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Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • Historical Note
  • Scope and Content Note
  • Organization and Arrangement
  • Indexing: Subjects

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Llano Del Rio Colony Papers
    Date (inclusive): 1896-1967
    Date (bulk): (Bulk: 1930s)
    Creator: Llano Del Rio Colony
    Extent: 516 pieces
    Repository: The Huntington Library
    San Marino, California 91108
    Language: English.

    Administrative Information


    Collection is open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information please go to following URL .

    Publication Rights

    In order to quote from, publish, or reproduce any of the manuscripts or visual materials, researchers must obtain formal permission from the office of the Library Director. In most instances, permission is given by the Huntington as owner of the physical property rights only, and researchers must also obtain permission from the holder of the literary rights. In some instances, the Huntington owns the literary rights, as well as the physical property rights. Researchers may contact the appropriate curator for further information.

    Preferred Citation

    Llano Del Rio Colony Papers, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

    Acquisition Information

    The collection was given to the Huntington by Mellie Calvert and Knox Mellon. Mellie Calvert donated her portion of the collection between 1969 and 1972; Knox Mellon's gift was made in December of 1973.
    Inclusive Dates: 1896 - 1967 (Bulk: 1930s)
    The collection contains 516 pieces.

    Historical Note

    The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony was incorporated in 1914 by Los Angeles attorney Job Harriman, the socialist nominee for mayor of Los Angeles in 1911. The settlement was located in the Antelope Valley of California near Pearblossom, where an agricultural community was developed. Because of problems with water rights, transportation for produce, and internal dissension, the colony was discontinued in 1918. One group of the colonists went to Louisiana and reestablished a community under the name Newllano.

    Scope and Content Note

    The collection contains correspondence, documents, minutes, newspaper clippings, photographs, poetry, and printed materials pertaining to the Llano del Rio Colony and its successor, Newllano.
    Most of the items donated by Mellie Calvert (Box 1) pertain to the history of the Llano del Rio Colony and the experiences of its colonists. Some of this material looks at the influence Job Harriman and the Young People's Socialist League of California had upon the founding of Llano, while other items represent the lives and daily struggles of individual Llano members.
    The vast majority of the Knox Mellon addenda items (Boxes 2-4, plus two oversized items) pertain to Newllano and its various problems. Although the collection spans from 1896 to 1967, the greatest concentration of items were written in the 1930s, a turbulent time in Newllano's development. During the mid-1930s a power struggle arose in Newllano between its elected Board (headed by George T. Pickett, 1876-1959) and a band of individuals who attempted to revoke Pickett's leadership and declare a new Board. Letters and documents reflecting each side of the divide exist within the collection, although more of the materials reflect the pro-Pickett stance. Sidney Young authors many of Pickett's defenses and is a strong voice throughout the collection. Other Knox Mellon items reflect the pre-history of Llano, including copies of late nineteenth century letters penned by Job Harriman and Morris Hillquit (1869-1933).
    Subjects represented throughout the collection as a whole include the Llano and Newllano colonies, socialism in the United States, socialist societies, Job Harriman, Morris Hillquit (1869-1933), George T. Pickett (1876-1959) and Sidney Young.

    Organization and Arrangement

    The collection is arranged in the following series:
    1. Materials given to the Huntington by Mellie Calvert (Box 1)
    2. Materials given to the Huntington by Knox Mellon (Boxes 2-4, plus 2 oversized items)
    Within each series the materials original order has been maintained wherever discernible. Items in each series have been arranged in chronological order and grouped by format.

    Indexing: Subjects

    Cooperative societies - California.
    Cooperative societies - Louisiana.
    Harriman, Job.
    Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933.
    Llano Colony (Secular community)
    Newllano Colony (Secular community)
    Pickett, George T., 1876-1959.
    Socialism - United States.
    Socialism - Societies.
    Socialists - Correspondence.