 subordinate agents and team leaders in all parts of France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and England, all of them subject to frequent change of locale and even country.
Some of the folders give specific information on the method of assigning investigation teams in the south of France, Switzerland, or northern Italy; others show the distribution and placement of agents on tasks insuring proper security for traveling imperial personages. Where the agent was completely stationary, as in the case of Treichler, a Swiss police official (see folder No. 15), the operational and intelligence documents likewise reveal their methods.
Long-term non-Russian agents sent on investigation and surveillance jobs were given a simple cipher for encoding and decoding messages. This was in addition to instructions on code words and "double talk" terms used for sensitive passages in telegrams and written messages. (A card with the printed cipher is in folder No. 10. For samples of various ways of encoding messages, see the reports of non-Russian agents under VIj and VIk.) Records indicate that Bittard-Monin enjoyed a high degree of confidence on the part of his employer, Paris Okhrana Chief Krasil'nikov. Folder 21 contains Monin's communications to him, while Krasil'nikov's notes and directives to Monin may be found in XIIb.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 28-38
 

Rosters of non-Russian agents: investigators, detectives, and surveillance personnel engaged by the Okhrana abroad 1905-1913

Index IIIe, Folder 1a

Rosters giving the names of agents, their pay, and their expenses when Garting took over as Chief of the Paris Okhrana 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1b

Names and addresses of the principal investigation agents 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1c

Book listing the agents who were directed by Marcel Bittard-Monin 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1d

Book of agents, surnames only 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1e

Lists of names and locations of agents with their targets and pay 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1f

Book of names and addresses of the agents 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 1g

Book of agents with a two page background on each 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 2

Règlements généraux. 5 folios of detailed monthly accounting on the money received from Krasil'nikov; includes signatures of agents for money received 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Agent dossiers 1887-1914

Index IIIe, Folder 3

Aebersold-Berthold

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Jean Aebersold, Aubert, Auby, Bades, Barlet, Aime Barthes, Bauer, and Armand Berthold

Note

Available on microfilm reel 28
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Bittard-Couvrat

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Marcel Bittard-Monin, Bocquet, Marius Boniol, Pierre Bouteillier, Charles de Breyne, Alfred Brunner, Charlotte Bullier, Luigi Capusso, E. Caumeau, Rene Cazayus, Charles Charlet, Coquelin, Raoul Corrot, Cotta, and Couvrat

Note

Available on microfilm reel 29
Index IIIe, Folder 3

David-Fontaine

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Etienne David, Deguerre, Dejour, Charles Delangle, Emile Demaille, Jules Decluseaux, Desvernine, Alexandre Ditchescoulo, Auguste Dore, Berthe Drouchot, Dupont, Durafour, Robert Durand, Henri Durin, Gabriel Dussaussois, E. Farce, J. Fehrenbach, Fernand Feuger, Fleury, and Madame Fontaine (Dedienne)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 30
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Fontana-Hébrais

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Jean Louis Fontana, Arturo Frumento, Gaudinot, Georges, Luigi Giani, Georges François Godard, René Gottlieb, Groussot, Paul Hamard, Halphen, Jules Hansen, and Hébrais

Note

Available on microfilm reel 31
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Hennequin-Lavallée

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Edmond Hennequin, W. Henninger, Charles Henry, Eugène Invernizzi, Jacquet, Oscar Jaton, Georges and Raoul Jollivet, Robert Kaspar, Alexander Kerr, Lacoste, Laizier, Bernard Laurent, and Pierre Lavallée

Note

Available on microfilm reel 32
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Leblanc-Leroy

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Nicholas Leblanc, Eugène Lecointe, A. Legrand, Lemand, Georges Léon, Francesco Leone, and Maurice Leroy

Note

Available on microfilm reel 33
Index IIIe, Folder 3

Leuthold-Richard

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on A. Leuthold, Eugène Lévęque, Alexandre Lodie, Léon Magadieu, Heinrich Neuhaus, Léon Otte, Henri Ozanne, Francesco Pavesi, Pernet, J.P. Pertinac, Petry, August Pouchot, Francis Powell, Powells, Preneron, Raphael, L. Raymond, Ernest Riant, and Gabrielle Richard

Note

Available on microfilm reel 34
Index (3) IIIe

Rime-Woltz

Scope and Contents Note

Contains dossiers on Georges Rime, Robert Riot, Jean Robail, Adolphe Roselli, Anatole Rougeaux, Rubrick, Albert Sambain, Alphonse Sauvard, Edouard Marius Schmidelin, Sérose, Strasen (Thomsen), Ernest Tarissan, Paul Tellier, René Thomas, Michael Thompson, Michael Thorpe, Mme. Tiercelin, Treichler, Hans Tuppinger, Vincenzo Vizzardelli, Maurice Vogt, and Karl Woltz

Note

Available on microfilm reel 36
Index IIIe, Folder 4

Headquarters circulars relating to foreign and investigation agents 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 35
Index IIIe, Folder 5

Paris Okhrana circulars to agents regarding their status, cover, salaries, etc. 1910-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 35
Index IIIe, Folder 6

Dispatches on the assignment of non-Russian agents, the defection of Leroy, difficulties of investigation, and proposed changes 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 35
Index IIIe, Folder 7

Letters and telegrams of instruction from Chief Krasil'nikov to Bittard-Monin 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 35
Index IIIe, Folder 8

Marcel Bittard-Monin, in charge of the Okhrana's non-Russian agents; communications of a special team of agents dispatched to Italy in August 1911 for a major investigation task on the Socialist Revolutionaries 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 35
Index IIIe, Folder 9

Collected instructions from Bittard-Monin's office in Paris to his subordinate agents 1912

Scope and Contents Note

Includes instructions to Jean Aebersold, Barlet, Aime Barthes, Armand Berthold, Henry Bint,Marius Boniol, Pierre Bouteillier, Buckland, Rene Cazayus, Charles Charlet, Etienne David, Charles Delangle, Berthe Drouchot, Henri Durin, Gabriel Dussaussois, E. Farce, Fernand Feuger, Fleury, Jean Louis Fontana, Arturo Frumento, Gottlieb-Godard team, Paul Hamard-Fontaine, Edmond Hennequin, Charles Henry, Eugène Invernizzi, Oscar Jaton, Georges Jollivet, Mme. Langbard, Bernard Laurent, Georges Léon, A. Leuthold, Eugène Lévęque, Alexandre Lodie, Heinrich Neuhaus, Léon Otte, Palfrene, August Pouchot, Francis Powell, Preneron, Gabrielle Richard, C. Rigault, Georges Rime (Coussonnet), Robert Riot, Adolphe Roselli, Anatole Rougeaux, Albert Sambain, Alphonse Sauvard, Michael Thorpe, Mme. Tiercelin, Treichler, Hans Tuppinger, Vincenzo Vizzardelli, Maurice Vogt, and Karl Woltz

Note

Available on microfilm reels 35 and 37
Index IIIe, Folder 10

Formal assignment of investigation teams along the Italian Riviera 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 37
Index IIIe, Folder 11

Reports from Bittard-Monin's special team sent to investigate Burtsev's journey to and activities in Italy 1912 November

Note

Available on microfilm reel 37
Index IIIe, Folder 12

Monthly accounts of the cover agency directed by agent Eugene Invernizzi in Italy 1915-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 37
Index IIIe, Folder 13

Instructions from Bittard-Monin to agent Invernizzi concerning the establishment of a private bureau serving the Okhrana in Italy; termination of the service in Rome 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 14

Reports and accounts of the investigation agency for Invernizzi's team in Italy 1913-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 15

Operational and intelligence reports from Swiss police officer William Treichler's team in Switzerland 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 16

Reports on the organization of surveillance on the occasion of the Tsar's visit to Berlin 1913

Note

For similar organization of teams, see XVd

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 17

Reports and letters of Maurice Vogt and his team in southern France 1911-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 18

Cipher given to investigation agents for communications 1912-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 19

Notes concerning Bittard-Monin's accounts with the banks 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 20

Copies of telegrams sent by Bittard-Monin to Chief Krasil'nikov 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 21

Notes and drafts of communications by Bittard-Monin 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIe, Folder 22

Cross-reference sheet

Index IIIe, Folder 23

Reference: See Bittard-Monin's manuscript, "La Confédération générale du travail," 1914, in XVIIs

Index IIIe, Folder 24

Reference: For reports from Charlotte Bullier and Burtsev's letters to her, see XVIId

Box: 21-25

f. Deep cover agents

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 1 of this series contains abstracts on 215 Okhrana deep cover agents. This version in English was prepared in 1962, before the files were organized, and is therefore incomplete, useful only as a guide for further study on Russian agents operating in Europe. As part of this compilation in English, Folder 38 contains some 550 index cards, kept in a 3" x 5" file. These cards are not for reference purposes to other folders, but handy for identification. In alphabetical order according to all true and assumed names, each card gives the equivalent name or names used by the agent, by the Okhrana for cover or security purposes, or by the revolutionaries among whom the agent operated.
Folder No. 5 contains abstracts, with information on the Okhrana's secret agents, prepared by Valerian Agafonov, member of the Investigation Commission sent to Paris in 1917 by the Provisional Government. It is sketchy, but of significance, since it served as a basis for Agafonov's book, Zagranichnaia Okhranka, published in St. Petersburg in 1918.
Folders Nos. 9 through 36 contain, in alphabetical order, documents on 139 secret agents, assigned abroad by Headquarters or by provincial Okhrana offices in Russia, with or without the approval of Headquarters ?i.e., all Russian agents for whose operations abroad the Paris center or its staff agents were administratively responsible. Pertinent papers on many of these agents are missing. Some records contain only a name, code name, or alias or some reference to operational communications. It is possible that many of these records were removed by Agafonov or other members of the 1917 Commission for personal or official uses.
A number of papers pertaining to this group of agents are also located under Index Numbers XIa and Xlb, which contain documents on double agents and penetration agents. In a sense, the great majority of the Okhrana's secret operatives were penetration agents. The criterion for engaging them was usually their ability to attain and keep access to revolutionary groups. Unless the individual had good prospects to join the revolutionaries and work with them, he was not considered for employment.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 38-48
Index IIIf

Typed abstracts in English on 215 deep cover agents (sekretnie sotrudniki)

Index IIf, Folder 1a

A-K

Note

Available on microfilm reel 38
Index IIIf, Folder 1b

L-Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 2a-2b

Duplicates

Index IIIf

Four alphabetical lists of secret agents

Index IIIf, Folder 3a

a. Alphabetical by pseudonyms and true names only

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 3b

b. Names and identifying data (Investigation Commission worksheet) 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 3c

c. Galley proof of the above list

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 3d

d. Agent code names and abbreviations for messages

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 4

Photographs of secret agents

Note

Available on microfilm reel 39
Index IIIf, Folder 5

Typed abstracts on 49 secret agents 1917

Scope and Contents Note

Apparently by Agafonov in 1917, since all these texts appeared verbatim in his book Zagranichnaia Okhranka, 1918

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 6

Worksheets on the assignment of secret agents 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 7

Dispatches regarding the exemption of secret agents from military service 1908, 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 8

Dispatches concerning secret agents, referring to two or more persons, on general matters 1902-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
 

Deep cover agents by name

Scope and Contents Note

Includes dispatches, correspondence, intelligence reports, telegrams, photographs, Headquarters circulars, notes, and clippings
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Abramov, code name "Maksim," pseudonym "Krivtsov" 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Abramov, Isaak Leontievich, pseudonym "Germain" or "Zhermen," "Isaev," "Charpentier" 1907-1917

Scope and Contents note

Includes 3 case reports about him and 60 intelligence reports by him

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Acket, A.G. 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Albaum (also Elbaum), Kalman Khaimov, code name "Corpulent" 1910-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Alberti, Genrikh Genrikhov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

"Alfredi," true name not established 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 9

Ankerman, Wulf Zalmanov, code names "Belii" and "Fayvel-Tokar'" 1909-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Baikovskii, Nikolai, code name "Guichon" 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Barkov, Mikhail 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Beitner, Lev Dmitriev, aliases "Levushka," "Moskvich," "Kraftov," and "Kyung" 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

"Belov," code name only

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

"Belozerskaia," code name only

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

"Blits, Aleksandr," code name only

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Blokhin, Vasilii Grigorievich, pseudonym "Bartenev," code name "Eniseiskii," revolutionary alias "Sibiriak" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Blum (Bloom), code names "Rakhmetov" and "Lomov"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Briandinskii, Matvei, pseudonyms "Krapotkin," "Viatkin" and "O. duPerrier" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Brodski, Boleslaw 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Brontman, E. Gershkovich, code names "Niel," "Permiak," "Khitrii," and aliases "Naum," "Tovarishch Sasha," "Aleksandr Etr" 1911-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 10

Brzozowski, Stanislaw Valentevich, code names "Maevski" and "Poniatovski" 1909-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 11

Chinekova, Khaia 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 11

Chizhikov, Boris (Berko), code name "Iost," pseudonym "Neudorf" 1902-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 11

Cielecki, Alexandre 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 12

Demetrashvili, Andrei Gavrilovich, code names "Skoss," "Maloross," and "Ross" 1913-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 12

Dlikman (Glikman), Movsha Mordkov, code name "Ballet" 1907-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 12

Dobroskokov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 40
Index IIIf, Folder 13

Dolin, Ventsion Moiseev-Moshkov, code names "Lenin," "Aleksandrov," "Sharl'," "Polonski," passport names Heichsberg and Eisenberg 1909

Scope and Contents note

Includes notes and reports on his work abroad and in Russia as a double agent for the Germans

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 13

Dorozhko, Fedor, code names "Moliere" and "Clermont" 1907-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 13

Drezner, Ilia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 14

Edelstein, Vladimir Iudov, pseudonym "Troitsin" 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 14

Erofeev, Leonid Mikhailov, code name "Falstaff" 1913-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 14

Eropkina, Matrena Trofimova (mistress of agent Brontman) 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 14

Evalenko, Aleksandr Martov, code names "Surin" and "Sergeev," pseudonyms "Ivanchenko" and "Kuznetsov" 1894-1911

Scope and Contents note

Includes intelligence reports from New York

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 15

"Fedorov," true name not recorded 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 15

Feldman, record of name only 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 15

Finkelman, Leiba Peisakhov, pseudonyms "Lerner Pinkhas" and "Rakovskii"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 15

Fleishman, Abram Simon, code name "Alma," pseudonym "Luchinetskii" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 15

Fudim, code names "Plemianik" and "Anri" 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 16

Germand, Isaak Naumovich, code names "Adolf" and "Kosmopolit," pseudonym "Orlovskii" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 16

Ginsberg, Pavel, code name "Valerian" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 17

Goldendakh, Evgenii Iulievich, code name "Das," pseudonym "Poznanskii" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 17

Goncharov, Iakov Dementiev, code name "Ivanenko" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 17

Grunbaum, alias "Monser" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 18

Gudin, Vasilii Grigorievich, code name "Nei" and pseudonym "N. Chuzhak" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 41
Index IIIf, Folder 19

Herzig, Boris Iakovlev, pseudonyms "Dmitrii Bekchiev" and "Danchik" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 19

"Iris," no true name 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 19

Jacobson, Georges, code names "Corbeau" ("Korbo") and "Voronov," pseudonym "Mikhnevich" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 19

Jenken (Enken, Zhenken): record of name only 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 20

Joulia (Zhulia), Liubov (Aimee), code name "Jourdain" 1909-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 21

Kagan, Ilia, pseudonym "Nikolai Chekan," code name "Serezh" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 21

Kaplun, Boris, code name "Petrov" 1906-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 42
Index IIIf, Folder 22

Kensitski, Mechislaw, code name "Mietek," pseudonym "Ivanovich" 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 22

Khamchik, Boleslaw Antonov, code names "Molodoi" and "Le Jeune" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 22

Kheev, code name "Mikhnev" 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 22

Kogan, Boris Veniaminovich, code names "General" and "Aleks," names for correspondence "Demidov" and "Petrov," and pseudonym "Andrey Andersen" 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 22

Kokochinskii, Ignatii Moshkov, code name "Gretchen," alias "Pavel" 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

Koraev, A. 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

"Kozlov," true name not recorded 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

Kozlov, Vladimir Timofeev, code name "Uiarskii" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

Krevin, Wilhem Ianov, code name "Mars" 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

Kuranov, Mikhail, code name "Mont," pseudonyms "Serebriakov" and "Visotskii" 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 23

Kurianskii, Gersh Shliomovich, code names "Karno," Sachkov," and "Maks," passport name "Grigorii Svetlitskii" 1905-1918

Note

Available on microfilm reel 43
Index IIIf, Folder 24

La Cotta, name for correspondence "G. Biesinski" 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 24

Lauter

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 24

Lebedev 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 24

Lemerov 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 24

Lisovskii, Ivan Ivanovich, code names "Belkin," "Levitskii," and "Tsipin" 1908-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 24

Lvov, Fedor 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Malankiewicz, Boleslaw, code name "Wierzbicki" 1892

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Manasevich-Manuilov, Ivan Fedorovich 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Mass, Aleksandr, code name "Nikol"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Mazurenko 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Melas, Grigorii Anastasievich 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Meltser, S. 1886-1889

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 25

Metalnikov, Nikolai Ivanoch, code name "Gushchin" 1908-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 26

Milewski, Wladislaw, code name "Agent M." 1886-1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 26

Model, Aaron Iakov Khaimov-Itskov, code name "Martin" 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

Nadel, Boris 1895-1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

Orekhov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

Orlov, Albert Mikhailovich, code name "Simens," pseudonym "Zuckerman" 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

Osadchuk

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

Osipov-Veretskii, code name "Bernard," aliases "Ninov" and "Kliachko" 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 27

"Otto" 1907-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 44
Index IIIf, Folder 28

Patrick, George, code names "Margot" and "Never" for operations in Europe, and "Lucy" for New York 1907-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reels 45-46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Pauli

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Persitz, Isaak 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Petrova, Mariia Lvovna, code name "Julieta" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Pilenas, Peter, code name "Russell" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Pokhitonov, N.D. 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Popov, Anton Platonovich, code names "Amerikanets" and "Polnii," alias "Timofei," and pseudonym "Daniel Semenov" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Poznanskii, Leiba (Lev) Amshaev, code name "Kodak" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 29

Prodeus, Daniil 1886-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rabinovich, Georgii Ivanovich, pseudonym "Georgii Romanovich" 1906-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rapoport, code names "Starkov" and "Zilberman," former agent offering his services from Pittsburgh 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rauzen, code name "Lazar" 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Recouly, Raymond, code name "Ratmir"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rezeler, August 1886

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rodstein, Lazar Z., code name as Burtsev's secretary "Valerian" 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Romanova, Avgusta Matveevna, code name "Shultz," alias "Aushka" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 30

Rusinov, Mikhail Arkadiev, code names "Prevo" and "Markin" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Sanvelov, Minas Stepanovich, code names "Lebuk" and "Kozel" 1913-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Savinkov, Aleksei Mikhailovich, code name "Francois" 1913-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Segal, Miron, code name "Vladimirov" 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Selivanov, Nikolai Petrovich, code names "Weber" and "Amurets"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Shipov, I. 1909

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Germany

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 31

Shneur (Shnour), Vladimir Konstantinovich 1910-1918

Note

Available on microfilm reel 46
Index IIIf, Folder 32

Shtakelberg, Baron Sergei Aleksandrovich, code name "Pierre," pseudonym "Bronskii," and alias "Petrovskii" 1913-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 32

Shuman, code name "Denisov" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 32

Shuster, Ianus Erdmanov, code names "Paul" ("Pol") and "Novii" 1910-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 33

Sibiriakov 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 33

Sotnikov, Matvei, allias "Allard" and "Byvalii" 1910-1918

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 33

Staal (or de Staël), Aleksei Georgievich, code name "Zverev" 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 33

Starov, name for correspondence "Basil Solovev" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 33

Sugarman, Albert

Scope and Contents note

Reports on his exposure in London

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Tannenbaum, Melamed, code name "Naum" 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Tchernycheff (Chernychev) 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

"Teatral" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Ternovskii, pseudonym "Belevich"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Tomarinson, Mikhail Borisov, code names "Maksakov" and "Mekhanik" 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Tsetlin, Tatiana Maksimova, pseudonym "Maria Tsikhovskaia" 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Usov, Sergei N., code name "Voda," pseudonym "Andrei Savron" 1909-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Vielland

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Vigdorchik 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Virovoi, Zakhar Ivan, code name "Orlik" 1911-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 34

Voskresenskii, Mikhail, aliases "Mishel'," "Popovich" and "Aleksandr" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 47
Index IIIf, Folder 35

Wackman, Yakov Efimovich, code name "Rossini" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

Walbiner, Franz, pseudonyms "Zharkov" and "Zhenevets" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

"Warszawski" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

Wolf (Vul'f), A.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

Wolfson, Yakov 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

"Yost" ("Iost" and "Tetelman") 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 35

Yurcha (Iurcha), Vasilii 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 36

Zagorskaia (or Zagorskii), Mme., code names "Sharzh'," "Sharli" and "Shalnoi" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 36

Zhitomirskii, Iakov Abramovich, code names "Daudent" ("Dode") and "H," pseudonyms "Rostovtsev" and "Shorin" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 36

Zinovev, Aleksandr, code names "Senator," "Moris," and "Matisse," passport name "Zolotarenko" 1908-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 36

Zlobin, pseudonym "Zaks" 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 37

Papers, mostly receipts, of case officer Litvin and his agents 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 38

Operational card index file of agent names, code names, aliases, pseudonyms, etc.

Note

See card file in box 233 or on reels 494-497

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 39

Notebook of unidentified agent in Balkans and Italy

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 40

File of true names, code names, aliases, and pseudonyms

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIf, Folder 41

Cross-reference sheet

Index IIIf, Folder 42

Reference: For telegram on agent Mikheev, see XIIIb(2), folder 4

Index IIIf, Folder 43

Reference: For the case of agent "Valerian" (Ginsberg) see IIf, folder 12

Index IIIf, Folder 44

Reference: For a collection of reports of agent Kokochinskii ("Gretchen") on Russian and Polish Social Democratic parties, see XIIIa

Index IIIf, Folder 45

Reference: For operational reports of Litvin, chief of the London agentura, handling agents "Niel," "Ney," "Weber," and "Simens," 1915-1916, see IIb, folders 7-10

Index IIIf, Folder 46

Reference: For letters and raw reports in French, Polish, and Russian by agents in London, 1891-1902, see XIIIa

Box: 25-26

g. Cover firms

Scope and Contents Note

Okhrana Headquarters was opposed to the use of private investigation agencies as an aid to its establishments abroad. When the system of handling scores of non-Russian operatives through Bittard-Monin's office in Paris collapsed as a result of exposures made by the revolutionary counter-intelligence (Burtsev), proposals were made to resort to the use of private detective agencies in Paris and other cities. Headquarters still turned down the recommendation. It was inconceivable that detectives of a private agency could perform as effectively as the directly hired agents, controlled through Bittard-Monin's office, for maintaining surveillance, reporting and receiving instructions whenever necessary, and tailing the subversives, at times all the way to the border or into Russia to "deliver" them there to authorities.
When Headquarters finally agreed on the organization of a private agency run by Bint and Sambain, both long-term Okhrana agents, it had the guarantees that the agency would be under absolute control of the Okhrana office in Paris. The act of incorporation and strict adherence to the French laws were measures taken for cover purposes, just as all the preceding acts of publicly dismissing Okhrana investigators were done for the sake of cover and, also, as a convenient opportunity, to dismiss for good the less effective oepratives.
The folders on the establishment of the "Bint and Sambain" agency contain acts of incorporation, accounts, and, by far the most interesting part, the memoranda exchanged on the matter giving opinions of the Paris and Petersburg chiefs, as also some voluminous comments of the MVD.
Another cover firm, of short duration (1910-1911) was the office of the "Police internationale autonome" in Paris. This agency proved to be inadequate and was probably responsible for one of Headquarters' prohibitions against the use of foreign detective agencies. The "Russian Imperial Financial Agency" in London served as cover for agent Palmer in 1906-1909. Agent Germain's proposal to set up a cover firm for intelligence activities in Vienna was probably never acted upon. On the other hand, principal agent Eugene Invernizzi in Italy, still reporting to Bittard-Monin's office in Paris, was delegated to establish a firm in Rome to cover the activities of some six or seven Italian agents working for the Okhrana.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 48-50
Index IIIg, Folder 1

Dispatches on the service of Okhrana agent W. Palmer with the Imperial Russian Financial agency in London 1906-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIg, Folder 2

Dispatches concerning the order from headquarters to break off with private investigation agencies 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIg, Folder 3

Dispatches on the plan for a cover agency in Italy; report of agent "Tourist" (Jollivet); dispatch on Bittard-Monin's tour in Italy 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIg, Folder 4

Dispatches regarding Vienna agent Germain's proposal to set up a cover firm for intelligence activities 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIg, Folder 5

Dispatch reporting on Krasil'nikov's search for cover firms in Paris; includes his notes on the proposed Bint and Sambain firm 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 48
Index IIIg, Folder 6-9

Bint and Sambain Firm 1913-1916

Scope and Contents note

Includes articles of incorporation

Note

Available on microfilm reel 49
Index IIIg, Folder 10

"La Police Internationale Autonome" (Marc and Georges Fourny); reports to Bittard-Monin on Russian revolutionaries; newspapers, leaflets 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 50
Index IIIg, Folder 11

Reference: For Broetskii's memorandum recommending the establishment of a cover firm (1913), see IId, folder 6

Index IIIg, Folder 12

Reference: For operational reports of Invernizzi's investigation agency in Italy (1914-1915), see IIIe, folder 14

Box: 26-34

IV. Administrative

Box: 26-28

a. Budget and financial management

Scope and Contents Note

Okhrana financing in Paris was handled by the Headquarters directly, without transmittals through the diplomatic or consular mission. The Crédit Lyonnais was the principal banking agency for the transfer of funds. The practice was to submit a monthly account on expenditures, with details on recipients of the salaries and on the expenditures for the Okhrana Office personnel and other needs. Detailed accounts were also customary on non-Russian agents, expenditures for the safe houses, office, and other physical needs, while the accounts for secret agents and secret operations were noted as such, with lump sums designated for case officers accounted for without listing the names or accounting for specific operations. In rare instances, where expenditures on secret agents had to be mentioned, only code names were entered on the accounts. ; The first two folders in this collection contain largely an assortment of dispatches, such as complaints to Headquarters for irregularity in sending funds, requests for increases in appropriations, estimates, and allotments.
Accounts for each month, as well as annually on occasions, were submitted in tabular form, with columns for receipts and detailed disbursement. In Folder No. 2, the first document is a large tabular of the same accounting for 1914. Systematic monthly accounting was introduced only in 1912. Folders Nos. 6 through 15 for the period from 1912 through 1917 are organized separately with sets of final papers, often with accompanying dispatches for Headquarters, in one folder and the various work sheets for each month's accounting in another.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 50-55
Index IVa, Folder 1

Dispatches, financial reports, and other materials 1886-1916

Scope and Contents note

Includes budget estimates and requests, personnel needs, and per diem allowances

Note

Available on microfilm reel 50
Index IVa, Folder 2

Budget report 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 50
Index IVa, Folder 3

Dispatches pertaining to routine budget matters 1890-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 51
Index IVa, Folder 4

Dispatches pertaining to routine budget matters 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 51-52
Index IVa, Folder 5

Drafts of financial reports 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 52
Index IVa, Folder 6

Drafts of financial reports 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 52
Index IVa, Folder 7

Monthly accounting 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 53
Index IVa, Folder 8

Drafts of financial reports 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 53
Index IVa, Folder 9

Drafts of financial reports 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 53
Index IVa, Folder 10

Notes and drafts on monthly accounts 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 54
Index IVa, Folder 11

Monthly financial reports 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 54
Index IVa, Folder 12

Notes and drafts on monthly accounts 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 54
Index IVa, Folder 13

Monthly financial accounts 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 55
Index IVa, Folder 14

Notes and drafts on monthly accounts 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 55
Index IVa, Folder 15

Notes and drafts on monthly accounts 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 55
Index IVa, Folder 16

Cross-reference sheet

Index IVa, Folder 17

Reference: See operational card index for references to financial accounting at the Paris Okhrana office

Box: 28-29

b. Salaries, subsidies, rewards, decorations

Scope and Contents Note

Despite frequent complaints from non-Russian agents in the field because of the shortage of funds or delays in salary payments, the Okhrana abroad was habitually prompt in alloting funds for salaries and other expenditures. It was generous with monetary rewards to agents who merited them and in granting pensions to retired personnel and widows of deceased agents. Some of the generosity towards retired personnel might have been attributed to security considerations, to keep content and quiet the agent dismissed from the service. The delays in salaries were often attributed to the fact that the agents were most of the time on assignments that required much travel and changes of residence. Also, they were paid through the principal agent in Paris whose office was occasionally responsible for the delays.
The first folder in this collection contains mostly dispatches relating to all types of payments and awards, thus revealing the policy in general from 1890 until the end of Okhrana operations. Subsequent folders contain various specific matters on salaries, bonuses, casual assistance, and pensions. Folder 6 contains mostly receipts of the staff agents and their financial statements, while Folders Nos. 7 and 9 are for receipts, claims, and records of payment for the non-Russian agents. Instructions on the issuance of decorations and gifts are in Folder No. 8, together with documents on individual awards to agents and employees.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 55-57
Index IVb, Folder 1

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office concerning decorations, bonuses, payment of agents, and personal matters 1890-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 55
Index IVb, Folder 2

Dispatches pertaining to funds transfers 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 55
Index IVb, Folder 3

Dispatches concerning financial matters of Paris office personnel 1904-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 56
Index IVb, Folder 4

Accounts and dispatches acknowledging payments of deep cover agents and case officers 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 56
Index IVb, Folder 5

Dispatches relating to pensions and casual assistance to former agents or their widows 1895-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 56
Index IVb, Folder 6

Payments and receipts of staff agents Erhardt, Rek and Lustig 1910-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 56
Index IVb, Folder 7

Dispatches regarding salaries and travel expenses of French and Balkan agents 1903-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 56
Index IVb, Folder 8

Dispatches regarding gifts and rewards paid to agents and personnel 1890-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 57
Index IVb, Folder 9

Account and receipt books kept by principal agent Marcel Bittard-Monin for salaries of non-Russian agents 1909-1912

Note

For accounts on agents, see also individual files under IIIe, folder 3, and VId

Note

Available on microfilm reel 57
Index IVb, Folder 10

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 30

c. Expense accounts

Scope and Contents Note

The first three folders of this collection contain a considerable number of dispatches and accounting sheets. In the absence of any documents with formal instructions on the handling of expense accounts, these papers may best illustrate the procedures in the handling of accounts in overt office matters or contingent to secret operations. Much of these and subsequent materials, as in Folder No. 4, consist of loose work sheets or slips of paper used in compiling accounts.
Folder No. 5 with 433 papers arranged by years as indicated in the inventory, is an unassorted, loose collection of stray expense account slips, some undated, some with none or only a few sheets per year, with the collection for 1913 fairly complete in rendering expense accounts with folios and receipts for individual non-Russian agents. Folders No. 6 and 7 are for papers pertaining to expense accounts of the staff agents, officers Lustig, Likhovskii, Rek, and Erhardt.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 57-59
Index IVc, Folder 1

Dispatches and accounting sheets pertaining to office expense accounts 1911-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 57
Index IVc, Folder 2

Dispatches pertaining to allowances for expense accounts for office staff 1903-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 58
Index IVc, Folder 3

Dispatches pertaining to allowances for expense accounts of Russian and non-Russian agents 1906-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 58
Index IVc, Folder 4

Accounting worksheets 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 58
Index IVc, Folder 5

Agents' expense accounts 1887-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reels 58-59
Index IVc, Folder 6

Dispatches pertaining to expense accounts and per diems for Lustig and Likhovskii 1908-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 59
Index IVc, Folder 7

Dispatches pertaining to expense accounts and per diems for Rek, Lustig, and Erhardt 1910-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 59
Index IVc, Folder 8

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 30-33

d. Receipts and check stubs

Scope and Contents Note

Folder no. 1 contains dispatches and memoranda concerning funds received by the Paris Office for agents and special expenses for the period from 1910 to 1916. All other folders are statements for banking transactions, bills of the Paris Office for rent, office equipment, stationery, telephone, etc., and similar bills for Bittard-Monin's office, each set in a separate folder. The boxes numbered 8 and 9 hold postal and monetary stubs for communications and credits addressed to European countries and Russia. These small items are arranged in chronological order only.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 59-66
Index IVd, Folder 1

Correspondence concerning the receipt of funds for the Paris office 1909-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 59
Index IVd, Folder 2

Agents' travel expenses

Note

Available on microfilm reels 59-60
Index IVd, Folder 3

Banking operations in France and other countries

Note

Available on microfilm reel 60
Index IVd, Folder 4

Expenses connected with the Paris office: rent, office equipment, telephone, furniture, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 60
Index IVd, Folder 5

Expenses connected with the Paris office: rent, office equipment, telephone, furniture, etc. (contd.)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 61
Index IVd, Folder 6

Expenses connected with the Paris office: rent, office equipment, telephone, furniture, etc. (contd.)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 61
Index IVd, Folder 7

Receipts from agents (Bittard-Monin)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 62
Index IVd, Folder 8

Receipts for registered mail, telegrams, and money orders paid in various European countries

Note

Available on microfilm reels 62-65
Index IVd, Folder 9

Receipts for registered letters sent to Russia (1914-1915); expense slips of surveillance agents

Note

Available on microfilm reels 62-65
Box: 34

e. Correspondence on procedures, instructions, from Headquarters

Scope and Contents Note

The dispatches, memoranda, and drafts in Folder No. 1 contain various Headquarters directives on the method, form, contents, etc., necessary in the preparation of reports for Headquarters. Changes of addresses and codes for addresses are designated. The correspondence also includes tracer notes on delayed correspondence, requests for extra copies of reports for deposit in Headquarters archives, regulations on dispatches in pouches, requests for statement of sources when information has been obtained from foreign liaison, etc. Since there are no documents giving specific instructions on the handling of operational and intelligence reports, this collection may serve as an illustration of the procedures in the handling of correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris Office.
The collection in Folder No. 2, with documents dated from 1890 to 1916, holds instructions from Headquarters on procedures to follow in preparing surveillance reports, handling perlustration, writing telegraphic messages; and instructions on Paris Office procedures, office forms, searches for documents, preparation of answers to inquiries, and similar specific requests.
Folder No. 3 contains periodic tables of information requests from Headquarters, with notations of completed answers by the Paris Office, and accompanying notes in the form of accounting for which Headquarters requests for information were answered and when. Folder No. 4 contains only samples of Paris Office operational folders, with all contents removed.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 66-67
Index IVe, Folder 1

Documents pertaining to correspondence procedures, instructions from Headquarters, etc. 1902-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 66
Index IVe, Folder 2

Dispatches and notes on office and surveillance procedures, instructions on the form of the reports submitted to Headquarters, the composition of telegrams, etc. 1890-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 66
Index IVe, Folder 3

Record of directives and requests for information and dispatches in answer to inquiries 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index IVe, Folder 4

Folders for documents on the organization of the Okhrana abroad

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index IVe, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 34-37

V. Liaison

Box: 34

a. Policy of the Tsarist regime with regard to national and international security systems

Scope and Contents Note

The alert attitude of the Okhrana toward the possibility of close liaison and cooperation with the security establishments of other countries was a notable trait that distinguished the MVD agency from diplomatic, military, and other official missions of the Russian Empire. While the latter were bound by strict protocols, the Okhrana's chiefs abroad, often on a personal and friendly basis, communicated with the French Sûreté or Scotland Yard and, at the same time, with various local subordinates of the security establishments. Even the long title of the Okhrana Chief in Paris stated that he was the representative of the MVD for contact with local (security) authorities abroad.
European governments, most of which had suffered from the assassination of state leaders by anarchists and early Marxists, were as a rule quite amenable to cooperation against the essentially international terrorists. Thus, when the government in St. Petersburg took the initiative in 1904 for international cooperation against political criminals and subversives, ten countries signed the secret pact to that effect, and others followed. This step toward international security was further expanded with another pact in 1913, also signed in Russia. Liaison efforts were thus given strong official sanction.
From a more practical side, Okhrana principals abroad tried to build up close cooperation on the basis of personal contact and tokens of friendship. They saw to it that foreign security leaders were adequately rewarded with medals from the Emperor or extended other favors.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 1

Dispatches and other documents referring to liaison arrangements with the security organs of various countries 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 2

Dispatch from Headquarters in St. Petersburg warning against any secret conferences with the French Sûreté in matters concerning political refugees (anarchists), which only an international convention can regulate 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 3

International agreement concerning the extradition and cooperation against anarchists, signed on March 14, 1904, in Petrograd; dispatches concerning ratification from the Swiss and British governments 1904, 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 4

International action connected with the Tiflis holdup 1908-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 5

Buisson's proposal for an international action against terrorists 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 6

Forms for the recipients of Russian decorations

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 7

Address book of foreign security officials

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Va, Folder 8

Cross-reference sheet

Index Va, Folder 9

Reference: For excerpts from the text of the secret agreement on anarchists in St. Petersburg with Germany, Austria, Denmark, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Norway, Turkey, and Bulgaria, see Circular No. 3806 (1904) in XIIId(1), no. 9

Box: 34-35

b. Relations with the French Sûreté

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana's relations with the French Sûreté Générale and other government organs were subject to greater rises and falls in the degree of cooperation than in any other country. Intense campaigns of the revolutionaries in emigration and the supporting liberal press of France often led to attacks upon the French Parliament, with repercussions in executive arms of the government, and thus to cooling-off periods in the Okhrana-Sûreté liaison. Invariably, the efforts of the chief in Paris, state visits, some outrageous act of terror, or other causes cemented the relations again into close and, at times, truly amicable relations.
Folders Nos. 3 and 4 contain documents related to the liaison activity exchange of information and assistance in operations against the revolutionaries. Folder No. 5 contains mostly dispatches between Headquarters and the Paris Office, dealing for the most part with instructions, and suggestions regarding French liaison.
Other materials in these folders are mostly informative. The Okhrana Office kept the annuals of the French Sûreté, information on Sûreté personnel and functions for reference purposes. Some of the documents show that the Okhrana made background and character studies of French officials with whom it intended to seek cooperation. The three volumes with mounted photographs on terrorist construction use of bombs, one containing illustrations from Russian techniques, are indicative that these materials were exchanged in liaison for training purposes.
Much of the liaison exchange with the Sûreté was carried out by the office of Marcel Bittard-Monin, the Okhrana's principal agent in charge of non-Russian operatives. He and several of his subordinates were former Sûreté officials or agents. As such, they were particularly well qualified for liaison with former colleagues at almost any level of the Sûreté or police departments. The advantage of having access to police records at various local levels was realized much before the engagement of Bittard-Monin. The many thousands of biographic notes prepared in the 1890s and early 1900s by agent Fehrenbach were copied from the various police records to which he had access in Paris as in many other communities of France.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 67-69
Index Vb, Folder 1

Annals of the French Sûreté, 1910 and 1914; 1 set of addresses of police officers in Paris; 1 chart on the police network in Paris; 7 reports on French statesmen (1882-1887); and 3 old warrants from the Paris police (1858-1905) 1858-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 67
Index Vb, Folder 2

Correspondence referring to decorations and gifts to French Sûreté officials 1886-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 68
Index Vb, Folder 3

Correspondence of the Paris Okhrana with the French Sûreté 1887-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 68
Index Vb, Folder 4

Cooperation of the French Sûreté with the Paris Okhrana 1887-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 68
Index Vb, Folder 5

Dispatches and notes exhanged between Headquarters and the Paris office 1893-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vb, Folder 6

Books prepared by the French Sûreté with graphic illustrations for training French policemen on the methods of the terrorists 1884-1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vb, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vb, Folder 8

Reference: For receipts for decorations, signed by French officials, see IVb

Index Vb, Folder 9

Reference: See outgoing telegram, April 16, 1904, reporting that Delcasse has given information about a possible assassination attempt on a Russian minister, in XIIIb(2), folder 3.

Box: 35

c. Relations with Scotland Yard

Scope and Contents Note

Liaison with Scotland Yard and other organs in Great Britain differed significantly from the liaison with the French Sûreté. There were no ups and downs or cooling-off periods, but a steady businesslike cooperation. If at all affected by the virulent attacks upon the Okhrana by such staunch and usually respectable supporters as Prince Kropotkin and his "school" or the Jewish Bund in London, the available documents do not show it. In fact, the Okhrana's liaison with the British improved over time, particularly when war broke out. Chief Krasil'nikov's friendly correspondence with Chief Quinn of Scotland Yard shows close and genuine cooperation.
Close liaison developed especially after 1912. Several of the Okhrana's British agents in London had passed away. Krasil'nikov approached Quinn to designate a capable British person to run the British agents in the surveillance of Russians in England. After due deliberation of some months, Quinn recommended one of his beat inspectors, Francis Powell, who by the end of that year became the principal agent for England. His assisting agents were all former Scotland Yard men.
Supplementary information to the contents of the folders in this collection may be found in file IIb (London outpost) and the folders on agent Powell in IIIe and VIk.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 1

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office 1890-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 2

Correspondence between the London police and the Paris Okhrana 1897-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 3

Correspondence between the Paris Okhrana and the London police 1897-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 4

Samples of agents' reports from London 1907-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 5

Lists of British police officials recommended for decorations 1907-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 69
Index Vc, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vc, Folder 7

Reference: For address book of foreign security officials, see Va, folder 7

Index Vc, Folder 8

Reference: For agent Farce's reports from London on penetration of Scotland Yard by the Okhrana in 1905, see VIIIa

Index Vc, Folder 9

Reference: For agent Thorpe's letters from London on cooperation with the London police, 1907-1908, see VIIIa

Index Vc, Folder 10

Reference: For cooperation with Scotland Yard on the Houndsditch robbery by the anarchists, see XVIb(5), folder 1

Box: 35-36

d. Relations with the German Sicherheit

Scope and Contents Note

Because of the German federal system, a centralized liaison as in England and France could not be established. An outstanding and long term contact was maintained with the police directorate in Berlin, the head of which, Wilhelm Henninger, maintained almost regular correspondence with the Okhrana chief in Paris. The contents of his intelligence and operational notes do not reveal that he was himself a high level Okhrana agent, but they illustrate amply that he must have been a sizeable recipient of the Okhrana's benefits.
There were close relations also with police chiefs controlling special political departments in Munich, Darmstadt, and Hamburg. As far as the Okhrana was concerned, Berlin and the Prussian Sicherheitsdienst were the key liaison targets, not so much because of the concentration of the revolutionaries there, but because of the proximity of the Russian borders and overland routes for subversives, arms and literature smugglers, and terrorists.
Close cooperation in Berlin was partly the result of Garting's early efforts. He was chief of the Okhrana agentura there from 1901 to 1905 and was accredited as such by the Germans. They caused him some trouble when it was made known that, apart from liaison, Garting had under him also some German agents, but the affair was straightened out after Garting's assignment to Paris.
Folder No. 1, assorted only chronologically, contains correspondence with a large number of city and state police directorates, including samples of exchanged information on revolutionaries, smugglers of arms (Hamburg), apprehension of revolutionary bandits with marked bank notes (Munich, Berlin). Folder No. 2 has dispatches with Headquarters, dealing with liaison, while the lists of officers named for decorations and awards include primarily people on both sides of the liaison, cooperating in various tasks.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 70-71
Index Vd, Folder 1

Letters regarding correspondence with German police in various cities, including police director Henninger in Berlin and chiefs in Munich, Darmstadt, Frankfurt, etc. 1899-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 70
Index Vd, Folder 2

Dispatches between Headquarters and the Paris office regarding cooperation with the German police 1901-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 70
Index Vd, Folder 3

Decorations and awards for German police officials 1890-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 70
Index Vd, Folder 4

Coordination with German security for measures taken to guard traveling Imperial majesties 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vd, Folder 5

Drafts and letters referring to smuggling of arms into Russia 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vd, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vd, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming 1904 telegram commenting on an article in Petite République denying any role in the arrests of socialists in Germany, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index Vd, Folder 8

Reference: For intelligence reports on arms shipments from Germany, 1906, see XXIVh

Box: 36

e. Relations with the Italian Sicurezza

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana's cooperation with the Italian police, intelligence, and diplomatic authorities was both overt and secret. Italy, too, was a signatory to the St. Petersburg treaty for cooperation in the suppression of subversives, and the number of Italian anarchists named in Okhrana Headquarters warning lists and on biographic cards is considerable. (Even the name of the young Benito Mussolini came into the Okhrana records.)
In Paris, liaison with the Italians was first made through the Embassy, and cooperation with the Italian Military Attaché, Wenzel (probably in the Okhrana's pay), was particularly active until his expulsion from Paris. The documents coming from the Rome and other questuras are illustrative of the exchange of information. The arrangement of Okhrana representatives with Italian local authorities, particularly the post offices in the towns of the Italian Riviera, for mail intercepts were clandestine and of course illegal, ending at times in scandal that had to be aired in the Rome parliament.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Ve, Folder 1

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office 1906-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Ve, Folder 2

Dispatches relating to cooperation with the Italian authorities 1902-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Ve, Folder 3

Decorations and rewards for Italian police officials 1909-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Ve, Folder 4

Correspondence with the Italian military attaché 1909-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Ve, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 36-37

f. Relations with police of other countries

Note

Available on microfilm reels 71-73
Index Vf, Folder 

Austria

Scope and Contents Note

Despite the fact that Austria-Hungary was partner in the pact for cooperation in combatting international terrorists, there is little trace of any liaison between the Okhrana and the Austrian services. The folders include a set of letters in which information is exchanged with the Vienna police directorate about subversives, but no instance is on record, as in the liaison with the Prussian Sicherheit, of cooperation in detecting and apprehending smugglers of bombs and terrorists on the border. As a matter of record, the Galician border was a favorite spot for illegal crossing along the Prussian border; yet, while at the latter locations, the Okhrana could frequently count on German assistance, it had to rely upon its own resources for tailing and apprehending terrorists crossing the Austrian borders.
The lack of cooperation with Austria may be attributed to mutual suspicion. Both countries had rebellious minority nationalities, and it appears that neither was unhappy over the other's problems on the identical issue. To add fuel to this embryonic cold war situation, the Okhrana frequently detected Austrian agents crossing Into Russia. (See the files on pre-World War I counter-espionage under Index Number VIIIa.)
Index Vf, Folder 1

Dispatches relating to cooperation 1886-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vf, Folder 2

Cooperation between the Vienna police and the Paris Okhrana 1896-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vf, Folder 3

Drafts of letters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vf, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vf, Folder 5

Reference: For address book of foreign security officials, see Va, folder 7

Index Vf, Folder 

Belgium

Scope and Contents Note

The lively liaison of the Okhrana with the Belgian services had its beginnings in the mid-1890s, after the marriage of Garting, later Okhrana chief in Berlin and then Paris, to a Belgian socialite and noblewoman. Garting,an Okhrana agent since 1890, became influential among the important government circles and thus did more to insure a steady exchange of information, essentially at the top level of the country's services. Most of the bulky intelligence correspondence of the Paris Okhrana with Belgium is thus through the Director of the Sûreté Publique in the Brussels Ministry of Justice.
From the standpoint of Okhrana operations abroad, Brussels and the Belgian ports were of primary importance since much of the smuggling of arms, forbidden literature, and conspirators en route to Russia went through Belgian ports.
Index Vf, Folder 1

Correspondence with the Belgian police, requesting data on Russian revolutionaries 1896-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 71
Index Vf, Folder 2

Information on Russian revolutionaries and their organizations sent by the Belgian police 1904-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 3

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office 1906-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 4

Reports from Paris Okhrana agents working in Belgium 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 5

Decorations and rewards for Belgian police officials 1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 6

Undated notes on Russian individuals

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vf, Folder 8

Reference: For address book of foreign security officials, see Va, folder 7

Index Vf, Folder 9

Reference: See report from the Russian consulate in Antwerp, February 4, 1905, in Vg.

Index Vf, Folder 

Switzerland

Scope and Contents Note

The documents in Folder No. 1 contain some correspondence with the chiefs of the Swiss federal services, indicating some liaison and resulting exchanges of information at that level. The major part of cooperation, however, was at the canton and municipal police levels at Bern, Zurich, Geneva, Lausanne, and several minor communities. The most productive in obtaining intelligence on the activities of Russian conspirators, residing in considerable numbers in Switzerland,was the liaison on strictly local levels. Thousands of reports submitted by agents Bint, Woltz, and others from various Swiss cities from 1900 to 1915 are copies from the local Swiss police registers. Their access to information was on a personal, friendship, or business basis, but some intermediary through liaison at a slightly higher level than the police station counter may be spotted in the correspondence collected in the two folders. Sometimes, the liaison on this local, agent basis went even a step further. A police official was placed on the Okhrana payroll, supplying not only information on revolutionaries but assisting in operations against them. (Example: See the folder on agent Treichler, police official in Zurich, in Ille, Folder No. 3.)
Index Vf, Folder 1

Dispatches related to cooperation between the Swiss police and the Paris Okhrana 1895-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 2

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office related to cooperation with the Swiss authorities, including the case of the extradition of Burtsev and Krakov 1894-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 72
Index Vf, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index Vf, Folder 4

Reference: For address book of foreign security officials, see Va, folder 7

Index Vf, Folder 1

Denmark 1893-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 2

Holland 1894-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 3

Hungary 1908-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 4

Monaco 1907-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 5

Romania 1905-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 6

Serbia 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 7

Spain 1906-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 8

Sweden 1904-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 9

Turkey 1894-1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 10

United States 1910, 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vf, Folder 11

Reference: For address book of foreign security officials, see Va, folder 7

Index Vf, Folder 12

Reference: For two letters sent from Sambain reporting on his talks with security chiefs in Stockholm, in June 1916, see XIc(1)

Index Vf, Folder 13

Reference: For responses in "Free Russia" and other press to the pending United States-Russia pact on the extradition of terrorists, 1893, see XVIa

Box: 37

g. Relations with missions abroad

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana office in Paris was located at all times in the same complex of buildings as the Imperial Embassy; the agentura in Berlin was in the house of the Imperial Consulate, and, when its staff representatives were on duty in other capitals, their office address was that of the respective diplomatic or consular mission. Administratively, Okhrana establishments abroad had nothing else in common with any other Russian mission. Operationally, they were as closed to the offices representing Russia as to any foreign office.
The correspondence in the folders of this collection does not reveal incidents of serious friction between Okhrana chiefs abroad and the diplomatic and consular representatives. Conferences on individual problems are referred to, such as the Okhrana chief's briefing on current matters. Frequently, the diplomat or consul would inquire about some applicant's loyalty or character record. Normally, inquiries and replies became part of the written record. Both Russian and non-Russian applicants for Okhrana employment usually addressed themselves to the embassy or consular office. Such and similar correspondence was turned over to the attention of the Okhrana. (See Index Nos. VIa and VIb, containing letters of prospective recruits.)
Relations with the military mission in Paris, particularly after the Allied intelligence was centralized, became close, with daily exchanges of information in matters of counter-espionage as well as other intelligence topics. (See Index No. lIe and VIIIb, on wartime counter-espionage.)
The four folders in this collection are organized as to separate correspondence with the Russian Embassy and Consulates in France, the military mission in Paris, the imperial missions in other countries, and specially with Russian missions with regard to arms smuggling.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 73-74
Index Vg, Folder 1

Correspondence between the Paris Okhrana and the Russian Embassy and consulates in France 1887-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vg, Folder 2

Correspondence with the Russian military mission in Paris 1915-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vg, Folder 3

Correspondence of the Paris office with Russian foreign service posts in Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Berlin referring to arms smuggling into Russia 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 73
Index Vg, Folder 4

Correspondence between the Paris Okhrana and Russian foreign service posts in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Germany, Holland, Italy, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States 1891-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 74
Index Vg, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 37-62

VI.Personnel administration: agents

Box: 37

a. Recruitment of agents: Russian nationals

Scope and Contents Note

No document in this collection gives comprehensive instructions concerning the recruitment of agents. In many cases, Russian agents abroad, as a rule in the deep cover category for active participation among target groups, were sent to the field by Headquarters or by provincial Okhrana establishments to report directly back to the home units. At first the Paris Okhrana was responsible for them administratively. Gradually, agents were placed under case officers abroad for reporting and other operational control.
The Paris Office exchanged with Headquarters scores of dispatches concerning agents sent abroad who were considered ill-suited for operations for such assignments, with the result that final authority in recruitment actually came under the Paris Office or its major staff agents running secret operations.
The dispatches and other papers in Folders Nos. 1 and 2 contain communications on individuals offering services or proposed for employment. When an applicant wrote, he received no answer, whether he was considered for employment or not. If the case appeared promising, he was investigated as to his domicile, character, loyalties, or any of the aspects he introduced in his petition. If the investigation agent's report was favorable, the individual was approached casually and clandestinely, according to the circumstances in each case.
Many documents pertaining to recruitment of agents are located in the agents' dossiers. (See Index No. Illf, Folders 9-36.)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 74-75
Index VIa, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to the recruitment of Russian agents 1889-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 74
Index VIa, Folder 2

Dispatches pertaining to the recruitment of Russian agents 1910-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 74
Index VIa, Folder 3

Letters from individuals offering their services to the Okhrana 1886-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 75
Index VIa, Folder 4

Dispatch from Headquarters with instructions concerning sending an agent to the United States 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 75
Index VIa, Folder 5

Dispatch concerning the difficulty of recruiting new agents abroad and keeping deep cover agent Weber in London 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 75
Index VIa, Folder 6

Undated notes, including two letters requesting employment

Note

Available on microfilm reel 75
Index VIa, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIa, Folder 8

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 30, April 24, 1903, regarding the hiring of agents by Okhrana offices, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Box: 38

b. Recruitment of agents: foreign nationals

Scope and Contents Note

The hiring of foreign nationals was the responsibility of the field establishment. Headquarters, which received many petitions for employment from abroad, abstained from even commenting on their merits, but forwarded all such letters to the Paris Office for consideration. Only in a few instances, as in the case of a Hungarian swindler named "Tulipan" coming with an offer to uncover a major assassination conspiracy, did Headquarters request serious exploration of the case.
Much of this correspondence came from adventurers and professional job seekers, but the Okhrana could not afford to disregard the offers completely, especially when the offers for employment suggested the uncovering of plots or information convincing enough that the applicant might have access and capability to acquire the desired intelligence information.
Kany of the offers came from private detectives and people with years of experience in investigation work. If interested, the Okhrana first tried to obtain information from the service with which the applicant had allegedly worked. More often, however, the Okhrana made a direct approach to the chiefs of services when on the lookout for agents with that qualification. Thus, it happened that most of the efficient personnel engaged by the Okhrana abroad were former investigation agents and detectives with various European services.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 75-77
Index VIb, Folder 1

Offers of services to the Okhrana: dispatches on offers received, comments, etc. 1887-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reels 75-76
Index VIb, Folder 2

Offers of services to the Okhrana: dispatches on offers received, comments, etc. 1910-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 76
Index VIb, Folder 3

Applications for work with the Okhrana 1902-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 76
Index VIb, Folder 4

Undated applications for work with the Okhrana

Note

Available on microfilm reel 76
Index VIb, Folder 5

Offers of services dropped by the Okhrana without further consideration 1887-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 76
Index VIb, Folder 6

Requests for employment; investigation reports on the applicants 1908-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIb, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 38

c. Blackmail in recruitment

Scope and Contents Note

There is no record to indicate the Okhrana abroad resorting to blackmail as inducement to recruiting, as often reported by critics of the old system using such practices in Russia proper. On the contrary, the revolutionary counter-intelligence conducted by Vladimir Burtsev in Paris used such methods when detecting and exposing Okhrana agents operating among the revolutionaries. Under threat of death as a form of punishment, such exposed agents were blackmailed into participation in some dangerous terrorist task. (See XXIVa and XXIVb.)
This folder contains letters and notes on individuals who had either been in the Okhrana service or attempted to work themselves into the service or other favors by way of threats. ' Much of this correspondence was addressed to Bittard-Monin, principal agent for the handling of non-Russian personnel.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 1

Letters to Bittard-Monin from unidentified people 1910-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 2

Unidentified letters 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 3

Unidentified telegrams 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 4

Unidentified notes

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 5

Various unclassified notes and letters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VIc, Folder 6

Intercepted letters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Box: 39-41

d. Handling of agents

Scope and Contents Note

Many general instructions on the handling of overt investigation agents and deep cover agents are contained in the directive circulars from Headquarters, collected under Index Number XIIId(l). However, certain practices in the handling of agents in Russia could not be applied in the operations abroad.
The collection under this topic is a wide assortment ranging from clear-cut instructions from case officers to subordinate agents to complaints from the field and action taken by the case officer or the chief in Paris in response to complaints. Headquarters apparently did not interfere with the details on agent handling, but often showed concern with regard to the area of assignment (see Folder No. 1).
Folder No. 2 contains communications of Russian agents in the field, including various complaints. The complaints of the non-Russian agents are located among replies, operational instructions, communications regarding salaries and assignments, etc., in Folders 3-9, which are arranged chronologically for the period from 1901 to 1917. Folders 10- 13 are on the handling of agents in England, Germany, Austria, and Italy.
Friction among non-Russian agents was almost a common occurrence. This could not be the situation among the deep cover Russian agents, who, in principle as well as in practice, did not know each other's identities. The non-Russian crews had to work in teams, but seldom for more than a few weeks at any one time. The composition of each team was in constant flux, just as the place of operation for the individual agent was subject to endless changes. At one time or another, most non-Russian agents complained about their principal agent Bittard-Monin and the leaders of the teams. These complaints were usually addressed to the Paris chief himself and, in a few instances, directly to Headquarters in St. Petersburg. Folder No. I4 is illustrative of the complaints.
Neither French nor Italian agents appeared happy when the team leader was a German ?in this instance, Neuhaus, who explains his relations with other agents. French and Italian agents got along better, but there were instances where the French could not stomach their own kind. The younger set of agents considered such old-timers as Bint overbearing, and it was evident from the assignments on special, more difficult tasks that the crews usually needed a touch of cnoteling, with much consideration as to who might team best with whom. The team in England under Francis Powell never appeared to have personality difficulties prevalent on the Continent, but it happened that the agents there were a more cohesive and collegiate group. They were all mature men with identical, Scotland Yard backgrounds.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 77-82
Index VId, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to the assignment of agents in Berlin, London, and Paris 1907-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VId, Folder 2

Letters and telegrams from Russian agents abroad 1907-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
 

Instructions, operational notes, and other materials for agents in France and other countries

Index VId, Folder 3

1901-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 77
Index VId, Folder 4

1912 January-May

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 5

1912 June-August

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 6

1912 September-December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 7

1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 8

1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 9

1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 78
Index VId, Folder 10

Papers pertaining to the handling of agents in England 1892-1917

Scope and Contents note

See also IIIe, no. 3, for folders on agents Francis Powell and Farce

Note

Available on microfilm reels 79-80
Index VId, Folder 11

Papers pertaining to the handling of agents in Germany 1905-1914

Scope and Contents Note

See also IIIe, no. 3, for the folders on agents Neuhaus and Woltz

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 12

Letters and telegrams from agent Tuppinger in Vienna 1911

Scope and Contents note

See also IIIe, no. 3, for the folder on Tuppinger

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 13

Notes on the scandal with the Italian post office cooperating with Okhrana agents 1913

Note

For agent handling in Italy, see the folders on Capusso, Durin, Frumento, Invernizzi, Leone, and Vizzardelli in IIIe, no. 3

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 14

Agent Neuhaus's account on relations with other agents 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 15

Notes on investigation assignments for agents

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 16

Sheet of items to be noted in filing a description of an individual under surveillance, issued to all non-Russian agents

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 17

Letters from agent Bint on his assignment to Christiana 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 18

Two notebooks of principal agents 1903, 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
 

Receipts for agent expenditures and travel accounts 1910-1917

Index VId, Folder 19

1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 80
Index VId, Folder 20

1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 81
Index VId, Folder 21

1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 81
Index VId, Folder 22

1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 81
Index VId, Folder 23

1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 81
Index VId, Folder 24

1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 81
Index VId, Folder 25

1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VId, Folder 26

1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VId, Folder 27

Reference: See operational card index for references to dispatches pertaining to the handling of agents

Index VId, Folder 28

Reference: See directive circulars, in XIIId(1)

Index VId, Folder 29

Reference: See commendations and criticisms of the behavior of agent Henry Bint in IIIe, folder 3

Box: 41

e. Backstopping of agents, verification

Scope and Contents Note

The collection in this folder is rather meager in consideration of the emphasis and amount of effort the Okhrana placed on working out cover stories for its agents and verifying the stories where the agents themselves prepared all the alibis vis-a-vis the revolutionary groups of their assignment. As a rule, the cover story for an agent assigned abroad had its beginning in Russia. The elements of such a story always had to be at least half way true for purposes of verification by the revolutionaries, which was always taken for granted. The agent had to have a record of revolutionary background in his home community. He had to have proofs, letters of introduction or the equivalent to make it possible for him to gain access to the revolutionaries abroad. If posing as an escaped political prisoner, his mere words to that effect were quite inadequate. If he had to prove that his income abroad was from a rich uncle in Briansk, it was not enough to show the money order received; the uncle actually had to live in Briansk, for the revolutionary counter-intelligence had developed to a point where it could verify almost every such story.
In assisting with cover stories, the Paris Okhrana depended heavily on the home offices. The wartime case of double agent Dolin (alias "Lenin"), engaged by the Germans but controlled by an Okhrana case officer in Paris, is an outstanding illustration of the capabilities of the Russian service to backstop its operative by staging explosions attributed to his sabotage work for the Germans, issuing bulletins about it to the press, and providing alleged revolutionary support to satisfy the Germans about "their agent." (See Index Number Illf, Folder No. 13, on Dolin.)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIe, Folder 1

Dispatches illustrating the Okhrana's practice of backstopping agents with cover stories, verifying information, and agent reliability 1896-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIe, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIe, Folder 3

Reference: See IIIf, folder 13, on agent Dolin ("Lenin," "Charles")

Box: 41

f. Training and placement of agents

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 1 in this collection contains instructional materials for the agents. Instruktsia No. 298 gives the regulations on surveillance methods which had to be learned by the agents. Bibliographies on revolutionaries are included and briefs on Russian revolutionaries in France were required reading for agents. In addition to such briefs, important agents were given, for study and recognition, albums of photographs of the important revolutionaries.
Folder No. 2 includes dispatches and various notes relative to the training of Russian secret agents sent to Europe for the purpose of familiarizing themselves with the activities of revolutionaries abroad. Among these papers is an extensive draft commenting on the lack of qualifications of Russian agents abroad (dated July 1913). In Folder No. 3 the documents relate to the second and third tours of agent trainees sent from Russia to study revolutionaries and their activities abroad. At the end of the collection are two letters of principal agent Bittard-Monin, complaining about the behavior of Russian trainees.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 82-83
Index VIf, Folder 1

Instruktsiia no. 298 1909

Scope and Contents note

Printed regulations on the organization of surveillance work, with appended forms for making reports, including two sheets in French

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIf, Folder 1

Brief on Socialist Revolutionaries agitating among the peasants 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIf, Folder 1

Bibliographies of revolutionary publications kept by the Okhrana, some of which were required reading for agents 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIf, Folder 1

Rapport. Training brief on Russian revolutionaries in France 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 82
Index VIf, Folder 2

Dispatches concerning the training of agents 1886-1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes draft of a dispatch on the lack of qualifications of Russian agents for work in the West

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIf, Folder 3

Dispatches and other materials relating to three tours (1911-1913) of trainees from Russia assigned abroad for study and recognition of revolutionaries 1910-1913

Scope and Contents note

Includes letters by Bittard-Monin complaining about the Russian trainees

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIf, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIf, Folder 5

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 50, September 11, 1903, regarding the procedures to be followed in assigning agents on various missions, in XIIId(2), folder 2

Box: 42

g. Evaluation of agent information

Scope and Contents Note

No document is available in this collection to describe Okhrana rules or practices in evaluating intelligence information obtained from its many sources. Principal agent Bittard-Monin had his own system of analysis of raw reports for final submission to the Paris Office. (See his three notebooks in this collection.) The dispatches exchanged with St. Petersburg often refer to the evaluation, analysis, and dependability of contents and reporters. Critical analysis of certain reports may be observed also in some of the folders in Xllla.
Folder No. 1 contains some specific examples of the analysis of information, such as prepared by case officer Lt. Colonel Lustig on the reports from secret agent Demetrashvili. The practice of analyzing reports may be observed also in the maintenance of intelligence target files on revolutionaries, their organizations and activities. (See XIIIf(3).) One of the purposes of maintaining reference files to intelligence topics was to have ready access to available information for comparison with incoming reports and their evaluation.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIg, Folder 1

Dispatches referring to the evaluation of agent information, dependability of reports, etc. 1887-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIg, Folder 2

Notes journalières. Book of principal agent Bittard-Monin on agent reports 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIg, Folder 3

Agent Bittard-Monin's notes on revolutionaries from agent reports 1908-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIg, Folder 4

Agent Bittard-Monin's notes on revolutionaries from agent reports 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 83
Index VIg, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 42

h. Checking on agents with regard to security, behavior, veracity

Scope and Contents Note

This collection of materials on the subject of how the Okhrana at home and abroad maintained control over the agents includes little more than a sampling of the methods. The documents under other index numbers on agents and techniques of operation contain much scattered material on this subject. For instance, the folders on senior employee Sushkov, who came under suspicion in 1914 as the possible informant of Burtsev and his counter-intelligence office, are illustrative of the measures taken to uncover his attitudes and activities. Particularly in the early stages of employment, deep cover agents were under much observation. Checking on their veracity and true loyalties was often a fairly simple matter since these agents did not know each other, and quite frequently there were two of them reporting on the same persons and events.
Folder No. 1 in this collection contains mostly dispatches exchanged with Headquarters concerning instructions on security checks, loyalty, and general behavior of the agents and employees. Other folders cover more specific cases of checking on individual or groups of agents or on the methods used to exert control over them.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 1

Dispatches containing instructions and reports on security checks, loyalty, behavior of agents, and the control of their activities 1905-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 2

Reports from Bint on his tour to Switzerland to inspect the performance of French and Swiss agents 1912 February-March

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 3

Non-Russian agents' signatures kept in a separate file as a control measure 1911-1913

Note

For other signatures, see VIc

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 4

Dispatch concerning the constant surveillance of Azef in 1907; dispatches regarding the identification of an agent with contacts with Okhrana defector Bakai; instructions from Headquarters to border outposts to refuse certificates to Okhrana agents 1907-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 5

Dispatches, notes, and reports revealing checks on the loyalty, activities, etc. of deep cover agents: Beitner, Blokhin, Demetrashvili, Eropkina, Geiger, Kaplun, Kokochinskii, Kozlov, Krevin, Kuranov, Mass, Model, de Shneur, Virovoi, and Zinovev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 6

The case of the Pilenas brothers, agents in London 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 7

Dispatches and other materials on the surveillance of agent Model traveling to Russia in 1914; the Leone-Fontana scandal in 1912; agent Nobel's checking on the story that the revolutionaries intended to use airplanes; instructions forbidding agents to make statements of any connection with the Russian embassy

Note

Available on microfilm reel 84
Index VIh, Folder 8

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIh, Folder 9

Reference: For two dispatches from Krasil'nikov in 1915-1916 criticizing case officer Litvin on handling deep cover agents, see IIIb

Box: 42

i. Informers

Scope and Contents Note

This category of people working for the Okhrana abroad is probably the most illusive and difficult to classify. The collection in no way reflects the total number of informers. Every known Russian agent of some standing was bound to develop his own informers in the police stations, post offices, among hotel and railroad station attendants, and the like. The raw reports frequently refer to such sources of information, at times also listing the tips spent on them.
At all times, however, the Okhrana also kept on the payroll a number of correspondents (see the last document in Folder No. 2), sometimes referred to as informers. This group was subject to constant change -- a correspondent developed into a full-fledged agent, a casual informer into a permanent one, or even to a full agent. '
The dispatches and notes collected in Folder No. 1 are general with regard to informers, with requests for verification of their information and the like. Folder No. 2 deals with specific individuals supplying information. Folder No. 3 contains materials from freelance and unsolicited types, probably the least reliable. Much of this represents denunciations among the émigré, derogatory letters, usually anonymous, and therefore not used in the preparation of the Okhrana's intelligence reports.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 85-86
Index VIi, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to informers or their information, requests for verification, etc. 1894-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 85
Index VIi, Folder 2

Okhrana files on informers containing correspondence with Alaev, Aleksandrov, Chambault, Dadiani, Dengart-Dizhur, Giovanni, Gruzevich, Korchanov, Kliuchereva, Minkvits, Prolsdorfer in New York, Riant, Rusinskii, Rusnev, Steinberg, Stiglits, Zhdanovskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 85
Index VIi, Folder 3

Letters from informers, denunciations, reports of revolutionaries, etc. 1890-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 86
Index VIi, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 43-48

j. General collection of information prepared by non-Russian agents

Scope and Contents Note

This extensive collection of non-Russian agent reports is presented chronologically and, to some extent, by areas. The to inventory gives also the names of the key agents and some of the leading revolutionaries and groups, subjects of their reports.
Despite the size of the collection, it includes only a fraction of the total of the non-Russian agent reports. The bulk of these is under Index Numbers VIk and Xllla, the firfct one containing the reports of important non-Russian agents at given periods and tasks, the second including the raw reports used in the analysis of information and preparation for dispatches to Headquarters. Thus, as an example to researchers who might be interested in the reports of principal agent Bint (who served the Okhrana from 1884 to 1917), they would find it expedient to search first through Bint's folders under VIk, then look for the years missing through the general folders in VIj. Similarly, for reports on all other non-Russian agents, the approach should be to search first under the agent's name in VIk, then in VIj.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 86-101
Index VIj, Folder 1

1884-1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 86
Index VIj, Folder 2

1888-1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 87
Index VIj, Folder 3

1891-1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 87
Index VIj, Folder 4

1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 87
Index VIj, Folder 5

1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 87
Index VIj, Folder 6

1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 7

1897

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 8

1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 9

1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 10

1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 11

1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 12

1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 13

1903-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 88
Index VIj, Folder 14

1905

Scope and Contents Note

Includes reports on revolutionaries Kropotkin, Natanson, Braginskii, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 89
Index VIj, Folder 15

1906

Scope and Contents Note

Includes notes on arms shipments from northern European ports

Note

Available on microfilm reels 89-90
Index VIj, Folder 16-17

1907

Scope and Contents Note

Includes agent reports in French on leading revolutionaries: Trotsky, Martov, Bakunin, Voronov, Karelin, Malinovskii, Minor, Khrustalev-Nosar, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reels 90-91
Index VIj, Folder 18

1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 92
Index VIj, Folder 19

1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 92
Index VIj, Folder 20

1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 92
Index VIj, Folder 21-25

1911

Note

Available on microfilm reels 92-94
 

1912

Index VIj, Folder 26-30

Paris

Note

Available on microfilm reels 94-96
Index VIj, Folder 31

Other parts of France

Scope and Contents Note

Includes surveillance accounts of Savinkov and his group

Note

Available on microfilm reel 96
Index VIj, Folder 32

Belgium

Note

Available on microfilm reel 97
Index VIj, Folder 33

London

Note

Available on microfilm reel 97
Index VIj, Folder 34

Denmark

Note

Available on microfilm reel 97
Index VIj, Folder 35

Germany

Note

Available on microfilm reel 97
Index VIj, Folder 36

Italy

Note

Available on microfilm reels 97-98
Index VIj, Folder 37

Switzerland

Note

Available on microfilm reels 98-99
Index VIj, Folder 38

Austria

Note

Available on microfilm reel 99
Index VIj, Folder 39

1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 100
Index VIj, Folder 40

1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 100
Index VIj, Folder 41

1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 100
Index VIj, Folder 42

1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 101
Index VIj, Folder 43

1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 101
Index VIj, Folder 44

Undated

Note

Available on microfilm reel 101
Index VIj, Folder 45

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 49-61

k. Important non-Russian agents

Scope and Contents Note

Only Folder No. 1 of this collection contains dispatches on agents, with contents of minor significance but pertaining to individuals under whose names many of these folders are organized. The collection is actually a continuation of the preceding one in V1j. The folders contain the work of outstanding agents at given periods or on specific assignments. That means that not all the product of any one of the agents is assembled herein, but only the outstanding periods of productivity or reports on specific and outstanding assignments. The inventory of this collection is fairly detailed as to the names of the operatives, their targets, and the periods covered. Each folder is arranged chronologically, with undated reports placed at the end.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 101-126
Index VIk, Folder 1

Dispatches relating to individual non-Russian agents 1905-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 101
 

Reports organized by agent

Index VIk, Folder 2

Aebersold, Jean 1911

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports from London on the surveillance of Prince Kropotkin and participants in the Houndsditch bombings

Note

Available on microfilm reel 101
Index VIk, Folder 3-8

Bint, Henry 1887-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 101-103
Index VIk, Folder 9-18

Bittard-Monin 1908-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 103-105
Index VIk, Folder 19

Corrot, Raoul 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 106
Index VIk, Folder 20

Delangle, Charles 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 106
Index VIk, Folder 21

Demaille, Emile 1898-1901

Scope and Contents note

Includes letters to Richter (Rachkovskii) reporting from Bern, Geneva, and Copenhagen on various revolutionaries

Note

Available on microfilm reel 106
Index VIk, Folder 22

Durin, Henri 1908-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 106
Index VIk, Folder 23

Farce, E. 1892-1907

Scope and Contents note

Reports with information on the "Free Russia" group, anarchists, Burtsev, Poles, and Jews in London, revolutionary arms shipments, etc. Perlustration of revolutionary correspondence. For additional reports of Agent Farce, see IIb, folder 2.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 107-108
Index VIk, Folder 24

Feuger, Fernand 1912-1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on Bartenev, Azvolinskii, and Barthold

Note

Available on microfilm reel 108
Index VIk, Folder 25

Fehrenbach, J. 1890-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reels 109-114
Index VIk, Folder 26-27

Fontaine, Paul (Hamard) 1911-1915

Scope and Contents Note

Reports on the surveillance of Savinkov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 115
Index VIk, Folder 28

Gottlieb, Rene 1913-1917

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on surveilance in Paris of Burtsev, Argunov, and Bessel

Note

Available on microfilm reel 115
Index VIk, Folder 29

Hebrais, A. 1913-1917

Scope and Contents Note

Includes reports on Savinkov, Fabrikant, Fundaminskii, and others of the fighting unit of the Socialist Revolutionaries

Note

Available on microfilm reel 115
Index VIk, Folder 30

Hennequin, Edmond 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 115
Index VIk, Folder 31-32

Invernizzi, Eugene (Nizzi) 1908-1917

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Socialist Revolutionary leaders on the Italian Riviera

Note

Available on microfilm reel 116
Index VIk, Folder 33-34

Jollivet, Georges (Roberts), his son Raoul, and his wife 1911-1916

Scope and Contents note

Operational reports until October 1913 on surveillance of individual revolutionaries in Italy, and after October 1913 as a double agent in Burtsev's intelligence office

Note

Available on microfilm reels 116-117
Index VIk, Folder 35

Laurent, Bernard 1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris and Serbia (with agent Cazayus), on surveillance of the revolutionary Bessel

Note

Available on microfilm reel 117
Index VIk, Folder 36

Lévęque, Eugène 1905, 1912

Scope and Contents note

Includes 1905 reports on surveillance of Azef, Burtsev, Iudelevskii, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 117
Index VIk, Folder 37

Neuhaus, Heinrich 1905-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 118
Index VIk, Folder 38

Pouchot, Auguste 1912-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris on surveillance of Burtsev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 118
Index VIk, Folder 39

Powell, Francis 1912-1917

Note

See also IIb

Note

Available on microfilm reel 119
Index VIk, Folder 40

Richard, Mme. G. (Jane) 1911-1914

Scope and Contents note

22 reports from 1914 when she became a double agent in Burtsev's office

Note

Available on microfilm reel 120
Index VIk, Folder 41

Rigault, C. 1890-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 120
Index VIk, Folder 42

Sambain, Albert 1903-1917

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Burtsev, Krakov, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 120

Note

For reports on the cover firm "Bint et Sambain," see IIIg; and for documents on Sambain's mission to Scandinavia, see XIc(1)
Index VIk, Folder 43

Thorpe, Michael 1907-1911

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on Kropotkin and other anarchists in England

Note

Available on microfilm reel 121
Index VIk, Folder 44

Tuppinger, Hans 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 121
Index VIk, Folder 45

Vogt, Maurice 1908-1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes his reports on Savinkov and others in 1911-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 121
Index VIk, Folder 46-53

Woltz, Karl 1903-1915

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Switzerland, Germany, Paris, Copenhagen, Helsinki, and St. Petersburg on Fabrikant and others

Note

Available on microfilm reels 121-126
Index VIk, Folder 54

Berlin Agentura, with Neuhaus, Prodeus, and Woltz under case officer Barkov 1901-1905

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on revolutionaries Bach, Bainov, Banin, Buchholtz, Elisarov, Frankel, Fundaminskii, Kalmikov, Kuznetsov, Levidi, Makhovets, Oglobin, Siapkin, Struve, Tsederbaum, Vinogradov, Wiese, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 126
Index VIk, Folder 55

Reference: See outgoing telegram #140, February 3/16, 1917, with information that Bint was banished from Switzerland in 1903 and was arrested for returning in XIIIb(2), folder 34

Index VIk, Folder 56

Reference: See incoming telegram, February 8, 1917, requesting information on Bint's arrest, in XIIIc(3), folder 34

Index VIk, Folder 57

Reference: See incoming telegram, February 27, 1917, about Bint's appeal from a Swiss prison, in XIIIc(3), folder 34

Index VIk, Folder 58

Reference: See incoming telegram, March 4, 1917, about with instructions for Bint's release from prison, in XIIIc(3), folder 34

Index VIk, Folder 59

Reference: See incoming telegram, March 4, 1917, with instructions for payment to Bint's wife, in XIIIc(3), folder 34

Box: 62

l. Purges: dismissal of agents

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 1 in this collection, containing Okhrana and departmental dispatches related to the dismissal of agents, illustrates some of the procedures in the problem of getting rid of agents no longer useful to the service. The problem for the Paris Office was at least two-fold. With regard to secret agents (Russian), decision on dismissal was usually based on agreement with Headquarters. Either of the two centers made the proposal on the ground of inaction of the agent, morality, or the fact that the agent had been exposed as such by the revolutionaries and therefore incapable of continuing the activities among them.
With regard to the dismissal of investigation agents (non-Russians) the difficulties for the Paris Office were often of major proportion. Despite their generous treatment, with liberal termination pay, ex-agents were fond of resorting to various forms of blackmail, suits in the courts, or defection to revolutionaries. They knew the vulnerability of the service and liked to capitalize on it.
When the entire Paris network was dismissed in 1913, the Okhrana, to play safe, methodically made each agent sign the receipt for termination pay, an oath that he had returned to the Okhrana all notes, photographs, communication codes, etc., and another oath that he would not divulge any information about the service. (See Folder No. 4.) The system helped, but not enough. Some agents still turned to the counter-intelligence office of the revolutionaries to tell what they knew and thus to ingratiate themselves for a job with Burtsev.
Folder No. 3 contains Headquarters circulars on ex-agents or people no longer considered trustworthy. Also, it published periodically the names of agents who had been recognized and declared provocateurs.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 127
Index VIl, Folder 1

Dispatches relating to the dismissal of agents for reasons of exposure, lack of confidence, morality, etc. 1903-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 127
Index VIl, Folder 2

Letters, notes, and other materials relating to dismissed agents Poznanskii, Tumarinson, Dlikman, Gurevich, Rabinovich, Le Cointe, and others 1910-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 127
Index VIl, Folder 3

Headquarters circulars on dismissed former secret agents no longer considered trustworthy 1909-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 127
Index VIl, Folder 4

Termination folders for 30 individual non-Russian agents who were dismissed in October 1913, when the Paris Okhrana was publicly terminated 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 127
Index VIl, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 63

VII. Positive intelligence

Box: 63

a. Military, political and economic

Scope and Contents Note

The Paris Okhrana at various times received instructions from Headquarters forbidding all participation in military or any other form of intelligence except that of its specific assignment: collection of information on the exiled subversive elements and their activities. There are many instances, however, showing considerable interest in general intelligence information in time of peace, while in time of war actual operations were mounted to obtain intelligence outside the usual or approved scope of functions.
Manasevich-Manuilov, Okhrana staff officer, mounted operations for the penetration of diplomatic establishments and the Japanese communications system prior to and during the war of 1905. After the outbreak of World War I, the Okhrana abroad converted much of its activity to the war effort, including positive intelligence against the Central Powers. (See VIIc.)
It seems obvious from the extreme variety of contents of the materials in this collection that the Okhrana had no systematic approach to gathering positive intelligence. At times the reports probably came as by-products of counter-intelligence efforts, and seldom, if ever, as a result of specific assignments for the purpose.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches, drafts and notes 1887-1912

Scope and Contents note

Includes instructions on military intelligence, 1905; climate in Algiers, 1887; report of the Catholic mission to Persia and Turkey, 1893; Japanese policy, 1905; German nationalist propaganda; the Masonic order; labor unions; International Parliamentary Union; Austria's policy toward Serbia, 1912; etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIa, Folder 2

Wartime intelligence reports 1915-1916

Scope and Contents note

Includes status of the "Cosmos" society, 1915; Japanese policy, 1915; economic and other intelligence in Sweden, 1915; French-British loans in the United States, 1915; Conference of Nationalities in Paris, 1915; military situation in Sweden, 1916; Czechoslovak leaders; etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIa, Folder 3

Newspaper clippings and notes

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIa, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIIa, Folder 5

Reference: See incoming telegram, May 7, 1904, requesting information on submarine dealers, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index VIIa, Folder 6

Reference: See incoming telegram, November 17, 1904, reporting on ship movements through the Suez canal, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Box: 63

b. Industrial espionage in Great Britain

Scope and Contents Note

Paris Okhrana dispatches to Headquarters and the reports of case officers stationed in London frequently referred to the policy of the British authorities on shipping, labor unions, leftist organizations, and the like. There is little evidence, however, of any methodical intelligence reporting on England. This folder contains a collection of photographs on British naval units and establishments, evidently derived from some intelligence reporting, but there is no evidence that such material was sent to Okhrana Headquarters. It may have been passed on to the military missions in the field interested in such collections.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIb, Folder 1

Photographs with captions in English, showing British naval units and other establishments

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIb, Folder 2

Cover note for copy of agreement between Lloyd George and various British labor unions 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Index VIIb, Folder 3

Comments on the Russo-English Government Committee 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 128
Box: 63

c. Wartime political, economic, and other espionage in Germany and Austria

Scope and Contents Note

The chronological arrangement of papers in this collection illustrates the Okhrana's approach to the job of collecting information on the Allied Powers. As all contact with pre-war agents was broken, Okhrana representatives in Switzerland engaged in sending Swiss operatives to Vienna and various German cities. The outstanding agent, Brunner, was caught on the second successful tour and soon thereafter perished in a German prison. Replacements were found. The results of these operations are significant in the concentration of the morale of the population, nature of propaganda, economy, and living standards, as well as other sociological aspects of the enemy. Also, the Okhrana showed considerable interest in the status of prisoners of war and German propaganda to foment nationalist and Marxist uprisings within Russia.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 128-129
Index VIIc, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Okhrana agents in Germany and Austria 1914-1917

Scope and Contents note

Agent reports in German with French translations. Briefs of agents, questionnaires on political, economic, and other intelligence items. Information on Russian prisoners of war. One copy of Russkii vestnik, published for prisoners of war

Note

Available on microfilm reels 128-129
Index VIIc, Folder 2

Reference: For report on the arrest of Okhrana agent in Vienna, May 1915, see VIIIb

Box: 63

d. Intelligence on military equipment

Scope and Contents Note

As in other matters of military intelligence, the Okhrana probably referred all information on arms to the interested military attaches. The small folder on this subject indicates, however, that there was some direct reporting to St. Petersburg Headquarters when information was received as a by-product of other operations. A 1905 draft refers to the remuneration of an agent obtaining information on Austrian artillery. The amounts of money to be paid sufficiently high (6,000 Marks) to suggest an important collection of information on the subject.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIId, Folder 1

Dispatches for staff agent Manasevich-Manuilov; report concerning information on Austrian artillery 1904-1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIId, Folder 2

Correspondence concerning a French model of an armored car 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIId, Folder 3

Dispatch relating to the assignment of agent Poniatovskii for military intelligence 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIId, Folder 4

Intercepted letter and reports regarding Mikhail Vinogradov in London offering newly designed weapons to Russia 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Box: 63-65

VIII. Counter-espionage

Box: 63

a. Prior to World War I

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana's initial operations abroad were almost entirely of a general counter-intelligence nature: assembling and exploiting information on the subversive groups abroad. Gradually, there appear in the files documents of two counter-espionage categories: intelligence against hostile agents of foreign powers and information concerning the emerging intelligence service of the revolutionaries.
Folder No. 1 of this collection contains a few of the early counter-espionage documents on Germans allegedly working against France and Russia. Several Headquarters circulars give background information on Austrian and German espionage agents. There is an alert on an American sent to Russia on behalf of the Japanese service, and a note on Esterhazy of the Dreyfus affair in the British service against Russia. Several papers deal with Alexander Weissman, at one time in the Russian service (the Balkan Okhrana) and then defecting to the Austrian service. Some of the documents concern the "Japanese millions" allegedly paid to Russian high officers in a bribe in 1905. At the end of the folder is a collection of clippings concerning various espionage cases in Europe.
Folder No. 2 includes only documents referring to the operations' of Manasevich-Manuilov, a staff agent-at-large. The last documents in this set pertain to his operation that succeeded in acquiring a Japanese secret code book and using it for a short time until the Japanese discovered the intrusion. The book, Chernovik donesenii gives a day by day account of Manasevich-Manuilov's network penetrating various diplomatic missions and following up the Zilliacus and Dekanozi conspiracies (with the Japanese).
Folder No. 3 in this set gives three volumes of the Spisok (Roster) of foreign nationals expelled from Russia and not permitted to return. The issues are for 1891, 1894, and 1899. Among these undesirables are all those considered as spies of foreign governments.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 129-130
Index VIIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches, circulars and other materials relating to espionage cases and agents 1886-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIIIa, Folder 2

Documents pertaining to Manasevich-Manuilov's counter-espionage operations and his case with obtaining and using Japanese secret code 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIIIa, Folder 3

Roster of foreign nationals expelled from Russia and not permitted to return 1891, 1894, 1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 129
Index VIIIa, Folder 4

Notebook, Chernoviki donesenii, case officer's entry of daily reports from 1905 on operations against the Japanese mission (Colonel Akashi), Chinese, Serbian, and other legations, and correspondence intercepts; Zilliacus and Dekanozi conspiracies, list of agents participating, etc. 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 130
Index VIIIa, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIIIa, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 74, February 26, 1904, concerning an Austrian espionage agent in Poland, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index VIIIa, Folder 7

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 75, March 4, 1904, on Japanese and German espionage in Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index VIIIa, Folder 8

Reference: See incoming telegram, November 4, 1904, advising of the arrival of a Japanese espionage agent in Bucharest, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Box: 63-65

b. During World War I

Scope and Contents Note

Soon after the outbreak of World War I, the Paris Okhrana became an important link in the Allied efforts to combat the espionage activities of Germany, Austria, and even Turkey. The activities of the seriously reduced personnel, both secret Russian agents and non-Russian investigators, had to be diverted to that task, thus neglecting the original purpose of watching and controlling the revolutionaries. Some revolutionaries, declaring themselves in favor of war against Germany and thus actively supporting the Russian regime, no longer needed watching, while others, such as the Leninist group, with their defeatist and essentially pro-German policy, in many instances became identical with the counter-espionage targets of the enemy.
The extensive materials in this collection are indicative of the varied counter-espionage targets of the Paris Okhrana during the war. Folder No. 1 contains copies of dispatches and notes on agents of the Central Powers and their intelligence activities and efforts to foment uprisings in Russia. Folders 5 and 6 have a large collection of biographic data on German agents in Switzerland and France, and Folder No. 13, Headquarters circulars on individual agents.
Most of the material in other folders is grouped by specific topics. Thus, Folder No. 3 contains notes on Nashe slovo and Trotsky, banned as pro-German; Folders Nos. 7 and 10 have notes on German intelligence in Sweden, with information on Parvus's activities and the work of the Finns on behalf of Germany; Folder No. 8 contains papers on the Benson case and German espionage in Switzerland.
Some of the folders have papers on the Okhrana's counter-espionage operations for purposes of penetration of the enemy, as for instance Folder No. 2 on double agent Dolin ("Lenin"-"Sharl"), which was in fact a counter-sabotage operation, or Folders 4, 10, and 15, giving information on the Okhrana's attempted counter-espionage.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 130-131, 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 1

Dispatches and other materials on agents of Germany, Austria, and Turkey working against Russia and the Allies; use of revolutionaries for intelligence purposes and for fomenting uprisings in Russia 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 130
Index VIIIb, Folder 2

Dispatches on double agent Dolin (code names "Lenin" and "Sharl") engaged by the German service and controlled by the Okhrana; news releases to mislead the German service, etc. 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 130
Index VIIIb, Folder 3

Notes from Nashe slovo, Trotsky's daily newspaper, accused of being pro-German and banned 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 130
Index VIIIb, Folder 4

Correspondence with and about Count Holstein 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5a

Biographic cards and lists of persons selling intelligence in Switzerland 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5b

Reports on German spies and suspects in Switzerland 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5c

Swiss federal lists of spies and suspects 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5d

Agent Woltz's reports on spies and suspects 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5e

Notes on suspect German agents 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 5f

Lists and background of agents of the Central Powers 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 6a

Biographic cards of suspects expelled from France 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 6b

Biographic cards on German espionage agents

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 7

Directives and reports on German intelligence in Sweden; notes on Parvus, etc. 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 131
Index VIIIb, Folder 8

Benson case related to German espionage in Switzerland; Dr. Ludwig Stein; Baroness Ida Leoni, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 9

Mazia case: alleged Japanese millions to bribe Russian officers in 1905

Note

See incoming dispatches #402 and 576/1913 in XIIIc(1)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 10

Agent Sambain's letters on German espionage in Sweden; survey of German and Finnish activities and Russian agents in Sweden; notes on Kalisher (Dahlstrom) firm as a possible asset of the Russian service; review of German-Finnish intelligence in Sweden, etc. 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 11

Reports on German and Turkish counter-espionage in Switzerland 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 12

Reports on Dmitrii Anichkin, head of the Russian Seaman's Union, allegedly employed by the German services 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 13

Headquarters circulars on individual German and Austrian agents and their espionage efforts 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 14

Various reports on individuals remaining in Vienna after the outbreak of the war; on Russian prisoners of war in Germany; on Prince Bebutov in Berlin; on German, Austrian, and Turkish offers to revolutionaries for work against Russia; on the statutes of the "Cosmos" club

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 15

Agent Brunner's report on his return form Germany where he conducted a counter-espionage investigation and report on his arrest 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIb, Folder 16

Cross-reference sheet

Index VIIIb, Folder 17

Reference: See operational card index file for references to counter-espionage during World War I

Index VIIIb, Folder 18

Reference: See agent Woltz's reports from Switzerland, 1915, in VIk, folder 53

Index VIIIb, Folder 19

Reference: See report of Paris Okhrana agent in Germany, 1916, in VIIc, folder 1

Index VIIIb, Folder 20

Reference: See documents on agent Bint's arrest in Switzerland, February-March 1917, in VIk, folder 6

Box: 65

c. Finnish espionage on behalf of Germany

Scope and Contents Note

Finnish revolutionaries, abandoning for the most part the early Marxist leadership of Konni Zilliacus, were largely nationalist-inspired at the outbreak of the war, agitating for full independence from Russia. As such, many became quite amenable to German inducements. German recruiting and other services in Stockholm and other Scandinavian centers were successful in recruiting large numbers for volunteer work as soldiers and agents. Some of the training centers for these Finnish rebels indicate a movement of considerable proportions.
The collection of papers in Folder No. 5 deals mostly with these training centers in Germany for the Finns. The report of the Governor General for Finland gives an analysis of the political situation in the country and the international pressures for its independence.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 132-133
Index VIIIc, Folder 1

Headquarters dispatches relating to the Finnish independence movement 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIc, Folder 2

Report on the Finnish Security Battalion at Lockstadt 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIc, Folder 3

Dispatch of agent Aebersold to Stockholm 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 133
Index VIIIc, Folder 4

Report of the Governor General of Finland 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index VIIIc, Folder 5

Reports on German training of Finns for intelligence and other operations against Russia 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Box: 65-90

IX. Overt activities

Box: 65-89

a. Newspaper service, clippings, collection of overt information

Scope and Contents Note

The overt collection of information was an important task of the Okhrana abroad. Detailed expense accounts through the years show that agents, case officers, and Paris Office employees were purchasing leftist newspapers and other publications. Cover memoranda to Headquarters submitted these published materials weekly, usually without comments. Agents in the field attached to their reports pertinent clippings, while the Paris Office, using such overt materials as supplements to classified reports, kept collecting the clippings in general albums and in folders on specific intelligence topics.
It is possible that some of the collections of newspaper clippings were lost or discarded during the emergency move of the archives to Bordeaux when Paris was in danger of being taken by the German army. A set of 22 large albums, covering the period from 1902 to 1905, is organized in chronological order for French clippings. The selection of clippings ia general, including political, economic, and international topics, but without annotations or guides to numbered pages. Emphasis in this collection was made also on such matters as foreign reporting on events in Russia and émigré activities.
One large album, clippings on Burtsev's exposure of Garting, is of particular interest. Clippings collected from the leftist press and spokesmen for the revolutionary cause are suggestive of the methods used by revolutionary counter-intelligence to penetrate the Okhrana and employ defectors.
Other collections of clippings cover such topics as revolutionary activities in general, the attitudes of the French press toward the imperial family, the French Sûreté Générale, the Beilis case (an anti-Jewish trial in Russia), and the Tsar's Manifesto of 1903.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1a

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office referring to press service, publisher information, publications, etc. 1907-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1b

Cover notes for newspapers and clippings sent to and from Headquarters 1902-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1c

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office regarding newspapers and publications 1894-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1d

Manifest of Jewish anarchists 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1e

Kropotkin's letter to Professor Stefan 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1f

Report on the convention of the Grand Eastern Masonic Lodge in Paris 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1g

Dispatches on cooperation between German Social Democrats and Russian revolutionaries 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1h

Polish question in the press 1913-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 1i

Collection of newspaper clippings on the visit of the Russian war fleet in French ports 1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 2a

Clippings from French, Swiss, and English newspapers referring to revolutionaries 1906-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 2b

Clippings from French newspapers on the Russian imperial family 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 2c

Clippings from French and Swiss newspapers on Russian matters not sent to Headquarters 1913-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 3a

Clippings from French newspapers on the French Sûreté 1913-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 3b

Clippings from French newspapers on the exploitation of Russian workers in coal mines in northern France 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 3c

Clippings from French and Swiss newspapers referring to the Beilis case 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 3d

Scrapbook with a collection of clippings from Le Matin by Rirette-Maitrejean

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 3e

Clippings from English, French and Russian newspapers on the Tsar's manifesto in 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 132
Index IXa, Folder 4

Scrapbooks of French newspaper clippings on various Russian matters 1902-1905

Note

Available on microfilm reels 135-140
Index IXa, Folder 4

1902 October 21-December 31

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: penetration of armed forces in Russia; an uprising in Macedonia; Russia and England?s fight for Afghanistan; Finland; and Vladimir Lamzdorf?s mission to Austria and the Balkans

Note

Available on microfilm reel 135
Index IXa, Folder 4

1903 January 1-March 4

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: constitutionalism in Russia; war movements in the Balkans and Dardanelles; Russia?s preliminary budget for 1903; and Finland

Note

Available on microfilm reel 135
Index IXa, Folder 4

1903 March 5-May 16

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Tsar?s manifesto; crisis in the Balkans; Gots?s arrest in Italy; student unrest; assassinations; the workers? movement; pogroms; and Poland

Note

Available on microfilm reel 135
Index IXa, Folder 4

1903 May 17-July 29

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: pogroms in Russia; war preparations in Asia; attacks on Roosevelt for his stand against the pogroms; and Georges Clemenceau

Note

Available on microfilm reel 136
Index IXa, Folder 4

1903 July 30-October 13

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: strikes in Russia; Russian interests in the Far East; Kishinev pogrom; Witte dismissed; revolutionary movement; pogroms; Tsar in Vienna; and internal troubles in Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 136
Index IXa, Folder 4

1903 October 13-December 31

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Russo-Japanese conflict; the pogrom in Gomel; Armenian revolutionaries; and reforms in Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 136
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 January 1-28 June

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the crisis in the Far East; incident at the Avenue de Choisy where four Okhrana agents were exposed; Grigorii Gershuni?s letter after his death sentence; August Bebel; revolutionary propaganda in the Russian army; Burtsev; revolution in Poland; and Bobrikov?s assassination by Eugen Schauman

Note

Available on microfilm reel 136
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 (special album on Burtsev's exposure of Garting)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 136
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 June 29-August 10

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: internal troubles in Russia; and the assassination of Pleve

Note

Available on microfilm reel 137
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 August 11-October 31

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Congress of the French Socialist Party; Congress of the Russian Social Revolutionaries in Amsterdam; Manasevich-Manuilov exposed as an Okhrana agent; Tsar?s manifesto; Sazonov?s escape; students and the Russian police; and the Russian army

Note

Available on microfilm reel 137
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 November 1-December 27

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: Russian socialists; the agrarian problem; anti-Semitism; and trial of Sazonov and Sikorskii for the assassination of Pleve

Note

Available on microfilm reel 137
Index IXa, Folder 4

1904 December 28-December 22

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the revolution in Russia; the Tsar?s manifeso; Tolstoy?s letter to the Tsar; Sazonov?s trial; Father Gapon; and a general strike in Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 137
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 January 22-27 January

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: revolutionaries in Russia; Father Gapon; bloody demonstrations in Petrograd; the role played by Japanese money; and Russians in Paris

Note

Available on microfilm reel 138
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 January 28-February 4

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: speeches by Anatole France; Plekhanov; Gorky; and Struve

Note

Available on microfilm reel 138
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 February 5-18

Note

Available on microfilm reel 138
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 February 18-March 1

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the assassination of Grand Duke Sergei; revolutionary action in Poland and Russia; Father Gapon; and Gorky

Note

Available on microfilm reel 138
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 March 2-21

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: terrorists in Russia; Father Gapon; revolts in the Caucasus and Poland; Gorky?s release from prison; anarchists and nihilists; Bernhard von Bülow; Jews in the Russian revolution; and Georges Clemenceau on Poland

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 March 22-April 28

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: a school strike in Poland; Father Gapon; and Russian revolution

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 June 13-July 8

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: events in Yalta, Warsaw, and Lodz; zemstvos; Kaliaev?s letter to the widow of Grand Duke Sergei; Social-Democratic appeal to Russian soldiers; Russian peasants; Jean Jaurès on the revolution; and the Potemkin mutiny

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 July 9-25

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Potemkin mutiny; armed forces affected by revolutionary slogans; assassination of Pavel Shuvalov; revolutionary action in Russia, Poland, and Armenia; the Jews and the revolution; zemstvos; internal troubles of Russia;and the meeting of the Tsar and Kaiser Wilhelm II

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 July 25-August 16

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Tsar?s meeting with Kaiser Wilhelm II, Potemkin mutiny; England; Zionism; the Bund; and plans for a general assembly in Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 August 17-29

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the Duma; Potemkin mutiny; revolution in Poland; interests of Russia and England in Persia; and the constitutional movement

Note

Available on microfilm reel 139
Index IXa, Folder 4

1905 August 29-June 12

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the situation in Poland and Finland; Kaliaev?s trial and sentence; Father Gapon; Struve?s correspondence with Jaurès

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Box: 66

b. Influencing local press

Scope and Contents Note

The Paris Okhrana always had the interest and apparently the means of exerting some influence on the press abroad, but two periods in its existence stand out as particularly active and significant in this respect. By the 1890s, Chief Rachkovskii had developed a close contact with Jules Hansen, a correspondent with wide access to the press and to important government officials, leading to much publicity on the emerging Franco-Russian alliance and to increased cooperation with the Sûreté against the revolutionaries. Hansen was the recipient of Okhrana funds, but the records are vague or nonexistent regarding the total expenses in this form of the Okhrana's political action.
Similarly, in the case of Manasevich-Manuilov, the Okhrana's staff agent in Paris during the first few years of the century, it is difficult to deduce the amount of funds used by him for the purpose of influencing the foreign press. That was his assignment in Paris in 1902, when he was rated as a political rather than an intelligence agent. In addition to developing contacts with high officials in government and diplomatic missions, his tasks consisted of influencing the press, providing for releases and modifying editorial policies.
Folder No. 1 of this collection contains mostly correspondence with Headquarters concerning contacts with the foreign press, drafts of prepared articles, subsidies, etc. Folder. No. 2 concerns Manasevich-Manuilov's liasion to Paris with regard to contacts with the French press.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1a

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris office pertaining to contacts with the foreign press and influencing the selection of news on Russia 1893-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1b

Articles, clippings, and translations published in the foreign press 1891-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1c

Correspondence pertaining to subsidies for the French press 1889-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1d

Consideration by Headquarters for a subsidy for Parizhskii vestnik

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1e

Reports on the activities of Trofimov in England 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 1f

Coverage of the Rips trial by the French press 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 2

Notes and letters of instruction to Manasevich-Manuilov on his Paris mission to establish contacts with the French press and influence publication of news about Russia 1902-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 134
Index IXb, Folder 3

Reference: See outgoing telegram, March 5, 1903, re influencing the Nouvelle Revue, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index IXb, Folder 4

Reference: See incoming telegram, March 31, 1904, on payment for 100 subscriptions to Gaulois, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index IXb, Folder 5

Reference: See incoming telegram, June 18, 1904, with approval for the purchase of subscriptions to Le Gaulois and Le Figaro, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index IXb, Folder 6

Reference: See incoming telegram, June 21, 1905, concerning the necessity of "warning" the French public against a French correspondent writing unfavorable articles, in XIIIc(3), folder 18

Index IXb, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming telegram, June 1, 1905, with instructions for press releases to newspapers concerning disorder on the Potemkin, in XIIIc(3), folder 18

Box: 90

c. Cooperation with Russian missions abroad

Scope and Contents Note

As the documents in this small collection indicate, contacts of Okhrana representatives with diplomatic, consular, and other Russian missions abroad was considered undesirable, if not expressly forbidden. Under Vg, the documents related to actual liaison for purposes of exchanging information, required particularly in war days or in cases of checking on the loyalty of employees and applicants for visas and passports. Under this index, the documents deal chiefly with overt matters. It is interesting to note that missions abroad used the normal diplomatic channels, communicating with their home office, which referred the matter to Okhrana Headquarters, where, in turn, the case was submitted to the Okhrana representative in the field.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Index IXc, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes of the cooperation with diplomatic and consular missions in overt matters 1906-1916

Note

See also the collection under Vg

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Index IXc, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 90

d. General services, favors

Scope and Contents Note

The first four folders hold a few dispatches and many letters referring to general matters of no operational or intelligence significance. The letters are mostly requests for various favors or expressions of thanks therefore, inquiries about addresses or welfare of individuals, denunciations among émigrés, and the like. In the Folder No. 5 there is a batch of some few hundred calling cards and an equal number of picture post cards addressed mostly to Okhrana personnel and kept as souvenirs.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 140-141
Index IXd, Folder 1

Letters from Headquarters concerning general services 1881-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Index IXd, Folder 2

Letters on various matters in general services 1881-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Index IXd, Folder 3

Reports on Russian workers at the Auby mines 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 140
Index IXd, Folder 4

Undated letters on various matters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index IXd, Folder 5

Miscellaneous documents including a pack of calling cards, picture postcards, 2 notebooks of Rosenkrantz (1890), etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index IXd, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 91-101

X. Operational techniques

Box: 91

a. Agent documentation

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana enjoyed special status in matters of obtaining passports and other travel documents for the use of its agents. It had the facilities and contacts with the issuing authorities at home and abroad, and it could arrange for the passports to read in any pseudonym chosen for an agent's use. The passports and communications about them show that an agent could be given two passports at the same time, for instance, one for use in Russia, and another one for abroad. The dispatches also show that the Okhrana abroad was supplied with blank passports, to be used at its discretion or at the discretion of the case officers.
As one set of documents shows, agents were given briefing instructions on the use of passports in connection with foreign resident requirements in France and other countries. In addition to the required briefing of the agents with extra-legal passports, the Okhrana also informed such organs as the border controls about the nature and authority of any passport that might otherwise come under suspicion.
The documents in this collection are included mostly as samples, in order to give a comprehensive picture of the methods of agent documentation.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 1

Passport for agent Simon Zilberstein ("Aleks") 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 2

Passport for agent Herzig, under the name of Bekchiev 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 3

Passport for Okhrana office employee Fedorova in Paris 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 4

Passport issued in Vitebsk for agent Model 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 5

22 Russian passports

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 6

Letters of documentation for agent Neuhaus 1911-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 7

Briefing materials on passport and foreign resident requirements in France 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 8

Special passes for agents, some signed by Durnovo 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 9

Dispatches pertaining to the use of passports in secret Okhrana operations 1903-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xa, Folder 10

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 91

b. Control of photographic studios in Paris

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana in Paris never succeeded with the requests to establish a photographic section of its own. Principal agent Marcel Bittard-Monin, upon the Okhrana's request, went so far as to collect all necessary data on photographic equipment and costs, but an Okhrana photo shop was never set up. Headquarters and area subdivisions were equipped with police-type laboratories, as the assortments of pictures on file from their rogue (revolutionary) galleries indicate.
The extensive photographic file (see boxes under XIIIf(4)) was the product of constant collection. Many photos of revolutionaries came from Headquarters files. Another sizeable collection was gathered in the field, particularly through the control of, or less formal contact with, various photographic studios in Paris and elsewhere. In the pictorial files of the Okhrana are many sets of pictures obtained from studios catering to Russian émigré groups.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xb, Folder 1a

Letter to Ambassador from Photo-Malivert offering their services 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xb, Folder 1b

Documents concerning the cost of equipment for photographic studios in the Paris Okhrana office 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xb, Folder 1c

Dispatch concerning extra copies of photographs of revolutionaries from St. Petersburg 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xb, Folder 1d

Letter from Paris photographic studio announcing a change of address 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 141
Index Xb, Folder 2

Reference: For information on the Laizier photographic studio in Paris, 1914, see IIIe, folder 3

Index Xb, Folder 3

Reference: See the personal dossier of Henri Ozanne, who was hired in 1908 for his photographic services, in IIIe, folder 3

Box: 91-92

c. Censorship and perlustration

Scope and Contents Note

The only systematic and fairly continuous censorship of mails was developed by the Paris Okhrana in an area of coastal resort towns of the Italian Riviera. Its non-Russian agents succeeded in engaging some postal officials to "lend" them the mail (at the rate of five francs per letter) for overnight use and perlustration (exact copy with a transparent overlay). If such helping service was achieved in Paris or other parts, it was only occasionally and with the help of accommodating concierges rather than postal employees.
Before modern photocopying, perlustration was a method of considerable advantage. Copyists were able to reproduce the "hand" of the writer, leaving no telling mark on the original, with envelopes (use of steam for opening) resealed expertly and without traces of added glue. In 1909, the Paris Office requested the establishment of a photographic darkroom for copying of correspondence, but no such section was ever added.
Folder No. 1 of this collection is an assortment of perlustrated letters of various revolutionaries abroad. The contents, reproduced in typed form, are unimportant and included primarily as examples of perlustration. Folder No. 2 has two dispatches referring to Burtsev's accusation censorship by the Okhrana in Paris and also two sets of letters addressed to revolutionary Rubanovich. Included with these is an expense account of principal agent Bint in Paris, charging five francs for each letter, possibly paid to the cooperating mail clerk. The items in Folder No. 3 include a set of original censored letters, Headquarters instructions to submit letters intercepted from Burtsev's mails, and an account of the scandal in Italy, where a postal employee was dismissed for delivering the mail of the revolutionaries to an Okhrana agent.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 1

Perlustrated letters of various revolutionaries abroad in Geneva, Paris, London, etc. 1903, 1905

Note

Marked in the Okhrana file as useless as intelligence sources

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 2a

Dispatches concerning censorship of mail in Paris and Burtsev's accusation in the press 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 2b

Perlustrated letters to Rubanovich 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 2c

Perlustrated letters 1895-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 2d

Intercepted letters from Moscow to Pontoise and from Montreaux to Switzerland 1911-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 3a

Various intercepted and perlustrated letters 1884-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 3b

Instructions about sending intercepted letters of Burtsev to Headquarters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 3c

Dispatches regarding the scandal with agents in the Italian post office 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 3d

Report from the Paris office concerning the establishment of a photographic darkroom for perlustration of correspondence 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 3e

Dispatch on the perlustration of Fundaminskii's mail 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xc, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index Xc, Folder 5

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 18, February 1, 1903, on the use of perlustrated correspondence of revolutionaries by the Okhrana offices, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index Xc, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 22, February 28, 1903, on the use of information obtained from intercepted mail, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index Xc, Folder 7

Reference: See agent Pouchot's report on Leone's turning to Burtsev, in XXVIIa, folder 3

Index Xc, Folder 8

Reference: For complete sets of perlustrated mail addressed to Agafonov and Natanson, June 1908-March 1909, see XXIVa

Box: 92

d. Graphological study of handwriting

Scope and Contents Note

A number of small folders and enveloped were set aside in the original Okhrana files, marked as samples of handwriting and original signatures. The records do not reveal the assets or capabilities of the Paris Office in matters of graphological study, but some documents indicate that letters were submitted to it for analysis and identification of handwriting. The files also contain photographs of samples of handwriting.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 142-143
Index Xd, Folder 1

Perlustrated letters used as examples for the study of the handwriting of revolutionaries; samples of Burtsev's handwriting 1905-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 142
Index Xd, Folder 2

Photographs of handwriting samples of Trautman and an unidentified individual

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Index Xd, Folder 3

Samples of handwriting kept on file

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Index Xd, Folder 4

Letters from Zabrezhnev, submitted for analysis to the Paris Okhrana 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Index Xd, Folder 5

Dispatches pertaining to graphological studies and identification of individuals through them 1905-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Box: 92-99

e. Surveillance

Scope and Contents Note

The surveillance of subversives and various types of suspects was one of the principal tasks of the non-Russian investigation agents. While assignments called for any type of detective work and contacting of police and security organs or postal employees, hotel clerks and concierges, most of their time was used for watching the movements and associations of their Russian revolutionary targets. The bulk of this extensive collection covers surveillance reports arranged in folders according to the agent reporting. The substance of these reports, wherever of more permanent significance, may be found in the dispatches prepared from raw reports and in other subject files; these surveillance reports, in many instances discussing the nature of the work itself, are gathered in illustration of the methods and results of operation.
The first 54 folders are arranged alphabetically by agents serving at their surveillance assignments. The contents are for the most part written raw reports and telegrams. The targets of their surveillance and the dates of operation are stated, but not always the locale.
Folders 55-60 pertain to special surveillance tasks, team assignments, journal or log record keeping on surveillance jobs, etc. The inventory to Xe describes each set of papers by folder. Of some special interest are such documents as requests for increases in surveillance staffs (Folder No. 55), assignment distribution by teams and targets, and surveillance difficulties after defection of an important agent (Folder No. 56), or surveillance of high Russian officials, including even General Gerasimov, in command of the gendarmes (in various folders). Under Folder No. 60, there is a collection of eighteen notebooks illustrates recordkeeping on surveillance assignments, distribution of agents, assignment of targets, results, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 143-159
 

Reports by agent

Index Xe, Folder 1

Aebersold, Jean 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from London on Karpovich and Stenback in particular

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Index Xe, Folder 2-3

Barthes, Aime 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris and Grenoble

Note

Available on microfilm reel 143
Index Xe, Folder 4

Bint, Henry 1911-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 143-144
Index Xe, Folder 5

Bittard-Monin, Marcel 1908-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reels 144-145
Index Xe, Folder 6

Boniol, Marius 1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris and Cannes on Dobrovskii, Lokevich, Feit, Barthold, and "Ernest"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 7

Bouteillier, Pierre 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 8

Breyne, Charles de 1911

Scope and Contents note

Mainly reports on Fabrikant

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 9

Capusso, Luigi 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 10

Cazayus, Rene 1913-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Eichenbaum, Kartvelov, Jollivet, Leroy, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 11

Charlet, Charles 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 12

David, Etienne 1911-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 13

Delangle, Charles 1911-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Barthold, Kobyzev, Argunov, Alianskii, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 145
Index Xe, Folder 14

Drouchot, Berthe 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 146
Index Xe, Folder 15

Durin, Henri 1909-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Alianskii, Klebodorov, Tarasova-Bobrov, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reels 146-147
Index Xe, Folder 16

Dussaussois, Gabriel 1912-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 147
Index Xe, Folder 17

Feuger, Fernand 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 147
Index Xe, Folder 18

Fontaine-Hamard, Paul 1910-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Klemov, Lukanov, Fabrikant, Boulanger, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 148
Index Xe, Folder 19

Fontaine, Mme. 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 148
Index Xe, Folder 20

Fontana, Jean Louis 1911-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 148
Index Xe, Folder 21

Frumento, Arturo 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 148
Index Xe, Folder 22

Godard, Georges 1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Korisko, Gluckman, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 148
Index Xe, Folder 23

Gottlieb, René 1912-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Dobrovolskii (Chatillon), Argunov (Paris), Barthold (Paris), Fabrikant (Nice), Shkolnik (Paris), Bessel (Paris), and Guerchnikov (Paris)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 149
Index Xe, Folder 24

Hennequin, Edmond 1910-1912

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Chernovskii, Lukanov, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 149
Index Xe, Folder 25

Henry, Charles 1911-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 149
Index Xe, Folder 26

Invernizzi, Eugene 1908-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reels 149-150
Index Xe, Folder 27

Jaton, Oscar 1912-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 150
Index Xe, Folder 28

Jollivet, Georges and Raoul 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris, Genoa, etc. on Vadimov, Boulenger, Vassiliev, Mazurenko, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 150
Index Xe, Folder 29

Laurent, Bernard 1912-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Bakulin, Barthold, Mazurenko, Korisko, Bessel, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 151
Index Xe, Folder 30

Lecointe, Eugene 1909-1911

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Mokronov, Chernovskii, Kontrasvitz, Eugenie

Note

Available on microfilm reel 151
Index Xe, Folder 31

Leon, Georges 1912-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 151
Index Xe, Folder 32

Leone, Francesco 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 151
Index Xe, Folder 33

Lévęque, Eugène 1903-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reels 151-152
Index Xe, Folder 34

Otte, Leon 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Brussels

Note

Available on microfilm reel 152
Index Xe, Folder 35

Ozanne, Henri 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 152
Index Xe, Folder 36

Pavesi, Francesco 1912

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Stoliarov and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 152
Index Xe, Folder 37

Pouchot, Auguste 1910-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Moiseenko, Fundaminskii, Boulenger, Eichenbaum, Korisko, Barhold, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 152
Index Xe, Folder 38

Powell, Francis 1912-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports from London

Note

Available on microfilm reel 152
Index Xe, Folder 39

Richard, Gabrielle 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Sophie Brodsky, Maria Shkolnik, Richetnikov, Denisovich, Mamontov, and Deverenko

Note

Available on microfilm reel 153
Index Xe, Folder 40

Rigault, C. 1891-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 153
Index Xe, Folder 41

Rime-Coussonnet, Georges 1913-1914

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Fundaminskii, Barthold, Lopatin, Karpovich, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 42

Riot, Robert 1912-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports from Paris on Nathanson, Barthold, and Korisko

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 43

Robail, Jean 1910-1911

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Spann, Makarov, Barthold, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 44

Roselli, Adolphe 1912-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Fabrikant, Klimova, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 45

Rougeaux, Anatole 1912-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Argunov, Volkhovskii, Barthold, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 46

Sambain, Albert 1903-1915

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Krochmal, Marie Goldsmith, Nachatyr, Moiseenko, Gumerus, Ernest, Dobrovolskii, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 154
Index Xe, Folder 47

Sauvard, Alphonse 1910-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Boulenger, Feit, Sletov, Stoliarov, Barthold, Korisko, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 48

Schmidelin, Edouard 1909-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 49

Thomas, Rene 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 50

Thorpe, Michael 1908-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 51

Tiercelin, Mme. 1911-1913

Scope and Contents note

Reports on Lukanov, Fabrikant, Lebedev, Godefrein, Maria Wendel, Barthold, Korisko, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 52

Vizzardelli, Vincenzo 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 53-54

Vogt, Maurice 1909-1913

Scope and Contents Note

Reports on Makarov, Lukanov, Moiseenko, Lydov, Vadimov, Korisko, and others

Note

Available on microfilm reel 155
Index Xe, Folder 55a

Records on the surveillance of Tikhomirov 1884

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 55b

Daily surveillance reports on the arrests of revolutionaries in Paris by agents Rigault and Fehrenbach 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 55c

Daily surveillance reports of Lazarev 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 55d

Dispatch from the Paris Okhrana requesting reorganization of the surveillance system 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 55e

Surveillance report on Patrick, contact of the revolutionaries 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 55f

Dispatch requesting permission to increase surveillance staff of the Paris office 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 56

Surveillance reports by the Paris Okhrana team 1909 December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 156
Index Xe, Folder 57a

Papers on the surveillance system and assignment of teams and targets 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 57b

Bittard-Monin's report on the problems of surveillance due to Leroy's defection to Burtsev's side 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 57c

Dispatch concerning the expansion of the Paris Okhrana surveillance force 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 57d

Notes on the grouping of surveillance teams and assignment of targets 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 57e

Surveillance of Russian naval captain Ketlinskii 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 58a

Surveillance reports on 22 Russians in connection with the "Laboratoire Russe de Zoologie" at Villefranche by agents Fontaine and Fontana 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 58b

Surveillance reports on Barthold 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 58c

Surveillance reports on Dobrovolskii; reports from various detectives in Paris, including Powell and Kerr, recalled from London 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 157
Index Xe, Folder 59a

Surveillance reports on Mme. Korisko in Paris 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 59b

Surveillance reports on Mme. Kartvelova 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 59c

Surveillance reports on Argunov and family in Clarens and Davos 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 59d

Surveillance on General Gerasimov 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 59f

Letter on the nature and extent of surveillance in various places

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 59g

Miscellaneous materials on surveillance 1886-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 158
Index Xe, Folder 60

Agents' notebooks with addresses, assignments, journals, and surveillance records 1893-1894, 1909-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reels 158-159
Index Xe, Folder 61

Cross-reference sheet

Index Xe, Folder 62

Reference: See directive circular no. 5200, August 13, 1902, on rules of surveillance, in XIIId(1), folder 8

Index Xe, Folder 63

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 15, January 10, 1903, with instructions on surveillance procedures, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index Xe, Folder 64

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 50, September 11, 1903, with instructions on surveillance procedures, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index Xe, Folder 65

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 63, December 11, 1903, with instructions on surveillance procedures, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index Xe, Folder 66

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 83, April 29, 1904, with instructions on assignment of surveillance agents, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index Xe, Folder 67

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 86, May 20, 1904, regarding the processing of surveillance data, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index Xe, Folder 68

Reference: See daily surveillance reports on Burtsev and his revolutionary intelligence agents in 1909, in XVIId, folder 3

Box: 99

f. Safe houses (clandestine quarters, passwords)

Scope and Contents Note

The original Okhrana files contained no separate folders or records pertaining to its handling of such matters as safe houses for secret meetings with agents, passwords, or various tricks of recognition. From the memoranda in the various operational folders, it can be noted that case officers arranged meetings with subordinate agents according to circumstances rather than in conformity with any routine procedure.
Only a small batch of documents treating specifically the subject are collected in this folder on safe houses and passwords. Agent Mme. Tiercelin in Paris was frequently assigned the responsibility of renting or equipping safe houses (apartments) for clandestine meetings of agents and case officers. Two sets of her bills in this connection are included in the folder.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Index Xf, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to clandestine meetings, safe houses, and passwords 1905-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Index Xf, Folder 2

Bills and expense accounts of agent Tiercelin and others in connection with safe houses 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Index Xf, Folder 3

Dispatch proposing a villa rental in Nice 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Index Xf, Folder 4

Circulars and dispatches giving accomodation address for agents 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Box: 100-101

g. Albums of photographs for office and agent use

Scope and Contents Note

Photographs of important revolutionaries were inserted in albums for use as reference and instructional and recognition materials. One large album, with each mounted photograph given a reference number, was used as the basic reference in the Paris Okhrana Office. The collection contains fourteen medium-size albums in approximately the same arrangement, some of them with names under the pictures, some with an index of names attached to the covers. Another set of fifteen pocket-size albums in a similar order was entrusted to agents assigned to surveillance tasks in the field. Not all of these albums are in the same arrangement of pictures, while the numbering system for persons in the illustrations is usually the same. Thus, the agent reporting from the field did not have to mention the name of his target, but only the number assigned in the album.
Index Xg

Large album of photographs of revolutionaries for office use

Note

This portion of the collection was not microfilmed
Index Xg

Medium size albums with indices of names

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Index Xg

Pocket size albums for agent use

Note

Available on microfilm reel 159
Box: 102-103

XI. Penetration and infiltration of opposing groups

Box: 102

a. Double agents

Scope and Contents Note

Nearly all agents of the so-called vnutrenniaia (internal) agentura abroad served with the purpose of penetrating and infiltrating the revolutionary groups. In a broad sense, all these penetration agents were double agents, but few of them actually served in such a capacity, i.e. few of them achieved the status of serving as alleged revolutionary agents against the Okhrana, which controlled them. Some such cases were developed early in 1914. Okhrana agents were employed by the revolutionary counter-intelligence, but under continued and actually increased Okhrana control. The case of agent Dolin (code names: Lenin and Shari) was different in that he was hired by the German service to work for them on sabotage tasks in Russia, but of course under the guidance and control of the Okhrana.
Folder No. 1 of this collection contains documents on this double agent, Dolin, operating from 1914 to 1916. Included in the same folder are the papers on double agents Permiak (Brontman), Maria Petrova (Julieta), and Berg. Folder No. 2 includes materials on double agent Mme Richard (Jane), working for the Okhrana as Burtsev's agent in 1914. Other outstanding double agent cases in the collection are those of Rapaport (Silberman); Starkov for the period of 1906-1908; Beitner (Levushka, Moskvich, etc.), who acted as Burtsev's partner in the Novoe Yremia; Batushanskii (Babadzhan), and others. Folder No. 2 also holds some of the papers on the Frenchman Jollivet, one of the successful Okhrana operators in the capacity as agent for revolutionary counter-intelligence.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 1a

Dolin-"Lenin" 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 1b

Permiak 1912-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 1c

Petrova, Mariia L. 1911-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 1d

Berg, I. 1915-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 2a

Richard, Mme. 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 2b

Rappoport 1906-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 2c

Beitner, L.D. 1904-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 2d

Batushanskii, B. 1907-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 2d

Notes, letters, dispatches, and reports on the following double agents: Abramov, Brodskii, Zilbertstein, Wackman, Ankerman, Poznanskii-Goldendakh, Weisman, Chauvin, Zagorskaia, Kogan-"Aleks," Gudin, Rabinovich, "M" (Milewski), Jollivet, Gramm, and Grunbaum-"Monser"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 160
Index XIa, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet