Scope and Contents
Related Archival Materials
Language of Material:
ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives, USC Libraries, University of Southern California
Title: Gay Activists Alliance, New York collection
Gay Activist Alliance
Identifier/Call Number: Coll2010-002
2 Linear Feet
2 archive cartons, 1 flat box
Date (inclusive): 1969-1998
Date (bulk): bulk
Abstract: Constitution and bylaws, correspondence, committee structure and reports, along with newspapers, informational pamphlets,
fliers, lists of gay and lesbian organizations, photographs, and clippings of the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA), New York.
The GAA sought to avoid internal conflict by democratically electing an executive committee and to avoid entangling alliances
by focusing on gay and lesbian rights issues. The organization utilized coordinated non-violent confrontational actions in
the attempt to leverage the power of the straight and gay press to increase the awareness of gay and lesbian civil rights
The collection is open to researchers. There are no access restrictions.
Researchers wishing to publish material must obtain permission in writing from ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives as the
physical owner of the material. Note that permission to publish does not constitute copyright clearance. ONE National Gay
& Lesbian Archives can grant copyright clearance only for those materials for which we hold copyright. It is the responsibility
of the researcher to obtain copyright clearance for all other materials from the copyright holder(s).
Box #, folder/item #, Gay Activists Alliance, New York Collection, Coll2010-002, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los
Donated by Jerome O'Hara and Angel Perez, date unknown.
Processing this collection has been funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Formerly housed in boxes 103-034, 103-035, 103-036, 103-90 and Gay Activists Alliance -- New York, ONE subject files. Collection
processed by Michael C. Oliveira, 18 June 2010.
Jim Owles, Marty Robinson, Arthur Evans, and others disenchanted by the lack of structure and focus of the Gay Liberation
Front and the rigid hierarchical structure of the Mattachine Society of New York formed the Gay Activists Alliance, GAA. The
founders sought to avoid conflicts that had plagued other civil rights organizations by democratically electing an executive
committee, holding regular membership meetings, observing parliamentary procedure, and focusing on a single issue, gay and
lesbian rights. In December 1969, Owles, Robinson, Evans, Arthur Bell, and eight others (which according to some sources included
Kay Tobin, Vito Russo, and Morty Manford) gathered in Bell's apartment to begin the process of forming a new organization.
The GAA focused on exclusively on gay and lesbian rights issues, such as the end of discriminatory practices in housing and
employment, the repeal of the consensual sodomy statue, and the end of police harassment. The group specialized in direct
confrontational actions, "zaps," challenging homophobic comments and politicians to take a stand on issues concerning gays
and lesbians. The leadership of GAA attempted to plan their "zaps" to leverage the power of the gay and straight media. What
little media coverage GAA received provided some protection against police abuses, increased awareness of gay and lesbian
rights issues, and fueled the expansion of the GAA organizational model to other cities across the United States and Canada.
Beginning in 1971, weekly dances held at the organization's headquarters, a rented firehouse on Wooster Street in SoHo, a
neighborhood in Manhattan, attracted new members and provided a regular source of income until an arsonist struck in 1974.
While the group contributed to the successful campaign of Bella Abzug to the United States Congress and Mayor Lindsay's executive
order to end discrimination in city hiring, the passage of a bill to end discriminatory practices in housing and employment
in the city would not pass until the 1986. Overtime people splintered from GAA, many women left to form Lesbian Feminist Liberation
in 1972 and in the next year, others formed what would become the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. GAA members would also
contribute to the organization of Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, PFLAG and Lambda Legal. While the group continued
its "zaps" membership dwindled. In 1977, Anita Bryant's "Save Our Children" campaign spurred membership. However by 1981,
there had not been a regular meeting in years, and unauthorized letters on the organization's stationery began appearing.
The veterans and the last remaining active members called a meeting to pass the necessary resolutions to dissolve GAA.
Dancing the Gay Lib Blues: A Year in the Homosexual Liberation Movement. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971.
Gay Activists Alliance Out History.org, May 01, 2010 [cited June 30, 2010]. Available from http://www.outhistory.org/wiki/Gay_Activists_Alliance.
Hogan, Steve and Lee Hudson.
Completely Queer: The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998.
Kantrowitz, Arnie. "The Day Gay Lib Died." New York Native, November 2-15, 1981, 1, 14-15.
Summer of '77: Last Hurrah of the Gay Activists Alliance. Westport, CT: PPC Books, 1994.
The Politics of Homosexuality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981.
Gay Activists Alliance glbtq, Inc., January 15, 2007 [cited June 30, 2010]. Available from www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/gay_activists_alliance.html.
The Gay Militants. New York: Stein and Day, 1971.
Tobin, Kay and Randy Wicker.
The Gay Crusaders. New York: Paperback Library, 1972.
Scope and Contents
The collection consists of the Gay Activists Alliance, New York (GAA) constitution and bylaws, publications, newsletters,
newspapers, fliers, and news clippings along with limited correspondence, committee report files, conference fliers, and photographs
of early picketing and zaps. The GAA published materials include The Activist newsletter and newspaper and public outreach
pamphlets proving general information on homosexuality, the repeal of the consensual sodomy statue, and the fight for gay
and lesbian civil rights. The collection also includes reports on employment discrimination, information on the state and
city gay and lesbian civil rights bills, and 3 editions of an international list of gay and lesbian organizations. Information
on the choice of the lambda symbol, a typescript copy of Joe Kennedy's
The Summer of 1977: GAA's Last Hurrah, and a few buttons along with a small frisbee complete the collection. Photographs by John Lauritsen, John Rash, and Richard
C. Wandel captured picketing and zaps by GAA members including John Paul Hudson, Bob Milne, Jim Owles, and others. The demonstrations
documented include; a synagogue, Saint Patrick's Cathedral, CBS Broadcasting Center, Household Finance Corporation, and New
York City Hall.
Related Archival Materials
MssCol 1121 : Gay Activists Alliance records, 1970-1983. Gay Activists Alliance. New York Public Library, New York.
Morris Kight papers,Coll2010-008, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California. - see Morty Manford correspondence.
Advocate records, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California.
The following books were relocated to the ONE library
"And God Bless Uncle Harry and His Roommate Jack, Who We're Not Supposed to Talk About:" Cartoons from
Christopher Street Magazine. New York: Avon, 1978.
Boggan, E. Carrington, Marilyn G. Haft, Charles Lister and John P. Rupp.
The Rights of Gay People: The Basic ACLU Guide to a Gay Person's Rights. New York: Discus, 1975.
Loving Someone Gay. New York: Signet, 1978.
Curry, Hayden and Denis Clifford.
A Legal Guide for Lesbian & Gay Couples. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1980.
The Gay Mystique. New York: Day Books, 1978.
Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity among Men and Women. New York: Simon Schuster, 1978.
Jay, Karla and Allen Young, ed.
After You're Out: Personal Experiences of Gay Men and Women. New York: Links Books, 1975.
Out of the Closets: Voices of Gay Liberation. New York: Jove Book, 1977.
Woman Plus Woman: Attitudes Toward Lesbianism. London: New English Library, 1975.
Kleinberg, Seymour, ed.
The Other Persuasion. New York: Vintage, 1977.
In Search of Gay America: Women and Men in a Time of Change. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
The Night G.A.A. Died. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Society, Gay Theory Work Group of the Movement for a New.
Gay Oppression and Liberation or Homophobia: Its Causes and Cure. Philadelphia: Movement for a New Society, 1977.
Warren, Patricia Nell.
The Fancy Dancer. New York: Bantam Book, 1977.
The Connecticut Countess: Chronicles of Davey Bryant. Trumansburg, New York: The Crossing Press, 1984.
Society and the Healthy Homosexual. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1973.
The following newsletters, newspapers, and pamphlets were relocated to the ONE archives periodical collection:
The Body Politic: Gay Liberation Journal: 3 issues;
May 1974 to October 1974.
Christopher Street: 53 issues; September 1976-October 1981; November 1981-March 1982, 58 to #62; September 1983, #80.
Faggots on Faggotry:
November 09, 1974.
The Fountain: Voice of the Gay Northwest: 6 issues;
January 1972, May 1972, May 1973, June 1973, October 1973, December 1973.
Gay, New York: 2 issues;
April 26,1971, October 25,1971.
Gay Clone, New York:
Gay Flames: newsletter;
December 14, 1970.
The Gay Journal:
Spring 1979, #2.
Gay Liberator Detroit: 5 issues;
February 1974 to June 1974.
Gay People and Mental Health:
Volume 1, number 6.
February 20, 1978,
Manhattan Gay Scene Guide:
Interesting, Hysterical & Historic Places
Mattachine Book Service:
Mattachine Midwest Newsletter :
February 02, 1973.
Mattachine Review: 6 issues; September 1955, December 1955, February 1956, June 1959, July 1960, August 1963
Subjects and Indexing Terms
Gays -- Civil rights
Gay liberation movement -- New York (State) -- New York
Associations, institutions, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York
Gay rights -- United States
Discrimination in employment
Gay Activist Alliance