Modern Art Department Art and Technology records
Finding aid prepared by Suzanne Noruschat.
Processing and finding aid creation funded by a grant from the Getty Foundation as a part of the initiative Pacific Standard
Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art Balch Art Research Library
5905 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA, 90036
Additional encoding by Jessica Gambling.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art Modern Art Department.
Title: Modern Art Department Art and Technology records
Date (bulk): 1967-1971
Date (inclusive): 1967-2007
Identifier/Call Number: MOD.001.001
Los Angeles County Museum of Art Balch Art Research Library
5905 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA
2.5 Linear feet
Language of Material:
The Art and Technology program was initiated at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) in 1967, when curator Maurice
Tuchman proposed the idea of formulating a relationship between contemporary artists and high-tech corporations that would
lead to experiments conjoining art and industry and possibly produce new works of art. The program attracted the participation
of some of the most renowned artists of the period--Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Claes Oldenburg, and Robert Irwin, to
name just a few--who were paired with "Patron Sponsors" who hosted some of the artists at corporate facilities and in some
cases collaborated on projects. In March 1970, several works resulting from these pairings were shown in the American Pavilion
at Expo '70 (the world's fair in Osaka, Japan) and in an exhibition at LACMA from May 16 to August 29, 1971. This archive
consists of documentation relating to the Art and Technology program, including correspondence between LACMA curators, artists,
and corporate participants, notes and drafts of essays written for a report on the A&T Program by curators Jane Livingston
and Tuchman, transcriptions of interviews and conversations with artists, and drawings, photographs, and negatives of artists'
The Art and Technology program was organized by the Modern Art Department at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
This department was renamed the Twentieth-Century Art Department in 1981, and fifteen years later, in 1996, became the Modern
and Contemporary Art Department. In 2005, modern and contemporary art were separated into two departments, reflecting the
disciplinary distinctions now existing between these two historical periods.(1)
The concept for the Art and Technology program was born in the mind of LACMA Curator of Modern Art Maurice Tuchman in 1966,
when he began to contemplate the possibility of forging relationships between contemporary artists and industrial scientists
and engineers. Inspired by the ideas of the early twentieth-century avant-gardes—the Italian Futurists, Russian Constructivists,
and Bauhaus artists —who had sought to create links between art and industry, Tuchman’s goal was to find corporate settings
in which artists could mingle with technical types, establishing fruitful collaborations that might lead participants into
new artistic directions.(2) In November 1967, Tuchman presented his proposal to LACMA’s Board of Directors, who expressed
skepticism about the curator’s far-reaching ambitions, but agreed that Tuchman should attempt to raise funds for his proposed
project. With the help of Marilyn “Missy” Chandler, wife of Los Angeles Times Publisher Otis Chandler, Tuchman eventually
garnered the support of nearly forty corporations, many of whom (e.g. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Wyle Laboratories, Universal
City Studios) were willing to supply funds and materials to sponsor an artist in residence. At a time of social upheaval and
widespread suspicions over corporate interests, a surprisingly wide array of well-known contemporary artists were eager to
accept Tuchman’s invitation to join the Art and Technology program. Andy Warhol, Tony Smith, Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein,
and Robert Irwin were but a few of the more than sixty artists who responded enthusiastically to Tuchman’s call, and were
among twenty-three artists who ultimately were placed at a company.
The art works that resulted from the corporation/artist pairings were considered a by-product of the collaborative experience
and artists were under no pressure to produce an exhibitable object.(3) In some cases tangible, exhibit-worthy pieces materialized
and in others they did not. The successes and failures of the residencies and collaborations are documented in the records—in
the correspondence, interviews, notes, and photographs—that provide insight into the working relationships successfully or
unsuccessfully maintained between corporate personnel and individual artists, and in the official Report on the Art and Technology
Program written by Tuchman and his fellow curator Jane Livingston. In 1970, eight Art and Technology works—including Warhol’s
Rain Machine, Oldenburg’s Giant Icebag, and Rockne Krebs’ laser installation—were shown in the American Pavilion at Expo ’70,
the world’s fair held in Osaka, Japan. The following year, from May 16 to August 29, 1971, fifteen works were shown in an
exhibition at LACMA (EX.1399).
Attendance figures and media reports suggest that the exhibitions in both Osaka and Los Angeles were well received by large
and enthusiastic audiences.(4) The program, however, was not without its critics. In the summer of 1971, the Los Angeles Council
of Women Artists denounced the exclusion of women from the program, protesting that not a single female artist had been offered
a residency (although the proposal of Channa Davis (now Channa Horwitz) was included in A Report on the Art and Technology
Program). Nonetheless, despite these valid objections and criticisms, the Art and Technology program has continued to attract
the interest of scholars and researchers, and has been regarded as one of the most significant and groundbreaking undertakings
pursued at LACMA.
(1) The Broad Contemporary Art Museum at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2008 (Los Angeles: Museum Associates/LACMA,
2008), 87. (2) Maurice Tuchman, A Report on the Art and Technology Program of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1967-1971
(Los Angeles: LACMA, 1971), 9. (3) Ibid., 12. (4) The Broad Contemporary Art Museum at LACMA, 142.
Scope and Contents
The Modern Art Department Art and Technology records, covering 2.5 linear feet, comprise a major portion of the program's
documentation held at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. While much of the information contained in these records is included
in the published Report on the Art and Technology Program at LACMA 1967-1971, by curators Maurice Tuchman and Jane Livingston,
a rich range of materials provides insight into the program's planning and execution, and into the experiences of those artists
and companies who participated. These materials include administrative files, correspondence, curatorial notes and drafts
of essays on artists, transcripts of artist interviews, and some sketches and photographs of artworks created by artists-in-residence.
Series I Administrative consists mostly of documents created in preparation for and to publicize the Art and Technology program,
including progress reports noting the arrangements being made between artists and corporations and a brochure announcing the
purpose and goals of the program. Series II Corporate Participants and Contributors encompasses a scant amount of materials
on only one of the thirty-seven companies that sponsored the Art and Technology program, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation
which hosted the artist R.B. Kitaj. Also included in this series are letters from Marilyn "Missy" Chandler, wife of Los Angeles
Times' publisher Otis Chandler, who solicited corporate support on behalf of LACMA. Additional information on corporate sponsors
appears sporadically in the artist files comprising Series III. Series III Artists includes files on thirty-one of the seventy-six
artists who either were invited, or submitted proposals, to participate in the Art and Technology program, including John
Chamberlain, Robert Irwin, Rockne Krebs, Roy Lichtenstein, Jackson MacLow, Claes Oldenburg, Jules Olitski, Eduardo Paolozzi,
Robert Rauschenberg, Tony Smith, Karlheinz Stockhausen, James Turrell, Victor Vasarely, and Andy Warhol. These files contain
(where noted) correspondence between artists, LACMA curators, and corporate personnel, artist statements and proposals, curatorial
notes and drafts of essays written for A Report on the Art and Technology Program, transcriptions of interviews and conversations
with artists, photographs of artists resident at corporations, and drawings, photographs, and negatives of artists' works.
A file containing a 2007 statement by Channa Horwitz (formerly Channa Davis), the only female artist whose proposal was included
in A Report on the Art and Technology Program, was added to the collection.
Organized in three series:
Series I. Administrative
Series II. Corporate Sponsors and Contributors
Series III. Artists
Terms of Access
Open for use by qualified researchers and by appointment only through the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Balch Art Research
Library. Telephone 323-857-6118 or email email@example.com.
Permission to Publish or Reproduce
Contact the Balch Art Research Library for information on publishing or reproducing materials included in these records. Permission
is granted by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art as the owner of the physical materials, and does not imply permission from
the copyright holder. It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain all necessary permissions from the copyright holder.
Images of works produced as a part of the Art and Technology program can be found in the Photo Services Department Art and
Technology slides, collection number PHO.001.001.
Media coverage of the Art and Technology program is available in bound volumes of press clippings in the Balch Art Research
Library at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art: N582 L7 A86 1970 (January-May) N582 L7 A86 1971 (volume 3)
Also available online and in the Balch Art Research Library is the now out-of-print report on the Art and Technology program:
http://collectionsonline.lacma.org/mweb/archives/artandtechnology/at_home.asp Tuchman, Maurice. A Report on the Art and Technology
Program of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1967-1971. Los Angeles: LACMA, 1971.
The Art and Technology records were initially processed in 2006 by Sarah Sherman, who rehoused the papers, created the series
arrangement, and made a complete inventory. In 2010, with grant funding from the Getty Foundation's special initiative "Pacific
Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980," Suzanne Noruschat wrote the descriptive notes and prepared the finding aid under the
supervision of Jessica Gambling.
Transferred from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Modern Art Department in 2010.
[Description of item], Modern Art Department Art and Technology Records, Los Angeles County Museum of Art Balch Art Research
The following terms have been used to describe this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
Byars, James Lee
Chamberlain, John, 1927-
Crutchfield, William, 1932-
Dupuy, Jean, 1925-
Eversley, Frederick, 1941-
Fahlstrom, Oyvind, 1928-1976
Harrison, Newton A., 1932-
Irwin, Robert, 1928-
Krebs, Rockne, 1938-
Lee, Wesley Duke, 1931-
Lichenstein, Roy, 1923-1997
Mac Low, Jackson
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007
Paolozzi, Eduardo, 1924-2005
Piene, Otto, 1928-
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008
Reichek, Jesse, 1916-
Smith, Tony, 1912-1980
Stockhausen, Karlheinz, 1928-1997
Vasarely, Victor, 1906-1997
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987
Whitman, Robert, 1935-
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Art and Technology Program.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Art. Modern--20th century
clippings (information artifacts)
preliminary sketches (sketches)
Box 1, Folder 1
Multiple copies of brochure announcing the purpose and goals of the Art and Technology program, and identifying the different
levels of corporate sponsorship.
Box 1, Folder 2
Reports and Memos
Progress reports noting developments in planning the Art and Technology program, including information about participating
corporations and artists.
Box 1, Folder 3
[Lists of Modern artworks]
Contains lists of artworks by a variety of early twentieth-century artists, including El Lissitzky, Francis Picabia, Piet
Mondrian, Alexander Rodchenko, and Marcel Duchamp. The Art and Technology budget was removed from this file.
Box 1, Folder 4-5
General correspondence discussing a variety of matters, including requests for information and the distribution of the publication
"A Report on the Art and Technology of LACMA." Includes a letter from Maurice Tuchman (May 29, 1969) to Jack Massey, Director
of Planning/Design of the United States Exhibition at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, describing the projects that are candidates
for the world's fair.
Box 1, Folder 6
Miscellaneous essays, artist information, and press clippings.
Box 1, Folder 7
LACMA Member's Calendar 1971
Photocopy of pages from LACMA Member's Calender (June 1971) describing the Art and Technology program.
Box 1, Folder 8
General scheduling notes and a partial transcript of a conversation between LACMA curators Hal Glicksman, Jane Livingston,
and Gail Scott about some of the artists and individuals involved with the Art and Technology program.
Box 1, Folder 9
Press Releases (non-LACMA)
Series II: Corporate Participants and Contributors
Box 1, Folder 10
Chandler, Marilyn (Mrs. Otis)
Primarily letters from Chandler soliciting corporate support for the Art and Technology program and concerning the participating
artists. Includes a letter from the office of Howard Hughes stating that his company will not participate (September 30, 1969).
Box 1, Folder 11
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation
Includes a statement by R.B. Kitaj describing the art work he plans to create while working at Lockheed and photographic proofs
showing the environment in which Kitaj worked.
Box 1, Folder 12-13
Byars, James Lee
Includes a draft of an essay on Byars for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; handwritten correspondence from Byar
discussing aspects of his "World Question Center" project undertaken at the Hudson Institute; a 23-page transcription of all
letters and queries sent by Byar to LACMA.
Box 2, Folder 1-5
Includes a 3-page "mock-up" composed by Chamberlain describing his proposed project, "Sniffter," an "olfactory-stimulus-reponse
environment"; a draft of an essay on Chamberlain for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; Chamberlain's answers to
questions posed by Maurice Tuchman inquiring about his experience participating in the Art and Technology program and working
at the Rand Corporation; questionnaires Chamberlain distributed to Rand employees as his final project and their responses
to his queries.
Box 2, Folder 6
Includes an illusrated outline Crutchfield composed of his plan to document the Art and Technology program in a series of
portraits, satirical drawings, and photographs of the artists involved.
Box 2, Folder 7-8
Includes a draft of an essay on Dupuy for A Report on the Art and Technology Program, and construction drawings of Dupuy's
Box 2, Folder 9
Includes a draft of an essay on Eversley for A Report on the Art and Technology Program, and a 2-page project proposal by
Eversley describing his "Thermal-Color Shadowscape" project inspired by his residency at the Ampex Corporation.
Box 2, Folder 10-11
Includes a draft of an essay on Fahlstrom for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; installation photographs and drawing
of the artist's work, "Meatball Curtain," completed while in residence at Heath and Company; a transcription of a conversation
between Fahlstrom and LACMA curator Jane Livingston in which they discuss the artist's work and his experience participating
in Art and Technology.
Box 3, Folder 3
Horwitz, Channa (Channa Davis)
Comprises a statement by Horwitz dated 10 April 2007 (not an original part of the collection) that discusses why she was not
assigned a residency.
Box 3, Folder 4-5
Includes newspaper clippings and drafts of an essay on Irwin for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Box 3, Folder 6-7
Includes a draft of an essay on Kitaj for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; correspondence between Kitaj and LACMA
curator Maurice Tuchman; Kitaj's answers to questions posed by Tuchman inquiring about the artist's experiene participating
in the Art and Technology program and working at Lockheed Aircraft Corporation; a 12-page transcription of a taped conversation
between Kitaj and Tuchman on the ideas explored by the artist at Lockheed.
Box 3, Folder 8-10
Includes a draft of an essay on Krebs for A Report on the Art and Technology program; a proposal by Krebs describing his plans
for "Day Passage," a work incorporating lasers; and drawings of Krebs' laser beam installation.
Box 4, Folder 1
Includes a draft of an essay on Lichtenstein for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; drawings of the screen set-up
for the film loops Lichtenstein created; storyboard of film loops; and photocopies of newspaper clippings.
Box 4, Box 2
Lee, Wesley Duke
Includes correspondence between Lee and Maurice Tuchman, including a letter to Tuchman (14 June 1969) in which the artist
describes and illustrates his concept for the "Birth Capsule;" photographs of the "Birth Capsule" being fabricated; a draft
of an essay on Lee for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Box 4, Folder 3-4
Includes a draft of an essay on MacLow for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; photographs of MacLow working at Information
International; photocopies of several poems originally generated as computer printouts.
Box 4, Folder 6
Includes Mefford's answers to questions posed by Maurice Tuchman inquiring about the artist's experience participating in
the Art and Technology Program, and a draft of an essay on Mefford for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Box 4, Folder 7-8
Includes artist's statements regarding his project "Ice Bag"; a draft of an essay on Oldenburg for A Report on the Art and
Technology Program; photographs of "Ice Bag" being installed; correspondence between Oldenburg and various LACMA staff members;
transcriptions of interviews with Oldenburg regarding his involvement with the Art and Technology program
Box 5, Folder 1
Includes a small amount of correspondence between Olitski and LACMA curatorial staff and photographs of cement models for
environmental sculptures executed by Olitski at the American Cement Corporation.
Box 5, Folder 2
Includes a draft of an essay on Paolozzi for A Report on the Art and Technology Program, and a small amount of correspondence
between Paolozzi and LACMA curatorial staff.
Box 5, Folder 4
Includes photographic prints of Raskin's "Unicubes" and an artist's statement describing the installation of these pieces
at LACMA; a draft of an essay on Raskin for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Box 5, Folder 5
Includes a draft of an essay on Rauschenberg for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; notes and drawings on the project,
"Mud-Muse," carried out as a collaboration between Rauschenberg and the Teledyne Corporation; an 8-page artist's statement
on the Art and Technology program; a transcription of a conversation between LACMA curator Maurice Tuchman, Curatorial Assistant
Gail Scott, and Rauschenberg.
Box 5, Folder 6-7
Includes a draft of an essay on Reicheck for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; a drawing of Reicheck's exhibit at
LACMA; a transcription of an interview with Reicheck by Peter Selz (printed in Art in America, September-October 1968); letters
from Reicheck to LACMA curatorial staff reporting on his project with IBM and its progress; transcription of conversation
between Jane Livingston, Reicheck, and Jack Citron of IBM.
Box 5, Folder 9
Includes a draft of an essay on Serra for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; a proposal submitted to LACMA by Serra
in which he discusses his project, "Two Circular Elevational Steps," for Kaiser Steel; a transcription of an interview (1971)
with Kaiser personnel about their experience working with Serra; sketches of "Two Circular Elevational Steps;" and one-page
statement by Serra in which he describes "Two Circular Elevational Steps."
Box 5, Folder 10-11
Includes a draft of an essay on Smith for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; drawings of Smith's sculpture "Cigarette"
(1967); photographs of various Smith sculptures, including "Cigarette" (1967) and "Willie" (1962); a transcription of interview
with Smith; an "Account of Career" written by Smith.
Box 6, Folder 1
Includes a draft of an essay on Stockhausen for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; notes submitted by Stockhausen
defining specifications for a loudspeaker system; a letter from Stockhausen (15 February 1969) proposing a collaboration with
artist Otto Piene.
Box 6, Folder 2
Includes galleys of an essay on Turrell and Robert Irwin for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Includes contract agreement between Turrell and Museum Associates (signed by artist).
Box 6, Folder 3
Includes an artist's statement in which Vasarely describes his concept for an "electronic machine" that generates color combinations;
a small amount of correspondence between Vasarely and LACMA curatorial staff, mostly concerning meetings with engineers from
IBM and Teledyne, and other arrangements with the artist.
Box 6, Folder 4-6
Includes correspondence dated 2007 between LACMA Curator Howard Fox and Neil Printz of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the
Visual Arts, who contacted LACMA for information about Warhol's "Rain Machine" created for the Art and Technology program;
a CD of images of "Rain Machine"; photographic prints, negatives, and slides (some by photographer Ernest Shaw) of the installation
of "Rain Machine" at Expo 1970 in Osaka, Japan; 35mm negatives and contact sheets by an unknown photographer, some of which
appeared in the Warhol Catalogue Raisonne (vol. 3, 2002), of Warhol's visit to the Expo '70 in Osaka; a draft of an essay
on Warhol for A Report on the Art and Technology Program.
Box 6, Folder 7-8
Includes a draft of an essay on Whitman for A Report on the Art and Technology Program; a transcription of a 1970 taped interview
with Whitman; drawings and photocopies of photographs of Whitman's mirror project initiated under the sponsorship of the Philco-Ford
Corporation; a report by Philco-Ford physicist John Forkner (August 1970) on the planning and construction of Whitman's mirrors.